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B'nai  B'ritli  Women's  GranJ  LoJge,  District  No.  4 



FDLLD\z;  you 




Mr.   &  I'trs,  Roy  Paperrnaster 


Jewish  Encyclopedia 




Prepared   by   More   than   Four   Hundred   Scholars   and   Specialists 


Cyrus  Adler,  Ph.D.  {Departments  of  Post- 
Biblical  Antiquities  ;  the  Jews  of  America) . 

Gotthard  Deutsch,  Ph.D.  {Department 
of  History  from  I4g2  to  igoi) . 

Louis  Ginzberg,  Ph.D.  {Department  of 
Rabbinical  Literature) . 

Richard  Gottheil,  Ph.D.  {Departments  of 
History  from  Ezra  to  J4g2 ;  History  of 
Post  -  Talmudic  Literature) . 

Joseph  Jacobs,  B.A  {Departments  of  the 
Jews  of  England  and  Anthropology  ;  Revi- 
sing Editor) . 

Marcus  Jastrow,  Ph.D.  {Department  of  the  Talmud). 

Morris  Jastrow,  Jr.,  Ph.D.  {Department  of  the  Bible) . 

Kaufmann  Kohler,  Ph.D.  {Departments  of  Theology 
and  Philosophy) . 

Frederick  de  Sola  Mendes,  Ph.D.   {Chief  of  the 
Bureau  of  Translation  ;  Revising  Editor). 

Isidore    Singer,    Ph.D.    {Department    of    Modern 
Biography  from  ly^o  to  igoi) . 

Crawford    H.  Toy,    D.D.,  LL.D.    {Departments   of 
Hebrew  Philology  and  Hellenistic  Literature)  . 


Profector  and  Managing  Editor 


(see  page  v) 





N.Y.   2,  N.Y. 






(Depart merif."  of  I'oM-llihlUal  Antiquities;  the  Jews  of 

President  of  the  American  Jewish  Historical  Society  ;  Librarian, 
Smithsonian  Institution,  Washin(i:ton,  D.  C. 


(Dcpartiuad  of  Hii^ttiiii  fiDin  lUiJ-i  to  1901.) 

Professor  of  Jewish  History,  Hebrew  Union  College,  Cincinnati, 

Ohio  ;  Editor  of  "  Deborah." 


(Department  of  Rahhinical  Literature.) 
New  Yorlf ;  Author  of "'  Die  Haggada  bel  den  Klrchenvatem." 


(Departments  of  Hi~<oru  from  Ezra  to  11*92 ;  History  of  Post- 

Talmudic  Literature.) 

Professor  of  Semitic  Languages,  Columbia  University,  New  Yorl£; 

Chief  of  the  Oriental  Department,  New  York  Public  Library ; 

President  of  the  Federation  of  American  Zionists. 


(Departments  of  the  Jews  of  EnghDid  and  Anthropology; 
Revising  Editor.) 

Formerly  President  of  the  Jewish  Historical  Society  of  England ; 
Author  of  "Jews  of  Anurevin  England,"  etc. 


(Department  of  the  Talmud.) 
Rabbi  Emeritus  of  the  Congregation  Rodef  Shalom,  Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ;  Author  of  "  Dictionary  of  the  Talmud." 


KDepartmeid  of  the  Bihlc.) 

Professor  of  SemUlc  Languages  and  Librarian  In  the  University 
of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa.;  Author  of  "Relig- 
ion of  the  Babylonians  and  Assyrians,"  etc. 


(Departments  of  Theology  and  Philosophy.) 

Rabbi  of  Temple  Beth-El,  New  York ;  President  of  the  Board  of 
Jewish  Ministers,  New  York. 


(Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Trandation;  Revising  Editor.) 

Rabbi  of  the  West  End  Synagogue,  New  York ;  Vice-President 

of  Board  of  Jewish  Ministers,  New  York. 

ISIDORE  SINGER,  Ph.D.  Editor. 
(Department  of  Modern  Biography  from  1750  to  1901.) 


(Departments  of  Hebrew  Philology  and  Hellenistic 


Professor  of  Hebrew  In  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. ; 

Author  of  "  The  Religion  of  Israel,"  "  Judaism  and 

Christianity,"  etc. 



Rabbi  of  the  Congregation  Zichron  Ephraim,  Dean  of  the  Jewish 
Theological  Seminary,  New  York. 


Rabbi  Emeritus  of  Zion  Congregation,  Chicago  ;  Author  of  "  A 
Practical  Grammar  of  the  Hebrew  Language." 


Rabbi  Emeritus  of  Temple  Emanu-EI,  New  York. 

EMIL  G.  HIRSCH,  Ph.D.,  LL.D., 

Rabbi  of  Chicago  Sinai  Congregation,  Chicago,  111.;  Professor  of 

Rabbinical  Literature  and  Philosophy,  University  of 

Chicago  ;  Editor  of  the  "  Reform  Advocate." 


Head  of  the  Department  of  Semitic  and  Egyptian  Literatures, 
Catholic  University  of  America,  Washington,  D.  C. 


Professor  of  Oriental  Languages,  University  College,  Toronto, 

Canada;  Author  of  "  History,  I>rophecy,  and 

the  Monuments." 


Rabbi  of  the  Shearith  Israel  Congregation  (Spanish  and  Portu- 
guese), New  York  ;  President  of  the  Advisory  Board  of 
Ministers  of  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary. 


Professor  of  Talmudic  Literature,  Hebrew  Union  College,  Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio ;  Author  of  "  Introduction  to  the  Talmud." 

GEORGE  F.  MOORE,  M.A.,  D.D., 

Professor  of  Hebrew  Language  and  Literature  and  President  of 

Andover Theological  Seminary,  Andover,  Mass.;  Author 

of  a  Commentary  on  the  Book  of  Judges,  etc. 


Rabbi  of  the  Congregation  Bene  Israel ;  Professor  of  Homiletics, 

Hebrew  Union  College,  Cincinnati,  Ohio ;  President  of 

Hebrew  Sabbath  School  Union  of  America. 


Professor  of  Semitic   Languages  and  Literature,  University  of 

Chicago,  111. ;  Author  of  "  The  Monuments  and 

the  Old  Testament,"  etc. 




CHIET    or    TUK    ULSSlAN    StCTION    Or    TUK  JEWISH    ENCTCLO- 


In  charve  of  Slavonic  Department,  New  York  Public  Library. 


President  of  Ceniral  Conference  of  American  Rabbis ;  Rabbi  of 
Temple  Emanu-El,  New  York. 


Rabbi  of  the  Con(?reRatlon  Emanu-El,  San  Francisco,  Cal. ; 
feasor  of  Semitic  Languaj^es  and  Literatures,  Uni- 
versity of  California,  Berkeley,  Cal. 


Editor  of  "  The  Uterary  Digest,"  New  York. 




Coedltor  of  the  "  Jewish  Quarterly  Review  "  ;  Author  of  "Jew- 
ish Life  In  the  Middle  Ages,"  etc. ;  Senior  Tutor 
In  Jews'  College,  Loudon,  England. 

W.  BACHER,  Ph.D., 

Professor   In    the    Jewish    Theological    Seminary,    Budapest, 

M.  BRANN,  Ph.D., 

Profcaror  Id  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary,  Breslau,  Ger- 
many ;  Editor  of  "  Monatsscbrift  fur  Geschlchte  und 
Wlssenschaft  des  Judeuthums." 

H.  BRODY,  Ph.D., 

R&bbU  Nachod,  Bohemia,  Austria  ;  Coedltor  of  "Zeltschrift  fiir 
Hebralsche  Bibliographic." 


Principal  of  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary,  Constantinople, 



Profeasor  of  Literary  Arabic  at  the  Special  School  of  Oriental 
Lanifuages,  Paris,  France  ;  Member  of  the  French  Institute. 

S.  M.  DUBNOW, 

Author  of  "  istoriya  Yevreyev,"  Odessa,  Russia. 


Principal  of  Jews'  College,  London,  England;  Author  of  "The 

Jewish  Religion,"  etc. 


Professor  of  s<-mitlc  Philology,  University  of  Budapest,  Hungary. 

M.  GUDEMANN,  Ph.D., 

Chief  Rabbi  of  Vienna,  Austria. 


St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 

A.  HARKAVY,  Ph.D., 

Chief  of  the  Hebrew  Uepiirtmeut  of  the  Imperial  Public  Library, 
St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 


Chief  Rabbi  of  France ;    Honorary  President  of  the  Alliance 

Israelite  Unlverselle ;  Officer  of  the  Legion 

of  Honor,  Paris,  France. 


Babbl,  Budapest,    Hungary ;    Corresponding    Member  of   the 

Royal  Academy  of  History,  Madrid,  Spain. 


Professor  Emeritus  of  Psychology,  University  of  Berlin ;  Meran, 

A  ustria. 


Member  of  the  French  Institute  :  Professor  at  the  Free  School 

of  Political  Science,  Paris,  France ;  Author  of 

"  Israel  chez  les  Nations." 


Professor  In  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary ;   Editor  of 
"  Revue  des  Etudes  Julves,"  Paris,  France. 


Chief  Rabbi  of  Padua  ;  Professor  of  Hebrew  at  the  University, 
Padua,  Italy. 


Chief  Rabbi  of  Szegedln,  Hungary  ;  Author  of  "  Die  Aramaischen 


S.  H.  MARGULIES,  Ph.D., 

Principal  of  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary ;  Chief  Rabbi  of 
Florence,  Italy. 

H.  OORT,  D.D,, 

Professor  of  Hebrew  Language  and  Archeology  at  the  State 
University,  Leyden.  Holland. 


Formerly  Librarian  of  the  Reale  Blblloteca  Palatlna,  Parma, 



Formerly  Professor  of  HisUjry  at  the  Universities  of  Bonn  and 

Brussels;  President  of  the  Deutsch-Judlsche 

Gemeindebund,  Berlin,  Germany. 


Rabbi  In  Warsaw,  Russia. 


Professor  of  Hebrew,   University  College,  London,  England; 

Reader  in  Rabbinic,  University  of  Cambridge; 

Author  of  "Studies  In  Judaism  " 


Secretary -General  of  the  Jewish  Colonization  Association,  Paris, 



Professor  of  Philosophy,  University  of  Bern,  Switzerland ;  Editor 
of  "  Archlv  fiir  Geschlchte  der  Phllosophle,"  etc. 


Professor  of  Old  Testament  Exegesis  and  Semitic  Languages, 
University  of  Berlin,  Germany. 


Master  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  England ;  Editor  of 
"  Sayings  of  the  Jewish  Fathers,"  etc. 



A Cyrus  Adler,  Ph.D., 

I'residfnl  of  ilif  Aiiicricaii  Jewisli  Historical 
Society:  I'lvsidciU  otitic  BoarU  of  Directors 
of  the  Jewisli  Tlieologiciil  .Seminary  of  Amer- 
ica ;  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Smitlisonian 
Institution,  Washington,  D.  C. 

A.  Bii Alexandei-  Buchler,  Ph.D., 

Hablii,  Kcszlhely,  lliintJraiy. 

A.  Co A.  Cowley,  M.A., 

oiieiiuil  Suhlibrarian,  Bodleian  Library,  O.x- 
ford  University,  Oxford,  Encland. 

A.  E A.  Eckstein,  Ph.D., 

Uuljbi,  I5aml>crK,  Bavaria,  Germany. 

A.  F A.  Freimann,  Ph.D., 

Editoi'  of  the  "  Zcitschrift  fiir  Hebraische 
BiblioM:raphie  "  ;  Librarian  of  the  Hebrew  De- 
partment, Stadtbibliotlick,  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  Germany. 

A.  G Adolf  Guttmacher,  Ph.D., 

Rabl)i,  Baltimore  Hebiew  ConRregation,  Bal- 
timore, Md. 

A.  Go A.  Gornfeld, 

Counselor  at  Law,  St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 

A.  Ki Alexander  Kisch,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi.  Meysel  Syuagoge,  Prague,  Bohemia, 

A.  M.  F Albert  M.  Friedenberg,  B.S.,  LL.B., 

Counselor  at  Law,    New  York  City. 

A.  P A.  Porter, 

Formerly  Associate  Editor  of  "The  Forum," 
New  York ;  Revising  Editor  "Standard  Cyclo- 
pedia" ;  New  York  City. 

A.  Pe A.  Peig-insky,  Ph.D., 

New  York  City. 

A.  S.  I Abram  S.  Isaacs,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  (icrman  Language  and  Litera- 
ture, University  Graduate  Seminary,  New 
York  City ;  Rabbi,  B'nai  Jeshurun  Congrega- 
tion, Paterson,  N.  J. 

A.  S.  W A.  S.  Waldstein,  B.A., 

New  York  City. 

A.  Ta Aaron  Tanzer,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Hohenems,  Tyrt)l,  Austria. 

A.  W Albert  Wolf, 

Dresden,  Sa.xony,  (iermany. 

S.  Ei Benzion  Eisenstadt, 

Teacher,  New  York  City. 

B.'Fr Bernhard  Friedberg-, 

l"rankfoit-on-tlie-Main,  Germany. 

B.  Qr Bernhard  Greenfelder, 

St.  Louis,  Mo. 

B.  P Bernhard  Pick,  Ph.D.,  D.D., 

Pastor  of  St.  John's  Lutheran  Church,  New- 
ark, N.  J. 

C.  A.  R C.  A.  Rubenstein, 

Rabbi,  Har  Sinai  Temple,  Baltimore,  Md. 

C.  I.  de  S...  Clarence  I.  de  Sola, 

President  of  the  Federation  of  Canadian  Zion- 
ists ;  Belgian  Consul,  Montreal,  Canada. 

C.  L Caspar  Levias,  M.A., 

Instructor  in  Exegesis  and  Talmudic  Aramaic, 
Hebrew  Union  College,  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

C  S Carl  Sieg-fried,  Ph.D.,  LLi.D.  (deceased). 

Late  Professor  of  Theology  at  the  University 
of  Jena.  (;erraany. 

D Gotthard  Deutsch,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Jewish  History,  Hebrew  Union 
College,  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

D.  L David  Leimddrfer,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Hamburg,  Germany. 

D.  M.  H D.  M.  Hermalin, 

Editor  of  tlu(  "Daily  Jewish  Herald"  and 
"  Volksadvocat,"  New  York  City  ;  Brooklyn, 
N".  Y. 

D.  P David  Philipson,  D.D., 

Rabbi,  B'ne  Israel  Congregation;  Professor  of 
Homiletics,  Hebrew  Union  College,  Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

D.  Su. David  Sulzberg-er, 

Philadelphia,  Pa. 

E.  C Executive  Committee  of  the  Editorial 


E.  G.  H EmilG.  Hirsch,  Ph.D.,  LL.D., 

Rabbi,  Sinai  Congregation  ;  Professor  of  Rab- 
binical Literature  and  Philosophy,  University 
of  Chicago  ;  Chicago,  111. 

E.  J Emil  Jelinek, 

Vienna.  Austria. 

E.  K Eduard  Kbnig',  Ph.D.,  LL.D., 

Professor  of  old  Testament  Exegesis,  Univer- 
sity of  Bonn,  (ienuany. 

E.  M.  E Ezekiel  Moses  Ezekiel, 

Bombay,  India. 

E.  Ms Edg'ar  Mels, 

New  York  City. 

E.  N Eduard  Neumann,  Ph.D., 

Chief  Itabbi,  Nagy-Kanisza,  Hungary. 

E.N.  S Elvira  N.  Solis, 

New  York  City. 

E.  So Emil  Schlesing-er,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  St.  (iallen.  Switzerland. 

E.  Schr E.  Schreiber,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi.  Eiiianu-El  Congregation,  Chicago,  III. 

E.  SI E.  Slijper,  Ph.D., 

Leydeii,  Holland. 

F.  C Frank  Cramer,  B.Sc, 

New  York  City. 

F.  H.  V Frank  H.  Vizetelly,  F.S.A., 

Associate  Editt)r  of  the  "Columbian  Cyclo- 
pedia "  and  of  the  SrAXDARD  Dictionary  ; 
New  Y'ork  City. 

F.  J.  B Frederick  J.  Bliss.  Ph.D., 

New  Y'ork  City. 

F.  L.  C Francis  L.  Cohen, 

Chief  Minister,  Sydney,  N.  S.  W.,  Australia. 

F.  S Flaminio  Servl  (deceased). 

Late  Chief  Rahbi  of  Casale  Monferrato.  Italy ; 
Editor  of  "11  Vessillo  Israelitico." 

F.  T.  H Frederick  T.  Haneman,  M.D., 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

G Richard  Gottheil,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Semitic  Languages,  Columbia 
University,  New  York;  Chief  of  the  Oriental 
Department,  New  York  Public  Library;  New 
York  City. 



G.  A.  B George  A.  Barton,  Ph.D., 

rrvtt-?s.r  vl  BU>lii-iil  Literaiure and  Semitic 
LanpuaRvs,  Brvn  Mawr  I  oIleKe,  Bryn  Mawr, 

G.  D.  R    ...George  D.  Rosenthal, 

l:;if»tni-ul  Kiis-'iiiitT.  St.  l.ouis.  Mo. 

G.  F.  M George  F.  Moore,  M.A.,  D.D., 

Pn>K-ss<ir  of  l«iblic-al  Liit-nitiire  and  tlie  His- 
tory of  IJt'lifrions,  Harvard  Iniversity,  Caiii- 
tirldkr>'.  M;iss. 

G.  H.  C G.  Herbert  Cone, 

counselor  at  Law,  .\lbany,  N.  Y. 

G.  L  Goodman  liipkind.  B.  A., 

Knl'iii.  .Ni'W  Voik  (,  iiy. 

H.  B H.  Brody,  Ph.D., 

KiiMii ;  t'oeditor  of  the  "Zeitschrift  fiir  He- 
braic be  Bibliosrraphie";  Naeliod,  Bohemia, 

H.  F Herbert  Friedenwald,  Ph.D., 

Fonm-rly  siiperimendeiu  of  tlit'  l)epartment  of 
Manu.vTipts,  Library  of  Coiifiress,  Washinsr- 
ton,  D.C;  necordiiigSecrelaryof  thf.\iiH'rican 
Jcwiish  Historical  Society.  IMiiladelphia,  Pa. 

H.  Fr Harry  Friedenwald,  M.D., 

I'loffssur  of  oplitlmlmoluffy  and  Otology,  Col- 
lege of  I'hysiciaiis  aud  Surgeons,  Baltimore, 

H.  G.  F H.  G.  Friedmann,  B. A., 

.\fu  York  City. 

H.  M Henry  Malter,  Ph.D., 

Profcs-sor  of  Talmud  and  Instructor  in  Judaeo- 
Arabic  Philosophy,  Hebrew  Union  College, 
Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

H.  M.  H Henry  Minor  Huxley,  A.M., 

Formerly  .\ssistaiit  I'rofessor  ol  Anthropology 
ut  Harviinl  I'liiversily  ;  Worcester,  Mass. 

H.  R Herman  Rosenthal, 

Chief  of  the  Slavonic  Department  of  the  New 
York  Public  Library,  New  York  City. 

H.  S Henrietta  Szold, 

Secretary  of  the  Publication  Committee  of  the 
Jewish  Publication  Society  of  America,  New 
Y'ork  City. 

H.  V Hermann  Vog'elstein,  Ph.D., 

Itabbi.  Kiinig.sberg,  East  I'russia,  Germany. 

I.  B Isaac  Bloch, 

(  liii-f  llabbi,  Nancy,  France. 

I.  Be Immanuel  Benzinger,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  t )ld  'lestament  Exegesis,  Uni- 
versity of  Berlin,  Germany;  Jerusalem,  Pal- 

I.  Ber Israel  Berlin, 

ciiemist,  .New  Y'ork  City. 

I.  Br Isaac  Broyde'  (Office  Editor), 

UiK'torof  the  University  of  I'aris,  France;  for- 
merly Librarian  of  the  Alliance  Israelite  Uni- 
verselle,  Paris,  France ;  New  Y'ork  City. 

I.  Bro I.  Brock, 

T'-acher,  Roga.sen,  Posen,  Germany. 

I.  Co Israel  Cohen, 

l.oiidoii.  Eiiglariii. 

ID  Israel  Davidson,  Ph.D., 

S'-iniiic  .Scholar  ancl  Author,  New  York  City. 

I-  E Ismar  Elbogren,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  History  at  the  Lehranstalt  fiir 
die  Wls.sens(haft  drs  Judenthums,  Berlin,  Ger- 

I-  G-  D I.  George  Dobsevage, 

New  York  (  Ity. 
I-  H Isidore  Harris,  A.M., 

Kabbi,    West    Loudon    Synagogue,   London, 

I.  L.  B I.  L.  Bril, 

As.«ociate  Editor  of  "  The  American  Hebrew," 

New  York  f  itv. 

I.  Lb ImmanueHibw,  Ph.D., 

I  bief  Kabbi,  Szegedin,  Hungary. 
I.  M.  C I.  M.  Casanowicz,  Ph.D., 

tniied  states  National  Museum,  Washington, 
11.  C. 

I.  M.  P Ira  Maurice  Price,  Ph.D.,  L.L.D., 

Profes.sor  of  Seuulic  Languages  and  Litera- 
tiM-e,  University  of  Chicago.  Chicago,  111. 

I.  War Isidor  Warsa-w, 

Kalilil,  Woodville.  Mi.<s. 

J Joseph  Jacobs,  B.A., 

Formerly  President  of  the  Jewish  Historical 
Society  of  England ;  Corresponding  Member 
of  the  lioyal  Academy  of  History,  Madrid; 
New  Y'ork  City. 

J.  Br J.  Brennsohn,  Ph.D., 

Milau,  Courhimi.  Iius>ia. 

J.  D.  E Judah  David  Eisenstein, 

Author,  New  York  City. 

J.  F Julius  Frank, 

Rabbi,  olieb  Shalom  Reform  Congregation, 
Ucading,  Pa. 

J.  F.  McC.J.  Frederic  McCurdy,  Ph.D.,  LL.D., 

Professor  of  Oriental  Languages,  University 
College,  Toronto,  Canada. 

J.  F.  McL...J.  F.  McLaughlin,  M.A.,  B.  D., 

Professor  of  Oriental  Languages  and  Litera- 
ture, Victoria  College,  Toronto,  Caiuida. 

J.  G.  L, J.  G.  Lipman,  Ph.D., 

.\ssistaiu  Agritulturist.  New  Jersey  State  Ex- 
periment Station,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J. 

J.  Go Julius  Gottlieb,  M.A.,  Ph.D., 

New  York  City. 
J.  H J.  Hessen, 

Counselor  at  Law,  St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 

J.  de  H J.  de  Haas, 

Journalist,  New  Y'ork  City. 

J.  H.  G Julius  H.  Greenstone, 

Rabbi.  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

J.  H.  Ho J.  H.  Hollander,  Ph.D., 

.Assistant  Professor  of  Political  Economy, 
Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore.  Md. 

J.  Ka Jacques  Kahrl^ 

Rabt)i,  Paris,  France. 

J.  Leb Joseph  Lebovich, 

Ilar\ard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

J.  Li.  Li J.  Leonard  Levy,  Ph.D., 

Rabhl,  Rodeph  Shalom  Congregation,  Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

J.  L.  La J.  L.  Lait, 

Joiu-nalist,  Chicago,  111. 

J.  M.  M Jonas  M.  Myers, 

Rabiii,  i!risi)aiie,  Queensland,  Australia. 

J.  Re J.  Reach,  Ph.D., 

Ualihi.  Kaudnitz,  Bohemia,  Austria. 

J.  So Joseph  Sohn, 

Contributor  to  "The  New  International  En- 
cyclopedia " :  formerly  Musical  Critic  on  the 
New  Y'ork  "  American  and  Journal"  ;  New 
York  City. 

J.  S.  R J.  S.  Raisin, 

Rabbi,  (ieuiilut  Chesed  Congregation,  Fort 
Gibson,  Miss. 

J.  Sto Joseph  Stolz,  D.D., 

Kabhi,  Isaiah  Temple,  Chicago,  111. 

J.  Ta Jacob  Tauber,  Ph.D., 

Kalibi.  I'n-iau,  Moravia,  -Austria. 

J.  Z.  L Jacob  Zallel  Lauterbach,  Ph.D.  (Office 

Rabbi.  New  York  City. 

K Kaufmann  Kohler,  Ph.D., 

Rablii  Emeritus  of  Temple  Beth-El,  New 
Y'ork  ;  President  of  the  Hebrew  Union  Col- 
lege, Cincinnati,  Ohio. 



L.  A.  R LiUdwig:  A.  Rosenthal, 

i;;ilil>i,  Kni.''n,  I'l'scii.  (iennany. 

li.  B Liudwig-  Blau,  Ph.D., 

Professor,  Jewish  Tlieolopical  Seminary  ;  Edi- 
tor of  "  Magyar  Zsidrt  Szemle  "  ;  Budapest, 

L.  Q Louis  Ginzbergr,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Talmud,  Jewish  Theological  Sem- 
inary of  America,  New  Yorli  City. 

L,.  H.  G Louis  H.  Gray,  Ph.D., 

Assistant  Kditor  of  the  "  Orientali.sche  Blbllo- 
graphle";  formerly  on  the  editorial  staff  of 
"The  New  International  Encyclopedia"; 
Newark,  N.  J. 

L.  Hii L.  Hiihner,  A.M.,  LL.B., 

Counselor  at  Law,  New  York  City. 

L.  Lew Louis  Lewin,  Ph.D., 

Kabbi,  Piniie,  Posen,  (iermany. 

L.  N.  D Lewis  N.  Dembitz,  D.H.L., 

Counselor  at  Law.  Louisville.  Ky. 

L.  V Ludwig-  Venetianer,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Ujpest,  Hungary. 

L.  Wy L.  "Wygrodsky, 

Journalist.  St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 

M.  Bu Moses  Buttenwieser,  Ph.D., 

Assistant  Professor  of  Exegesis,  Hebrew  Union 
College.  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

M.  Co Max  Cohen, 

Counselor  at  Law,  New  York  City. 

M.  Fr M.  Franco, 

Principal.  Alliance  Israelite  Universelle 
School.  Demotica,  Rumelia,  Turkey. 

M.  Gr M.  Grunwald,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Israelitische  Kultus-Gemeinde,  Vienna : 
Editor  of  the  "  Mitteilungen  zur  Jiidischen 
Volkskunde" ;  Vienna,  Austria.. 

M.  H.  H M.  H.  Harris,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Temple  Israel  of  Harlem,  New  York 

M.  J.  K Max  J.  Kohler,  M.A.,  LL.B., 

Counselor  at  Law  ;  Corresponding  Secretary 
of  the  American  Jewish  Historical  Society, 
New  York  City. 

M.  K  Meyer  Kay serling-,  Ph.D., 

i;abbi.  Budapest,  Huntrary. 

M.  Lan Max  Landsberg,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Berith  Kodesh  Congregation,  Roches- 
ter, N.  Y. 

M.  L.  B Moses  Lob  Bamberger,  Ph.D., 

Uabbi ;  Lecturer  in  Rabbinic,  Jewish  Semi- 
nary, Wurzburg,  Bayaria,  Germany. 

M.  Lib Morris  Liber, 

Kabbi.  Paris,  France. 
M.  Mr M.  Margrel,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi.  Pozega,  blavonia,  Austria. 
M.  My M.  Mysh, 

Counselor  at  Law,  St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 
M.  R Max  Rosenthal,  M.D., 

Visiting  Physician,  German  Dispensary,  New 

York  City. 

M.  So Max  Schloessinger,  Ph.D. , 

Librarian  ami  Lecturer  on  Biblical  Exegesis, 
Hebrew  Union  College,  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

M.  Sch M.  Schorr,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Leiiibcrp,  Galicia,  Austria. 

M.  Schl Max  Schlesinger,  Ph.D., 

Ratibi,  Beth  Emeth  Congregation,  Albany, 
N.  Y. 

M.  Sel Max  Selig-sohn  (Office  Editor), 

Doctor  of   the  University  of  Paris,   France; 
New  York  City. 

M.  Sz Moritz  Schwarz,  Ph.D., 

Chief  Rabbi,  Raab,  Hungary. 

M.  W.  M Mary  W.  Montg-omery,  Ph.D., 

New  York  (  ity. 

P.  Wi Peter  Wiernik, 

Journalist,  New  York  City. 

R.  H.  K Rosa  H.  Knorr, 

New  Y'ork  City. 

R.  Ka. R.  Kalter,  Ph.D. , 

Rabbi,  Potsdam,  Prussia.  Germany. 

R.  N Regina  Neisser, 

Author,  Hreslau.  Silesia,  Germany. 

R.  P Rosalie  Perles, 

Author,  Konlgsberg,  East  Prussia,  Germany. 

S Isidore  Singer,  Ph.D., 

Managing  Editor.  New  York  City. 

S.  F S.  Funk,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  Boskowitz,  Moravia,  Austria. 

S.  Fu Samuel  Fuchs,  Ph.D., 

Chief  Rabbi,  Luxemburg.  Luxemburg. 

S.  G S.  Gundelfinger.  Ph.D., 

Darmstadt,  (iermany. 

S.  H.  L Sylvan  H.  Lauchheimer, 

Counselor  at  Law,  New  York  City, 

S.  Hu S.  Hurwitz, 

New  York  City. 

S.  J.  L S.  J.  Levinson, 

Brooklyn,  N.  T. 

S.  K S.Kahn, 

Rabbi,  Nimes,  France. 

S.  Kr Samuel  Krauss,  Ph.D., 

Professor,  Normal  College,  Budapest, Hungary. 

S.  M S.  Mendelsohn,  Ph.D. , 

Rabbi.  Temple  of  Israel,  Wilmington,  N.  C. 

S.  Man S.  Mannheimer,  B.L., 

Instructor,  Hebrew  Union  College,  Cincinnati, 

S.  O Schulim  Ochser,  Ph.D., 

Rabbi,  New  Y'ork  City. 

S.  S Solomon  Schechter,  M.A..  Litt.D.,  " 

President  of  the  Faculty  of  the  Jewish  Theo- 
logical Seminary  of  America,  New  York  City. 

T Crawford  Howell  Toy,  D.D.,  LL.D.. 

Professor   of    Hebrew,   Harvard   University, 
Cambridge.  Mass. 

U.  C Umberto  Cassuto, 

Editor  of  "  La  Rivista  Israelitica,"  Florence, 

v.  E Victor  Rousseau  Emanuel, 

Laurel,  Md. 

■y.  R Vasili  Rosenthal, 

Krenientchug,  Russia. 

"W.  B Wilhelm  Bacher,  Ph.D., 

Professor,  Jewish  Theological  Seminary,  Buda- 
pest, Hungary. 

W.  M.  M....W.  Max  Miiller,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of  Bible  E.xegesis,  Reformed  Episco- 
pal Theological  Seminary,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

W.  N Wilhelm  Nowack,  Ph.D., 

Professor  of    old  Testament   Exegesis,   Uni- 
versity of  Slrasburg,  Germany. 


N.  B. — la  the  following  list  subjects  likely  to  be  sought  for  under  varioiis  headings  are  repeated 
under  each  heading.  Cross-references  in  this  list  are  to  oilier  items  in  the  list,  not  to  articles  in 
the  Encyclopedia. 


Altneuschule,  Exterior  and  Interior  Views  of  the,  at  Prague 156-158 

America:  see  Kichmond. 

Amsterdam,  Interior  of  a  Synagogue  at.     From  an  etching  by  Rembrandt 374 

Purim  Ceremonies  in  the  Synagogue  at,  1731 jj^rtie  between  280-281 

Arch  of  Octavian,  the  Entrance  to  the  Old  Ghetto  at  Rome 449 

Archeology:  see  Coins;  Inscription;  PiERi.EONr;  Pottery;  Prague;  Rachel;  Rome. 
Architecture:  see  Prague;  Rasiii  Chapel ;  Rome;  Rothschild  "Stammhaus";  Synagogues. 

Ark  of  the  Law  in  the  Castilian  Synagogue  at  Rome 452 

in  the  Syuagoga  dos  Templos  at  Rome 454 

in  the  Synagogue  at  Konigliche  Weinberge,  near  Prague 160 

Arms  of  the  Rapoport  Family 320 

Art:  see  Archeology;  Architecture;  Chairs;  Phylacteries;  Prague;  Pulpit;  Purim;  Rings; 

Austria :  see  Prague. 

Baer,  Seligman,  Page  from  the  Siddur  Edited  by,  Rodelheim,  1868 177 

Bassevi  House,  Court  of  the,  Prague 161 

Betrothal  Rings 428,  429 

Bible,  Hebrew,  Page  from  the,  Printed  at  Riva  di  Treuto,  1561 432 

see  also  Psalms. 

Bragadini,  Printer's  Mark  of  the 202 

Brisbane,  Queensland,  Sj'nagogue  at 286 

Catacombs  at  Rome,  Entrance  to  the  Ancient  Jewish 446 

Cavalli  of  Venice,  Printer's  Mark  of 203 

Cemeteries  at  Saint  Petersburg,  Views  of  the  Old  and  Modern 643,  645 

Cemetery  at  Prague,  Tombstones  in  the  Old  Jewish 165 

View  of,  on  Josefstrasse 162 

Censored  Page  from  Hebrew  Psalms  with  Kimhi's  Commentary,  Naples,  1487 247 

Ceremonial:  see  Phylacteries;  Purim;  Rings;  Sabbath;  Sacrifice;  Salonic.x. 

Chair,  Rashi's,  at  Worms 327 

Chairs  from  Synagogues  at  Rome 456-458 

Coin,  So-(^alled,  of  Solomon 428 

Coins,  Polish,  with  Hebrew  Characters 562,  563 

Colophon  Page  from  the  First  Edition  of  Rashi  on  the  Pentateuch,  Reggio,  1475 329 

Costumes  of  Dutch  Jews,  Seventeenth  Century 371-374  and  Fi'ontisptcce 

of  German  Jews,  Si.xteenth  and  Eighteenth  Centuries 188 

of  Prague  Jews,  Eighteenth  Century 154-156 

of  Saionica  Jews 658 

of  Samarcand  Jewess  ....    068 

of  Samaritans 072.  678 

Elijah,  Chair  of,  in  a  Synagogue  at  Rome 458 

England:  see  Portsmouth. 



Fagius,  Paul,  of  Isny.  Printer's  Mark  of 2U2 

Farissol,  Abraham,  Illuminated  First  Page  of  a  Siddur,  Written  at  Ferrara,  1528,  by 175 

First  Editions:  Colophon  Page  from  Rashi  on  the  Pentateuch,  Reggio,  1475 329 

Page  from  the  First  Illustrated  Printed  Haggadah,  Piague,  1526 167 

"  Five  Synagogues,"  The,  of  the  Old  Ghetto  at  Rome 451 

Foa.  Tobiah,  of  Sabbionetta,  Printer's  Mark  of 203 

Frankfort-on-theOIain.  The  Rothschild  "  Stammhaus  "at 490 

Germany  :  see  Presburg  ;  Ratisbon. 

Gersonides  of  Prague,  Printer's  ^Mark  of 203 

Ghetto:  see  Prague;  Rome;  Safed;  Salonica;  Saxiarcand. 

Haggadah,  Page  from  the  First  Illustrated  Printed,  Prague,  1526 167 

Page  from  Passover,  of  1695,  Depicting  the  Ten  Plagues 71 

*'  Haman  Klopfers  "  Used  on  Purim  by  Jewish  Children  of  Russia 276 

Host  Desecration  at  Presburg,  1591 188 

Incunabula:  see  Naples;  Reggio. 

Inscription,  Ancient  Samaritan 670 

Royal  Stamp  on  Jar- Handle,  Discovered  in  Palestine 148 

see  also  Coins. 

Italy :  see  Pisa  ;  Rome. 

Karaite  Siddur,  Page  from.  Printed  at  Budapest,  1903 179 

Konigliche  Weinberge,  near  Prague,  Interior  of  the  Synagogue  at 160 

Manuscript :  see  Prayer-Book. 

Map  of  Pithom-Heroopolis 63 

Showing  the  Road  System  of  Palestine 435 

see  also  Plan. 

Marriage  Rings  428,  429 

Midrash  Tehillim,  Title-Page  from,  Prague,  1613 249 

Music :  "  Rahem  na  '  Alaw  " 810 

Musical  Instruments :  see  Pipes. 

Naples,  Censored  Page  from  Hebrew  Psalms  with  Klmhi's  Commentary,  Printed  in  1487  at 247 

New  York,  Title-Page  from  Isaac  Pinto's  Translation  of  the  Prayer-Book,  Printed  in  1766  at 55 

Octavian,  Arch  of,  the  Entrance  to  the  Old  Ghetto  at  Rome 449 

Pale  of  Settlement,  Map  of  Western  Russia  Showing  the  Jewish 531 

Palestine,  Map  Showing  the  Road  System  of 435 

see  also  Pottery;  Safed ;  Samaria;  Samaritans. 

PJiillips,  Henry  Mayer,  American  Lawyer  and  Politician 4 

Jonas,  American  Revolutionary  Patriot 4 

Pliylacteries  and  Bags 21,  22,  25,  26 

and  Tlieir  Arrangement  on  Head  and  Arm 24 

Picart,  Bernard,  Title-Page  from  the  "  Tikkun  Soferim,"  Designed  by 29 

Pierleoni,  Tomb  of,  in  the  Cloisters  of  St.  Paul,  Rome 33 

Pinsker,  Lev,  Russian  Physician 52 

Pinto,  Isaac,  TitlePage  from  His  Translation  of  the  Prayer-Book,  Printed  at  New  York,  1766 55 

Pipes  in  Use  in  Palestine 57 

Pisa,  Old  Tombstones  from  the  Cemetery  at 61 

Pithom-Heroopolis,  Map  of 63 

Plagues,  Tlio  Ten,  According  to  a  Passover  Haggadah  of  1695 71 

Plan  of  the  City  of  Prague  in  1649,  Showing  Position  of  Jewish  Quarter 153 

of  the  Ghetto  at  Rome,  1640 447 

Platea  Judaea  of  the  Old  Ghetto  at  Rome 448 

Poltava,  Russia,  Synagogue  at 119 

Ponte,  Lorenzo  da,  Italian-American  Man  of  Letters 124 



Portraits:  sec 

run. I. IPS,  Hf.xkv  Mavkk. 
I'Hii.i.ii's,  Jonas. 

PINSKKR,    LK\  . 
I'OSSART,    ER.NST  V0.\. 

Haiibinovicz,  Raphaki.. 
Hahinovicii,  Osip. 
Hakinowitz,  HiKscii. 


UKfUiio,  Isaac  Samiki.. 
Ukikma.n.  .Iacoh. 


IliCARDo,  David. 
Kick,  Abraham. 

RiKSSKR,    (iAHRIKl,. 

RoTiisciiii.D,  Baron  Alphonsk. 

ROTH.SCllII.D,    Haron   Ja.mks. 
RoTHSfiiiLD,  Baron  Lionkl  Nathan. 


HoTnscHii.D,  Nathan  Maykr. 
Rothschild,  Nathamki.,  Lord. 
Rubinstein,  Anton. 
Sachs,  Michael. 
Sachs,  senior. 
Ralant,  Sa.MI'EL. 
Salomon,  Go'tthold. 
Salo.mons,  Sir  Uavid. 


Portsmouth,  England,  Interior  of  Synagogue  at 135 

Possart,  Ernst  vou,  German  Actor  and  Author 146 

Pottery  Discovered  in  Palestine 148,   149 

Prague,  Altneusclniie  at,  E.xterior  and  Interior  Views  of  the 106-158 

Court  of  the  Bassevi  at 161 

Exodus  of  Jews  from,  174."i 155 

Gild-Cup  of  the  Shoemakers  of,  Eighteenth  Century 156 

Interior  of  the  Synagogue  at  Koiiigliche  Weiuberge,  near 160 

Jewish  Butcher  of,  Eighteenth  Century 156 

Jewish  Cemetery  on  Josefstrasse 162 

Plan  of  the  City  of,  in  1649,  Showing  Position  of  Jcswisli  Quarter 153 

Procession  of  Jews  of,  in  Honor  of  the  Birthday  of  Archduke  Leopold,  i\Iay  17,  1716 154 

Purim  Players  at.  Early  Eighteenth  Century 276 

TJabbiner  Gassc 162 

Shames  Gasse 163 

Tombstones  in  tlie  Old  Jewish  Cemetery  at 165 

Wechsler  Gasse  Synagogue 159 

Typography :  Page  from  the  First  Illustrated  Printed  Haggadah,  1526 167 

Title-Page  from  Midrash  Tchillim,  1613 249 

Prayer-Book :  Colophon  Page  of  the  Siddur  Rab  Amram,  Written  in  1506  at  Trani 173 

Illuminated  First  Page  of  a  Siddur,  Written  by  Abraham  Farissol.  Ferrara,  1528 175 

Karaite  Siddur,  Budapest,  1903 179 

Page  from  the  Baer  Siddur,  Rodelheim,  1868 177 

— Title-Page  from  Isaac  Pinto's  Translation  of  the,  New  York,  1766 55 

Presburg,  Host  Desecration  at,  1591 188 

Visit  of  King  Ferdinand  to  a  Jewish  School  at,  1830 189 

Printer's  Mark  of  Abraham  Usciue,  Ferrara 202 

of  Antonio  Giustiano,  Venice 202 

of  the  Bragadini,  Venice 202 

of  Cavalli,  Venice 203 

of  Gad  ben  Isaac  Foa,  Venice 203 

of  Gersonides,  Prague    203 

of  Isaac  ben  Aarcm  of  Prossuitz,  Cracow 200.  202 

of  Jacob  ]\[ercuria,  Riva  di  Trento 202 

of  Judah  Lob  ben  Moses,  Prague 203 

■ of  Meir  ben  Jacob  Firenze 203 

■ of  and  Mordecal  Kohen 203 

of  Paul  Fagius,  Isny 202 

of  Solomon  Proops,  Amsterdam 203 

of  Soncino,  Rimini 202 

of  Tobiali  Foa,  Sabbionetta 203 

of  Zalman,  Amsterdam 203 

Procession  of  Jews  of  Prague  in  Honor  of  the  Birthday  of  Archduke  Leopold,  May  17,  1710   154 

Proops,  Solomon,  of  Amsterdam,  Printer's  ^laik  of   .  .  . 203 

P.salms,  Censored  Page  from  Hebrew,  with  Kind.ii's  Commentary,  Naples,  1487 247 

Page  from  Polyglot,  Genoa,  1516  243 

Title-Page  from  Midrash  to,  Prague,  1613  249 

Pulpit  from  a  Synagogue  at  Modena,  Early  Si.xteenth  Century.    268 

Interior  of  Synagogue  Sliowiiig  the.     From  a  fourteenth-century  manuscript 267 



Piiiim  CiTfinonies  in  tlit-  Syiuigogiie  at  AiiiMeiilani,  1781 plate  betireen  28U-281 

Hmnau  Klopfei-s  "  Used  by  Jewisli  ( 'liildren  of  Russia  tm 276 

Observance  of.  in  a  German  Synagoirue  of  the  EigliteenUi  Century 277 

Players.     From  Leusdeu.  1657 276 

at  Praeuc   Early  Eighteenth  Century 376 

Queensland  :  sec  Hhimiank. 

Rabbiner  Gasse,  Pmgue 162 

Rabliinovicz,  Raphael.  Talniudical  Scholar 298 

Rabinovich,  Osip.  I{ussian  Author  and  Journalist 301 

Rabinowitz,  Hirsch,  Russian  Scientist  and  Publicist 303 

Rachel.  Traditi.nial  Tomb  of 306 

-Rahem  na   Alaw."  Mu.sic  of 310 

Rapoport  Family,  Arms  of 320 

Solomon  LOb,  Austrian  Rabbi  antl  Scholar 322 

Rashi,  Colophon  of  the  First  Edition  of  the  Commentary  on  the  Pentateuch  by,  the  First  Dated  Hebrew 

Book,  1475 329 

Chapel  at  Worms 324 

Chair  in  the 327 

Cross-Section  of  the 326 

Interior  of  the 325 

Ratisbon,  Interior  of  the  Old  Synagogue  at 330 

Raziel.  Sepher,  Page  from  the,  Amsterdam,  1701 336 

Reggio,  Colophon  Page  from  the  First  Edition  of  Rashi  on  tlie  Pentateuch,  the  First  Dated  Hebrew- 
Book,  Printed  in  1475  at 339 

Isaac  Samuel,  Austro-Italian  Scholar  and  Rabbi 360 

Reifman,  Jacob,  Russian  Hebrew  Author 366 

Reland,  Adrian,  Dutch  Christian  Hebraist. ... 369 

Rembrandt,  Interior  of  a  Synagogue  at  Amsterdam,  from  an  Etching  by 374 

Jewish  Beggar,  from  an  Etching  by 371 

Portraits  of  Seventeenth-Century  Jews,  Painted  by 372,  373,  and  Frontispiece 

Ricardo,  David,  English  Political  Economist 402 

Rice,  Abraham,  American  Rabbi 405 

Richmond.  Va.,  Synagogue  at 407 

Riesser,  Gabriel,  German  Advocate  of  Jewish  Emancipation 410 

Riga,  Russia,  Synagogue  at 417 

Rings,  Jewish  Betrothal  and  Marriage 428,  429 

Riva  di  Trento,  Page  from  Hebrew  Bible  Printed  in  1561  at 433 

Road  System  of  Palestine,  Map  of  the 485 

Rodenberg,  Julius,  German  Poet  and  Author 439 

Rome,  Arch  of  Octavian,  the  Entrance  to  the  Old  Ghetto  at 449 

Ark  of  the  Law  in  the  Synagoga  dos  Templos  at 454 

Arks  of  the  Law  in  the  Castilian  Synagogue  at 452 

Chair  of  Elijah  in  a  Si'nagogue  at 458 

Entrance  to  the  Ancient  Catacombs  at 447 

Entrance  to  the  Ghetto  at,  About  1850 462 

Exterior  and  Interior  Views  of  the  New  Synagogue  at 464,  465 

"  Five  Synagogues  "  of  the  Old  Ghetto  at  451 

Nook  in  the  Old  Ghetto  at  460 

Plan  of  the  Ghetto  at,  1640 446 

Platea  Juda-a  of  the  Old  Ghetto  at 448 

Rabbis'  Chairs  in  Synagogues  at 456,  457 

Rua  Via  in,  Showing  Entrance  to  the  Old  Talmud  Torah 461 

Tomb  of  Pierleoni  in  the  Cloisters  of  St.  Paul  at 33 

Rothschild,  Baron  Alphonse,  Present  Head  of  the  French  House 498 

Baron  James,  Founder  of  the  French  House 501 

Baron  Lionel  Nathan,  Financier  and  First  Jewish  Member  of  English  Parliament 501 

Mayer  Amschel,  Founder  of  the  Roth.schild  Family 490 



Uotlischild,  Nathan  Mayer,  Fouudcr  of  the  English  House 494 

"  A  PillMi-  of  the  Exchange. "     From  an  old  print 496 

Nathaniel,  Lord,  Present  Head  of  English  House 503 

"  Staninihaus, "  Frankforl-ou-the-Main 490 

Rubinstein,  Anton,  l{ussian  Pianist  and  Composer 507 

Russia,  Map  of  Western,  Showing  the  Jewisli  Pale  of  Settlement 531 

Polish  Coins  of  the  Middle  Ages,  with  Hebrew  Characters 562,  563 

see  also  Poltava  ;  Rkja  ;  Saint  Pktkhsiuim;. 

Sabbath,  Device  for  Keeping  Water  and  Food  Warm  on 594 

Eve  Ceremonies  in  a  German  Jewish  Home  of  the  Eighteenth  Century 593 

Light,  Candlestick  Used  in  Blessing  tlie .591 

Sachs,  Michael,  German  Rabbi 613 

Senior,  Russian  Hebraist 614 

Sacrifice,  Samaritan  Place  of 673 

Safed,  View  of  the  Jewish  Quarter  at 634 

Saint  Petersburg,  Russia,  Synagogue  at 641 

Views  of  the  Old  and  Modern  Cemeteries  at 643,  645 

Salant,  Samuel,  Jerusalem  Rabbi 647 

Salomon,  Gotthold,  German  Rabbi 653 

Salomons,  Sir  David,  English  Politician  and  Communal  Worker 656 

Salonica,  Group  of  Jews  of 658 

Scene  in  the  Old  Jewish  Quarter  at  657 

Samarcand,  High  Street  in  Old,  Showing  the  Ghetto 667 

Jewess  of 668 

Samaria,  View  of,  from  the  Southeast 669 

Samaritan  Characters,  Ancient  Inscription  in 670 

Place  of  Sacrifice 673 

Samaritans  at  Prayer 674 

Groups  of 672,  678 

Shames  Gasse,  Prague 163 

Siddur:  see  Prayer-Book. 

Solomon,  So-Called  Coin  of 203 

Soncino,  Printer's  Mark  of 203 

Synagogues:    see  Amsterdam;    Brisbane;   Poltava;   Portsmouth;   Prague;   Richmond;   Riga; 

Rome;  Saint  Petersburg. 
see  also  Pulpit  ;  Purim  ;  Rashi  Chapel. 

TefiUin  and  Bags 21--36 

Title-Page  from  Isaac  Pinto's  Translation  of  the  Prayer-Book,  New  York,  1766    55 

from  Midrash  Tehillira,  Prague,  1613 249 

from  the  "Tikkun  Soferim,"  Designed  by  Bernard  Picart 29 

Tomb  of  Pierleoni  in  the  Cloisters  of  St.  Paul,  Rome 33 

of  Rachel,  Traditional 306 

Tombstones  from  the  Old  Jewish  Cemetery  at  Pisa 61 

from  the  Old  Jewish  Cemetery  at  Prague 165 

Types:  see  Salonica;  Samarcand;  Samaritans. 

Typography:  see  Genoa;  Naples;  New  York;   Picart:  Prague;  Printer's  Mark;  Raztel;  Reggio. 

TTsque,  Abraham,  Printer's  Mark  of 202 

Worms,  Exterior,  Interior,  and  Cros.s-Sectional  Views  of  tlie  Rashi  Chapel  at 324-326 

Zalman  of  Amsterdam,  Printer's  Mark  of 203 


Jewish  Encyclopedia 

PHILIPSON,  DAVID  :  American  rabbi ;  born 
at  Wabasli,  lud.,  Aug.  9,  1862;  educated  at  the 
public  scliools  of  Columbus,  Ohio,  tlie  Hebrew 
Union  College  of  Cincinnati  (graduated  1883;  D.D. 
1886),  the  University  of  Cincinnati  (B.A.  1883),  and 
Johns  Hopkins  University,  Baltimore,  Md.     On  Jan. 

1,  1884,  he  became  rabbi  of  the  Har  Sinai  congrega- 
tion at  Baltimore,  Md.,  -which  position  he  held  until 
Nov.  1,  1888,  when  he  became  rabbi  of  the  B'ne 
Israel  congregation  of  Cincinnati.  He  is  also  pro- 
fessor of  homiletics  at  the  Hebrew  Union  College. 

Philipson  has  held  many  offices  of  a  public  nature 
in  Cincinnati.  He  has  been  a  trustee  of  the  Asso- 
ciated Charities  (since  1890) ;  trustee  of  the  Home 
for  Incurables  (1894-1902);  director  of  the  Ohio 
Humane  Society  (since  1889)  and  of  the  United  Jewish 
Charities  (since  1896);  corresponding  secretary  of 
the  Central  Conference  of  American  Rabbis  (1889- 
1892;  1894-98),  and  director  of  the  same  society 
(since  1898);  governor  of  the  Hebrew  Union  College 
(since  1892);  director  of  the  American  Jewish  His- 
torical Society  (since  1897) ;  member  of  the  publica- 
tion committee  of  the  Jewish  Publication  Society 
(since  1895);  and  president  of  the  Hebrew  Sabbath 
School  Union  of  America  (since  1894). 

He  is  the  author  of  "Progress  of  the  Jewish  Re- 
form Movement  in  the  United  States,"  in  "J.  Q. 
R."  X.  (1897)  52-99;  and  "The  Beginnings  of  the 
Reform  Movement  in  Judaism,"  ib.  xv.  (1903)  575- 
621 ;  "  The  Jew  in  English  Fiction,"  Cincinnati,  1889 
(revised  and  enlarged,  1902) ;  "  Old  European  Jew- 
ries," Philadelphia,  1894;  "The  Oldest  Con- 
gregation in  the  West,"  Cincinnati,  1894;  "A Holiday 
Sheaf,"  ih.  1899;  and,  jointly  with  Louis  Grossman, 
he  has  edited  "  Reminiscences  of  Isaac  M.  Wise,"  ib. 

A.  F.  T.  H. 

PHILISTINES  :  A  people  that  occupied  terri- 
tory on  the  coast  of  the  ^Mediterranean  Sea,  south- 
west of  Jerusalem,  previouslj'  to  and  contemporane- 
ously with  the  life  of  the  kingdoms  of  Israel.  Their 
northern  boundary  reached  to  the  "  borders  of  Ekron, " 
and  their  southwestern  limit  was  the  Shiiior,  or  brook 
of  Egypt  (Wadi  al-'xVrish),  as  described  in  Josh.  xiii. 

2,  3.  Their  territory  extended  on  the  east  to  about 
Beth-shemesh  (I  Sam.  vi.  18),  and  on  the  west  to  the 
sea.  It  was  a  wide,  fertile  plain  stretching  up  to  the 
Judean  hills,  and  adapted  to  a  very  productive 

X.— 1 

In  Biblical  times  this  territory  was  occupied  by 
several  peoples,  the  most  prominent  of  all  being  the 
I'hilistines  proper.     There  are  found  the  giants  or 
Anakim  in  Joshua's  day  and  even  down  to  David's 
time  in  Gaza,  Gath,  and  Ashdod.     It  must  be  con- 
cluded, too,  from  Joshua's  conquests  that  the  Ca- 
naanites  were  to  be  met  with  here  and  there  through- 
out tliis  territory.     It  is  also  to  be 
Territory,    presumed  from  the  records  that  other 
peoples,  such  as  the  Amalekites  and 
the  Geshurites,  lived  near  this  territory  if  they  did 
not  actually  mingle  with  the  Philistines. 

Who  were  the  Philistines  proper?  The  Biblical 
record  states  that  they  came  from  Caphtor  (Amos 
ix.  7;  Deut.  ii.  23),  that  they  were  Caphtorim  (Dent. 
I.e.),  and  that  they  were  "the  remnant  of  the  sea- 
coast  of  Caphtor"  (Jer.  xlvii.  4,  Hebr.).  The  table 
of  nations  (Gen.  x.  13,  14)  names  the  Philistines  and 
the  Caphtorim  as  descendants  of  Mizraim.  The 
gist  of  these  references  leads  one  to  look  for 
Caphtor  as  the  native  land  of  the  Philistines.  There 
is  a  variety  of  opinion  as  to  the  location  of  this  place. 
The  Egj'ptian  inscriptions  name  the  southern  coast 
of  Asia  Minor  as  "  Kef  to."  The  latest  and  with  some 
plausibility  the  best  identification  is  the  island  of 
Crete.  The  Septuagint  makes  the  Cherethites  in 
David's  body-guard  Cretans.  Others  have  identified 
Caphtor  with  Cappadocia,  or  Cyprus,  or  with  some 
place  near  the  Egyptian  delta.  The  prevailing 
opinion  among  scholars  is  that  the  Philistines  were 
roving  jurates  from  some  northern  coast  on  the 
Mediterranean  Sea.  Finding  a  fertile  plain  south  of 
Joppa,  tliey  landed  and  forced  a  foothold.  Their 
settlement  was  made  by  such  a  gradual  process  that 
they  adopted  both  the  language  and  the  religion  of 
the  conquered  jieojiles. 

When  did  the  Philistines  migrate  and  seize  their 
territory  in  this  maritime  plain  V     The  inscriptions  of 
Rameses  III.,  about  Joshua's  da}',  de- 
Origin,      scribe   sea-peoples  wliom   he  met  in 
conflict.     Among  these  foreigners  are 
found   the  Zakkal  from  Cyprus,  and  the  Purusati 
(Pulusata,  Pulista,  or  Purosatha).     Both  liave  Greek 
features;    and  the  second  are   identified  with   the 
Philistines.     In  the  inscription  of  this    Egyptian 
king,  they  are  said  to  have  conquered  all  of  north- 
ern Syria  west  of  the  Euphrates.     It  is  known,  too, 
that  the  successors  of  Rameses  III.  lost  their  Syrian 
possessions.     It  is  supposed  that  during  this  period 




tlje  Purusati,  accompanied  by  their  families,  were 
pushed  or  crowded  out  of  their  homes  by  the  uational 
migrations  from  the  northeast  in  Asia  Minor,  and, 
coming  both  by  hiud  and  by  sea,  secured  a  foothold  in 
southwestern  Palestine.  The  time  of  this  supposed 
settlement  wasthatof  the  twentieth  dynastyof  Egypt. 
Of  course  their  first  settlements  were  on  a  small 
scale,  and  probably  under  Egyptian  suzerainty. 
Later,  as  Egypt  lost  her  grip  on  Asia,  the  Puru- 
sati became  independent  and  multiplied  in  numbers 
and  strength  until  they  could  easily  make  good  their 
claim  to  the  region  in  which  they  had  settled. 

According  to  the  Old  Testament,  the  Philistines 
were  in  power  in  their  new  land  at  least  as  early  as 
the  Exodus  (E.\.  .xiii.  17,  xxiii.  31).  Josh.  xiii.  2,  3 
lends  color  to  the  view  that  they  had  specific  bound- 
aries in  the  time  of  tiie  conquest.  During  the  period 
of  the  Judges  they  were  a  thorn  in  the  side  of 
Israel  (Judges  iii.  31,  v.  6,  x.  11,  xiii.-xvi.).  They 
were  so  well  organized  politically,  with  their  five 
great  capitals,  Ashdod,  Ashkelon,  Ekron,  Gath,  and 
Gaza,  and  a  lord  over  each  with  its  surrounding 
district,  that  Israel  in  its  earlier  history  was  put  to 
a  decided  disadvantage  (I  Sam.  iv.  17,  vii.  2-14). 
Their  supremacy  over  Saul's  realm  {ib.  xiii.  3  et 
S€(j.)  and  their  restriction  of  Israel's  arms  made  the 
Philistines  easy  rulers  of  their  mountain  neighbors. 
Saul's  defeat  of  them  at  Michmash  {ib.  xiv.)  was 
only  temporary,  as  he  finally  fled  to  Gilboa  before 
the  invincible  ranks  of  these  warriors. 

Not  until  David's  assumption  of  supremacy  over 
all  Israel  and  after  two  hard  battles  were  the  Philis- 
tines   compelled    to    recognize    the    rule  of    their 
former  subjects.      This   broke    their 
Conquered,   power  so  effectually  that  they  never 
by  entirely  recovered.     After  the  disrup- 

David.  tion  of  the  kingdom  of  Solomon  the 
Philistines  secured  their  independence, 
which  they  possessed  at  intervals  down  to  the  over- 
throw of  the  Israelitish  kingdoms.  During  this  en- 
tire period  they  are  found  exerci-sing  the  same  hos- 
tility toward  the  Israelites  (Amos  i.  6-8;  Joel  iii. 
4-«)  that  characterized  their  earlier  history.  In  this 
same  period  the  Assyrian  conquerors  mention  sev- 
eral Philistine  cities  as  objects  of  their  attacks.  The 
crossing  and  recrossing  of  Philistines  territory  by  the 
armies  of  Egypt  and  Asia  finally  destroyed  the 
Philistines  as  a  separate  nation  and  people;  so  that 
when  the  Persian  crossed  their  former 
territory  about  625,  he  described  it  as  belonging  to 
an  Arabian  ruler. 

The  Philistines'  language  was  apparently  Semitic, 
the  language  of  the  peoples  they  conquered.     Their 
religion,  too,  was  most  likely  Semitic,  as  they  are 
found  worshiping  the  deities  met  with 
Language    among  other  Semitic  peoples.     They 
and  Gov-     were  governod,  in  Isniol's  early  liis- 
ernment.      tory,  by  a  confederation  of  five  kiiagsor 
rulers  of  their  chief  cities.    Their  army 
was  well  organized  and  brave,  and  consisted  of  in- 
fantry, cavalry,  and  cliariotry.     In  fine,  they  were  a 
civilized  people  as  far  back  as  they  can  be  traced ;  and 
as  such  they  became  relatively  strong  and  wealthy 
in  their  fertile  plains.     They  engaged  in  commerce, 
and  in  their  location  became  thoroughly  acquainted 
with  the  great  peoples  of  their  times.     Their  dis- 

appearance as  a  nation  from  history  occurred  about 

the  time  of  the  conquest  of  Cyrus. 

Bibliography  :  McCurdy,  lUxturti,  Pri^phecy.  and  (he  Mimu- 
mtntx,  I..  S8  liC  UH;  G.  A.  Siiiitli.  HiiitorUal  Geoynip/ij/"/ 
the  Holii  La  tut,  cli.  ix.;  BruRsch,  Egypt  Uuiler  the  Fharaohs, 
ch.  ix.,  .xiv.;  W.  M.  Muller,  .4sit»  uud  Kurnpa,  eh.  xxvl.- 
xxix.:  Schwally,  Die  liasxe  der  FhHi.ttder.  in  Zeitschrift 
fllr  WiioieiiKchaftUche  Theologie,  xxxiv.  1(13  et  seq.;  W.J. 
Beeclier,  in  Hustings,  Diet.  Bible,  s.v.;  G.  F.  Moore,  in  Cheyno 
and  Black,  Eneuc.  Bill.  s.v. 
K.  O.  II.  I.   M.   P. 

I'HILLIPS  :  American  family,  espcciallj''  prom- 
inent in  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  and  tracing  its 
descent  back  to  Jonas  Phillips,  who  emigrated  from 
Germany  to  England  in  1751  and  thence  to  America 
in  1756.  The  genealogical  tree  of  the  family  is  given 
on  page  3. 

Henry  Phillips,  Jr.  :  Archeologist  and  numis- 
matist; born  at  Philadelphia  Sept.  6,  1838;  died 
June,  1895;  son  of  Jonas  Altamont  Phillips.  He 
was  well  known  for  his  studies  in  folklore,  philology, 
and  numismatics,  both  in  the  United  States  and  in 
Europe.  Two  gold  medals  were  conferred  upon  him 
by  Italian  societies  for  his  writings.  He  was  treas- 
urer (1862)  and  secretary  (1868)  of  the  Numismatic 
and  Antiquarian  Society  of  Philadelphia,  and  a  sec- 
retary (from  1880)  and  the  librarian  (from  1885)  of  the 
American  Philosophical  Society,  as  well  as  member 
of  many  other  learned  societies  at  home  and  abroad. 

Phillips'  works  on  the  paper  currency  of  the 
American  colonies  and  on  American  Continental 
money  were  the  first  on  those  subjects.  His  works 
have  been  cited  by  the  United  States  Supreme  Court 
in  a  decision  on  the  "Legal  Tender  Cases."  Among 
his  writings  may  be  mentioned :  "  History  of  Ameri- 
can Colonial  Paper  Currency  "  (1865);  "History  of 
American  Continental  Paper  Money  "  (1866) ;  "  Pleas- 
ures of  Numismatic  Science"  (1867);  "Poems  from 
the  Spanish  and  German"  (1878);  "Faust"  (1881); 
and  four  volumes  of  translations  from  the  Spanish, 
Hungarian,  and  German  (1884-87;  see  Appleton's 
"Cyclopedia  of  American  Biography,"  iv. ;  Henry 
S.  Morals,  "The  Jews  of  Philadelphia,"  s.v.;  Oscar 
Fay  Adams,  "A  Dictionary  of  American  Authors," 
p.  295,  New  York,  1897;  "Proceedings  of  the 
American  Philological  Association,"  1896). 

A.  L.  Hij. 

Henry  Mayer  Phillips :  American  lawyer, 
congressman,  and  financier;  son  of  Zalegman  and 
Arabella  Phillips;  born  in  Philadelphia  June  30, 
1811,  where  he  attended  a  private  school  and  the 
high  school  of  the  Franklin  Institute;  died  Aug.  28, 
1884.  Phillijjs  was  admitted  to  the  bar  Jan.  5,  1832. 
Immediately  after  his  admission  he  accepted  the  po- 
sition of  clerk  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas. 

In  Dec,  1841,  he  was  elected  solicitor  of  the  dis- 
trict of  Spring  Garden.  In  the  October  election  of 
1856  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  thirty-fifth 
Congress  and  served  during  1857-59.  He  addressed 
the  House  of  Representatives  on  the  admission  of 
Kansas  into  the  Union  under  the  Le  Compton  Con- 
stitution on  March  9,  1858,  and  on  June  12  he  spoke 
on  the  expenditures  and  revenues  of  the  country. 

In  Dec,  1858,  he  was  elected  grand  master  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  F'ree  and  Accepted  Masons  of  the 
State  of  Penn.sylvania,  and  was  reelected  in  1859  and 
1860.  On  Dec  4,  1862,  he  was  chosen  trustee  of  the 
Jefferson  Medical  College  to  fill  a  vacancy  caused 












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Phillips,  Morris 


Henry  M.  Phillips. 

by  the  death  of  his  brother  J.  Altamout  Phillips, 
and  subsequently  became  its  treasurer. 

The  Court  of  Common  Pleas  appointed  him  a 
member  of  the  board  of  park  commissioners  May 
13.  1867,  and  March  12,  1881,  he  was  elected  presi- 
dent of  the  board.  He  was  appointed  a  member  of 
the  board  of  city  trusts  Sept.  2,  1869,   became  its 

vice-president  May  11, 
1870.  and  on  March  13, 
1878,  was  chosen  its  presi- 
dent, which  office  he  re- 
signed in  Dec,  1881. 

In  1870  Phillips  was 
appointed  a  member  of 
the  commission  for  the 
construction  of  a  bridge 
crossing  the  Schuylkill 
River.  He  was  one  of  the 
original  members  of  the 
Public  Buildings  Com- 
kV'^</  mission  established  in  1870, 

Z-K^'^v      y'  but  resigned  the  next  year. 

^^*   '^'  In  1870''he  was  chosen  a 

director  of  the  Academy 
of  Music,  became  its  presi- 
dent in  1872,  and  resigned  in  1884.  He  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  American  Pliilosophical  Society 
in  Jan.,  1871,  and  a  director  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Railroad,  Northern  Central  Railroad,  Philadelphia, 
"Wilmington  and  Baltimore  Railroad,  and  of  the 
Western  Union  Telegraph  Company  in  March,  1874. 
He  became  a  director  of  the  Pennsylvania  Company 
for  Insurance  on  Lives  and  Granting  Annuities  on 
Oct.  16,  1874. 

On  Dec.  20, 1882,  he  presided  at  the  "bar  dinner" 
given  to  Chief  Justice  Sharswood  on  the  retirement 
of  the  latter;  this  Avas  the  last  public  occasion  in 
which  he  participated  as  a  member  of  the  Phila- 
delphia bar,  of  which  he  had  become  a  leader. 

Phillips  was  a  member  of  the  Sephardic  (Spanish 
and  Portuguese)  Congregation  Mickve  Israel  of 
Philadelphia.  In  former  years,  more  especially  in 
the  period  from  1836  to  1851,  he  took  considerable 
interest  in  its  affairs,  taking  an  active  part  in  the 
controversy  between  Isaac  Leeser  and  the  congre- 
gation ;  his  efforts  were  largely  instrumental  in  elect- 
ing Sabato  Morais  as  minister  of  the  congregation  on 
April  13,  1851. 
A.  D.  Su. 

Isaac  Phillips  :  Lawyer ;  born  in  New  York 
June  16,  1812;  died  there  1889;  son  of  Naphtali 
Phillips.  He  was  appointed  by  President  Pierce 
appraiser  of  the  port  of  New  York,  which  position 
he  occupied  for  many  years,  and  he  was  well  known 
politically.  He  took  a  deep  interest  in  educational 
matters,  being  a  commissioner  of  the  New  York 
board  of  education ;  he  was  likewise  the  editor  of  va- 
rious newspapers  in  the  city  of  New  York,  grand 
ma.ster  of  the  freemasons  of  the  state  of  New  York, 
and  an  active  member  of  the  New  York  Chamber 
of  Commerce.  He  married  (1)  Sophia  Phillips  and 
(2)  Miriam  Trimble. 

Jonas  Phillips  :  The  first  of  the  family  to  settle 
in  America ;  born  1 736,  the  place  of  his  birth  being  va- 
riously given  as  Busick  and  Frankfort-on-the-Main ; 
died  at  Philadelphia,  Pa. ,  Jan.  29, 1803 ;  son  of  Aaron 

Phillips.  He  emigrated  to  America  from  London  in 
Nov.,  1756,  and  at  first  resided  in  Charleston,  S.  C, 
where  he  was  employed  by  Closes  Lindo.  He  soon 
removed  to  Albany,  and  thence,  shortly  afterward, 
to  New  York,  where  he  engaged  in  mercantile  pur- 
suits. As  early  as  1760  he  was  identified  with  a 
lodge  of  freemasons  in  that  city.  In  1762  he  mar- 
ried Rebecca  Mendez 
Machado  (see  M.\- 
CH.\Do).  In  1769  he 
became  a  freeman  of 
New  York. 

At  the  outbreak  of 
the  American  Revo- 
lution Phillips  fa- 
vored the  patriot 
cause;  and  he  was  an 
ardent  supporter  of 
the  Non-Importation 
Agreement  in  1770. 
In  1776  he  used  his 
influence  in  the  New 
York  congregation  to 
close  the  doors  of  the 
synagogue  and  re- 
move rather  than  Jo°'is  Phillips. 
continue    under    the 

British.  The  edifice  was  abandoned  ;  and,  with  the 
majoritj'  of  the  congregation,  Phillips  removed  to 
Philadelphia,  where  he  continued  in  business  until 
1778.  In  that  j-ear  he  joined  the  Revolutionary 
army,  serving  in  the  Philadelphia  Militia  under  Colo- 
nel Bradford. 

When  Congregation  Mickve  Israel  was  estab- 
lished in  Philadelphia,  Phillips  was  one  of  its  active 
founders,  and  was  its  president  at  the  consecration 
of  its  synagogue  in  1782.  After  the  Revolution  he 
removed  to  New  York,  but  soon  returned  to  Phila- 
delphia, where  he  continued  to  reside  until  his  death. 
His  remains,  however,  were  interred  at  New  York 
in  the  cemoterj-,  on  New  Bowery,  of  Congregation 
Shearith  Israel.  His  widow  survived  until  1831. 
Of  his  twenty-one  children,  special  mention  should 
be  made  of  the  following  si.x: 

(1)  Rachel  Phillips:  Born  1769;  died  1839; 
married  iSIichacl  Levy,  and  was  the  mother  of  Com- 
modore Uriah  P.  Levy  of  the  United  States  navy. 

(2)  Naphtali  Phillips :  Born  1773;  died  1870; 
married  (1797)  Rachel  Mendez  Sei.xas  (d.  1822)  of 
Newport,  R.  I.  One  year  after  her  death  he  married 
Esther  (b.  1789;  d.  1872),  the  daughter  of  Benjamin 
Mendez  Sei.xas.  Phillijjs  was  the  proprietor  of  the 
"National  Advocate,"  a  New  York  newspaper,  and 
was  also  president  of  Congregation  Shearith  Israel 
in  that  city. 

(3)  Manuel  Phillips  :  Assistant  surgeon  in  the 
United  States  navy  from  1809  to  1824;  died  at  Vera 
Cruz  in  1826. 

(4)  Joseph  Phillips  :  Died  1854.  He  served  in 
the  War  of  1S12. 

(5)  Aaron  J.  Phillips  :  Actor  and  playwright; 
born  in  Philadelphia;  died  at  New  York  in  1826. 
He  made  his  first  appearance  at  the  Park  Theater, 
New  York,  in  1815,  and  was  successful  in  Shakes- 
peare's "Comedy  of  Errors."  Later  he  became  a 
theatrical   manager  (see   Charles  P.  Daly,  "Settle- 


Phillips,  Slorris 

inent  of  the  Jews  in  North  America,"  pp.  102-103, 
120,  New  York,  1893). 

(6)  Zalegman  Phillips:  Lawyer;  born  1779; 
died  Aug.  21,  iy3'J.  He  was  graduated  from  tiie 
Vniversity  of  Peniisylvauia  in  1795,  and  became  one 
of  the  leading  criminal  lawyers  of  Philadelphia. 

Jonas  Altamont  Phillips:  Lawyer;  born  at 
PhihulelpiiialbUG;  diedtiiere  18(32;  brother  of  Henry 
M.  Phillips.  He  became  prominent  as  a  lawyer,  and 
in  1847-48  was  the  Democratic  candidate  for  tiie 
mayoralty  of  Philadelphia.  President  Buchanan  is 
said  to  have  tendered  him  the  position  of  judge  of 
the  United  States  District  Court,  which  he  declined. 
In  1837  he  married  Frances  Cohen  of  Charleston, 
8.  C. 

Jonas  B.  Phillips:  Dramatist;  born  Oct.  28, 
180"),  at  Philadelphia;  died  1869;  son  of  Benjamin  J. 
Phillips.  He  became  known  as  a  dramatist  as  early 
as  1838.  Among  the  plays  he  produced  were :  "  Cold 
Stricken"  (1838),  "Camillus,"  and  "The  Evil  Eye." 
Subsequently  he  studied  law  and  became  assistant 
district  attorney  for  the  county  of  Ncav  York,  hold- 
ing that  aiipointmeut  under  several  successive  ad- 
ministrations (see  Daly,  I.e.  p.  145). 

Jonas  N.  Phillips:  Born  1817;  died  1874;  son 
of  Naphtali  Phillips.  He  was  chief  of  the  volunteer 
fire  department  in  the  city  of  New  York  for  many 
years,  and  president  of  the  board  of  councilraen  and 
acting  mayor  in  1857. 

Naphtali  Taylor  Phillips:  Lawyer;  born  in 
New  York  Dec.  5,  1868;  sou  of  Isaac  Phillips  by  his 
second  wife.  He  has  held  various  political  offices,  e.g. : 
he  was  member  of  the  New  York  state  legislature 
(1898-1901),  serving  on  the  judiciary  and  other  com- 
mittees and  as  a  member  of  the  Joint  Statutory 
Revision  Commission  of  that  body  (1900) ;  and  dep- 
uty comptroller  of  the  city  of  New  York  (from  1902). 
He  is  also  a  trustee  of  the  American  Scenic  and  His- 
toric Preservation  Society,  and  a  member  of  the  Sons 
of  the  American  Revolution  and  of  the  New  York 
Historical  Society.  He  is  treasurer  of  the  Jew- 
ish Historical  Society  and  lias  contributed  several 
papers  to  its  publications.  For  fifteen  years  he  has 
been  clerk  of  Congregation  Shearith  Israel.  In 
1892  Phillips  married  Rosalie  Solomons,  daughter  of 
Adolphus  S.  Solomons.  Mrs.  Phillips  is  an  active 
member  of  the  Daughters  of  the  American  Revo- 

Bibliography:  Charles  P.  T)s.\j,  SetiUment  of  the  Jews  in 
North  Aiiinica,  New  York,  1893;  Isaac  Markens,  The  He- 
7>reics  in  America,  ib.  1888;  Henrv  S.  Moniis,  The  Jews  of 
Philadelphia,  Philadelphia,  18&i;  H.  P.  Rosenbach.  The 
Jews  in  Philadelphia,  188;i;  N.  Taylor  Phillips,  in  Pnbl. 
Am.  Jew.  Hist.  Soc.  ii.  51,  iv.  204  et  seq.;  Sabato  Morals,  ih. 
1.;  M.  J.  Kohler.  ih.  iv.  89  ;  Herbert  Friedenvvald,  i/).  vi.  50  et 
seq.  (other  references  are  found  in  almost  all  the  volumes 
issued  by  the  society);  L.  Hiihner,  A'fKJ  York  Jews  in  the 
Strunqle  for  American  Tudcucudence  ;  Pennsi/lrania  As- 
snciatin-s  and  Militia  in  the  lievolution,  i.  f>82;  Nciv  York 
Gazette  and  Weeklu  Post  Buy,  July  23,  1770;  New  York 
Hist.  Soc.  Col.  for  1885,  p.  49. 
A.  L.   Hv. 

PHILLIPS,  BARNET  :  American  journalist ; 
born  in  Philadelphia  Nov.  9,  1828;  educated  at  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  whence 
he  was  graduated  in  1847.  Shortly  afterward  he 
set  out  for  Europe,  where  he  continued  his  studies 
and  engaged  in  journalism.  On  his  return  to  the 
United  States,  Phillips  joined  the  staff  of  the  "  New 

York  Times  "  and  published  two  books,  "  The  Strug- 
gle "  and  "  Burning  Their  Ships."    Phillips'  connec- 
tion  with   the   "New  York  Times"  extends  over 
thirty  years. 
A.  F.  H.  V. 


Lord  mayor  of  London;  born  in  London  in  1811; 
died  there  Oct.  9,  1889.  He  was  a  son  of  Samuel 
Phillips,  tailor,  and  was  educated  at  Neumegen's 
school  at  Ilighgate  and  Kew.  In  1833  he  married, 
and  soon  afterward  entered  into  partnership  with 
his  brother-in-law  Henry  Faudel,  thus  laying  the 
foundation  of  the  firm  of  Faudel,  Phillips  &  Sons. 
He  then  became  an  active  worker  in  the  community, 
being  elected  president  of  the  Institution  for  the  Relief 
of  the  Jewish  Indigent  Blind  in  1850  and  president 
of  the  Hebrew  Literary  Society.  He  rendered  im- 
portant services  in  the  foundation  of  the  United 
Synagogue,  of  which  be  was  elected  a  life-member 
in  June,  1880.  For  thirty  years  Phillips  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Board  of  Deputies  as  representative  of 
the  Great  and  Central  synagogues ;  he  served  as  a 
member  of  the  Rumanian  Committee,  and  was  a 
vice-president  of  the  Anglo-Jewish  Association. 

Benjamin  Phillips  will  be  chiefly  remembered  for 
the  prominent  part  he  took  in  the  struggle  for  the 
removal  of  Jewish  disabilities.  In  1846  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  common  council  as  repre- 
sentative of  the  ward  of  Farringdon  Within.  After 
being  returned  at  every  subsequent  election,  he  was 
elected  alderman  of  the  ward  in  1857.  In  1859  he 
held  the  office  of  sheriff,  and  on  Sept.  29,  1865,  was 
elected  lord  mayor.  He  performed  the  duties  of 
mayor  with  marked  distinction,  and  the  King  of  the 
Belgians,  whom  he  entertained,  conferred  upon  him 
the  Order  of  Leopold.  During  his  mayoralty  he 
rendered  considerable  help  in  personally  raising 
£70,000  toward  the  great  Cholera  Fund.  In  recog- 
nition of  these  services  he  was  knighted  by  Queen 
Victoria.  In  1888,  owing  to  advancing  years,  he  re- 
tired from  the  court  of  aldermen,  being  succeeded 
in  the  office  by  his  second  son,  Alderman  Sir  George 
Faudel-Phillips,  who  was  unanimously  elected. 

Sir  Benjamin  Phillips  was  for  many  years  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Spectacle-Makers  Company  (of  which  he 
was  master)  and  was  on  the  commission  for  the  Lieu- 
tenancy of  the  City  of  London. 

BmLiOGRAPHv:  Jew.  Chrnn.  and  Jew.  World,  Oct.  18,1889; 
The  Times  aad  other  London  newspapers,  Oct.  10,  1889. 
J.  G.  L. 

PHILLIPS,  GEORGE  LYON  :  Jamaican  pol- 
itician; born  in  1811;  died  at  Kingston,  Jamaica, 
Dec.  29,  1886.  One  of  the  most  prominent  and  in- 
fluential residents  of  Jamaica,  he  held  the  chief 
magistrateship  of  the  privy  council  and  other  im- 
portant executive  oftices  on  the  island.  During  the 
an.xious  period  known  as  tlie  "  Saturnalia  of  Blood  " 
Phillips  especially  conserved  the  interests  of  the  col- 
ony by  his  gentle  and  calm  demeanor  at  councils  of 

BiBiionRAPHY  :  Falmouth  Gazette  (JamaicaK  Dec.  31. 1885 ; 
./(If.  World,  Jan.  28,  1887  ;  Jew.  Chnoi.  Feb.  4,  1887. 

J.  G.  L. 

PHILLIPS,  MORRIS:  American  journalist 
and  writer;  born  in  Loudon,  England,  May  9,  1834. 

PhillipB.  Philip 
Philo   Judaeus 



Phillips  received  his  elementary  education  in  Cleve- 
land, Ohio,  and  later  continued  his  studies  under 
private  tutors  in  New  York.  He  studied  for  the 
legal  profession,  first  in  Buffalo  and  later  in  New 
Vurk.  But  the  opportunity  being  open  to  him  of 
ussociation  with  Nathaniel  Parker  Willis  as  joint 
editor  of  the  "New  York  Home  Journal,"  he  em- 
braced it  at  once,  and  from  Sept.,  1854,  until  the 
death  of  Willis  in  Jan.,  1867,  Phillips  was  associate 
editor  of  that  periodical,  of  which  he  then  became 
chief  editor  ami  sole  proprietor.  Phillips  was  a 
prolific  writer  and  an  extensive  traveler;  as  such 
he  held  commissions  as  special  correspondent  for 
several  daily  newspapers,  and  published  in  many 
magazines  the  fruits  of  his  observations. 
A.  F.  H.  V. 

PHILLIPS,  PHILIP:  American  jurist;  born 
in  Charleston,  S.  C,  Dec.  17,  1807;  died  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  Jan.  14,  1884i  He  was  educated  at 
tlje  Norwich  Military  Academy  in  Vermont  and  at 
3Iiddletown,  Conn.  He  then  studied  law  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1829,  settling  in  Cheraw, 
S.  C.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Nullification  Con- 
vention of  1832.  Elected  to  the  state  legislature 
in  1834,  he  resigned  in  1835  and  moved  to  Mobile, 
Ala.,  where  he  practised  law.  He  was  president 
of  the  Alabama  State  Convention  in  1837,  and  was 
elected  to  the  state  legislature  in  1844,  being  re- 
elected in  1852.  In  1853-55  he  was  a  member  of 
Congress  from  Alabama.  He  then  moved  to  Wash- 
ington, where  lie  continued  his  profession  until  the 
Civil  war,  when  he  migrated  to  New  Orleans.  After 
the  war  he  returned  to  Washington  and  resided  there 
until  his  death.  In  1840  he  prepared  a  "Digest  of 
Decisions  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Alabama, "  and  he 
wrote '*  Practise  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  tlie  United 
States."  He  married  Eugenia  Levy  of  Charleston, 
S.  C,  on  Sept.  7,  1836. 

BinuonRAPHT:  Brewer,  ^ialia ma,  pp.  406-407;  Garrett,  7?em- 
iniscences  of  Public  Men  in  Alabama,  1872,  pp.  4(J5-407. 

A.  A.   S.  L 

PHILLIPS,  PHINEAS:  Polish  merchant; 
flourished  about  1775.  He  held  the  position  of  chief 
of  the  Jewish  community  at  Krotoschin,  at  that 
time  a  fief  of  the  princes  of  Thurn  and  Taxis.  The 
reigning  prince  held  Phillips  in  considerable  esteem 
and  entrusted  him  with  personal  commissions. 

In  the  course  of  business  Phillips  attended  the 
Leipsic  fairs  and  held  in  other  important  Con- 
tinental cities.  In  1775  he  extended  his  travels  to 
England.  Once  there,  he  settled  for  some  time  in 
London,  where  he  carried  on  an  extensive  business 
in  indigo  and  gum. 

After  his  dciitli.  while  on  a  visit  to  his  native 
town  his  son  Samuel  Phillips  estai)lished  himself 
in  London  and  became  the  father  of  Sir  Benjamin 
Phillips  and  grandfather  of  Sir  George  Faudel- 
Phillips,  Bart.,  both  lord  mayors  of  London. 

Bibliography:  Jew.  Chron.  Oct.  18, 1889. 

•'  G.  L. 

PHILLIPS,  SAMUEL:  English  journalist; 
born  at  London  1815;  died  at  Brighton  Oct.,  1854. 
He  was  the  son  of  an  English  merchant,  and  at  fif- 
teen years  of  age  made  his  debut  as  an  actor  at  Cov- 

ent  Garden.  Influential  friends  then  placed  him 
at  Cambridge,  whence  he  passed  to  Gottingen  Uni- 
versity. Phillips  then  came  to  London,  and  in  1841 
turned  his  attention  to  literature  ami  journalism. 
His  earliest  work  was  a  romance  entitled  ''Caleb 
Stukeley,"  which  appeared  in  "Blackwood's  Maga- 
zine "  and  was  reprinted  in  1843.  Its  success  led  to 
further  contributions  to  "Blackwood's,"  including 
"  We  Are  All  Low  People  There  "  and  other  tales. 

Phillips  continued  to  write  for  periodicals,  and  he 
was  subsequently  admitted  as  literary  critic  to  the 
staff  of  the  "Times."  His  articles  were  noted  for 
their  vigor  of  expression  and  their  wealth  of  ideas. 
Dickens,  Carlyle,  Mrs.  Slowe,  and  other  popular 
writers  were  boldl}'  assailed  by  the  anonymous 
critic,  whose  articles  became  the  talk  of  the  town. 
In  1852  and  1854  two  volumes  of  his  literary  essays 
were  published  anonymously.  Phillips  was  also 
associated  with  the  "Morning  Herald  "  and  "John 

When  the  Society  of  the  Crystal  Palace  was  formed 
Phillips  became  secretary  and  afterward  literary 
director.  In  connection  with  the  Palace  he  wrote 
the  "Guide"  and  the  "Portrait  Gallery." 

Bibmograpiiy:  The  Times  (London),  Oct.  17,  1854:  Didot, 
Nnuvcnu  Biugraphie  General;  Chambers,  Cue.  of  English 

J.  G.  L. 

PHILO  JUD^US:  Alexandrian  philosopher; 
born  about  20  b.c.  at  Alexandria,  Egypt;  died  after 
40  c.E.  The  few  biographical  details  concerning 
him  that  have  been  preserved  are  found  in  his  own 
works  (especially  in  "Legatio  ad  Caium,"  t;i;  22,  28; 
ed.  Mangey  [hereafter  cited  in  brackets],  ii.  567, 
572;  "De  Specialibus  Legibus."  ii.  1  [ii.  299])  and 
in  Josephus  ("Ant."  xviii.  8,  §  1;  comp.  ib.  xix.  5, 
§  1 ;  XX.  5,  g  2).  The  only  event  that  can  be  deter- 
mined chronologically  is  his  participation  in  the 
embassy  which  the  Alexandrian  Jews  sent  to  the 
emperor  Caligula  at  Rome  for  the  purpose  of  asking 
protection  against  the  attacks  of  the  Alexandrian 
Greeks.     This  occurred  in  the  year  40  c.E. 

Philo  included  in  his  philosophy  both  Greek  wisdom 
and  Hebrew  religion,  which  he  sought  to  fuse  and 
harmonize  by  means  of  the  art  of  allegorj'  that  he 
had  learned  from  the  Stoics.  His  work  was  not  ac- 
cepted b}'  contemporary  Judaism.  "The  sophists 
of  ]iteralne!5s,"as  he  calls  them  ("De  Somniis,"i.  16- 
17),  "opened  their  eyes  superciliously  "  when  he  ex- 
plained to  them  the  marvels  of  his  exegesis.  Greek 
science,  suppressed  by  the  victorious  Phariseeism 
(Men.  99),  was  .soon  forgotten.  Philo  was  all  the 
more  enthusiastically  received  b}'  the  early  Chris- 
tians, some  of  whom  saw  in  him  a  Christian. 

His  Works  :  The  Church  Fathers  have  preserved 
most  of  Philo's  works  that  are  now  extant.  These 
are  chieflj'  commentaries  on  the  Pentateuch.  As 
Ewald  has  pointed  out,  three  of  Philo's  chief  works 
lie  in  this  field  (comp.  Siegfried,  "Abhandlung  zur 
Kritik  der  Schriften  Philo's,"  1874,  p.  565). 

(a)  He  explains  the  Pentateuch  catechetically,  in 
the  form  of  questions  and  answers  ("Z?/r^^a-a  /cat 
Avaeir,  Qufestiones  et  Solutiones  ").  It  can  not  now 
be  determined  how  far  he  carried  out  this  method. 
Only  the  following  fragments  have  been  preserved : 
passages  in  Armenian  in  explanation  of  Genesis  and 


Phillips,  Philip 
Philo  Judaeus 

Exodus,  an  old  Latin  translation  of  a  part  of  the 
"Genesis,"  and  fragments  from  the  Greek  text  in 
the  "Sacra  Parallela,"  iu  the  "Catena,"  and  also  in 
Ambrosius.  The  explanation  is  conlined  cliiclly  to 
determining  the  literal  sense,  although  Philo  fre- 
quently refers  to  the  allegorical  sense  as  the  higher. 

(b)  That  he  cared  mainly  for  the  latter  he  shows 
in  his  scientific  chief  work,  the  great  allegorical 
commentary,  i^ofiuv  'lepdv  ' Alhiyopiai,  or  "Legum 

Allegoria',"  which  deals,  so  far  as  it 
His  Alle-  has  been  preserved,  with  selected 
gorical  passages  from  Genesis.  According  to 
Coramen-  Philo's  original  idea,  the  history  of 
tary.  primal  man  is  here  considered  as  a 
symbol  of  the  religious  and  moral  de- 
velopment of  the  human  soul.  This  great  commen- 
tary included  the  follovving  treatises:  (1)  "  De  Alle- 
goriis  Legum,"  books  i.-iii.,  on  Geu.  ii.  1-iii.  la, 
8b-19  (on  the  original  extent  and  contents  of  these 
three  books  and  the  probably  more  correct  combina- 
tion of  i.  and  ii.,  see  Schiirer,  "Gesch."  iii.  503);  (2) 
"  De  Cherubim,"  on  Gen.  iii.  24,  iv.  1 ;  (3)  "  De  Sacrili- 
ciis  Abelis  etCaini,"  on  Gen.  iv.  2-4  (comp.  Schiirer, 
I.e.  p.  504);  (4)  "De  Eo  Quod  Deterius  Potiori  Insi- 
diatur";  (5)  "De  Posteritate  Caini,"  on  Gen.  iv. 
16-25  (see  Cohn  and  Wendland,  "Philonis  Alex- 
andrini,"  etc.,  ii.,  pp.  xviii.  et  seq.,  1-41;  "Philolo- 
gus,"  Ivii.  248-288);  (6)  "  De  Gigautibus,"  on  Gen. 
vi.  1-4;  (7)  "Quod  Deus  Sit  Immutabilis,"  on  Gen. 
vi.  4-12  (Schiirer  [I.e.  p.  506]  correctly  combines  Nos. 
6  and  7  into  one  book ;  Massebieau  ["  Biblioth(^que  de 
I'Ecole  des  Hautes  Etudes,"  p.  23,  note  2,  Paris, 
1889]  adds  after  No.  7  the  lost  books  ITept  Aia-^r/Kuv) ; 
(8)  "  De  Agricultura  Noe,"  on  Gen.  ix.  20  (comp.  Von 
Arnim,  "Quellenstudien  zu  Philo  von  Alexandria," 
1899,  pp.  101-140);  (9)  "  De  Ebrietate,"  on  Gen.  ix. 
21  (on  the  lost  second  book  see  Schiirer,  I.e.  p.  507, 
and  Von  Arnim,  I.e.  pp.  53-100);  (10)  "Resipuit 
Noa,  sen  De  Sobrietate,"  on  Gen.  ix.  24-27;  (11) 
"  De  Conf usione  Linguaruni,"  on  Gen.  xi.  1-9;  (12) 
"De  Migratione  Abrahann',"  on  Gen.  xii.  1-6;  (13) 
"Quis  Rerum  Divinarum  Heres  Sit,"  on  Gen.  xv. 
2-18  (on  the  work  Ilepl  Miai^uv  cited  in  this  treatise 
see  Massebieau,  I.e.  pp.  27  etseq.,  note  3);  (14)  "De 
Congressu  QuferendsE  Eruditionis  Gratia,"  on  Gen. 
xvi.  1-6;  (15)  "De  Profugis,"  on  Gen.  xvi.  6-14; 
(16)  "De  Mutatione  Nominum,"  on  Gen.  xvii.  1-22 
(on  the  fragment  "  De  Deo,"  which  contains  a  com- 
mentary on  Gen.  xviii.  2,  see  Massebieau,  I.e.  p. 
29);  (17)  "DeSomniis,"  book  i.,  on  Gen.  xxviii.  12 
etseq.,  xxxi.  11  <'<.<(e9. (.Jacob's dreams) ;"  DeSomniis," 
book  ii.,  on  Gen.  xxxvii.  40  et  seq.  (the  dreams  of 
Joseph,  of  the  cupbearer,  the  baker,  and  Pharaoh). 
Philo's  three  other  books  on  dreams  have  been  lost. 
The  first  of  these  (on  the  dreams  of  Abimelech  and 
Laban)  preceded  the  present  book  i.,  and  discussed 
the  dreams  in  which  God  Himself  spoke  with  the 
dreamers,  this  fitting  in  very  well  with  Gen.  xx.  3. 
On  a  doxographic  source  used  by  Philo  in  book  i., 
§  4  [i.  623],  see  Wendland  in  "Sitz(mgsbericht  der 
Berliner  Akademie,"  1897,  No.  xlix.  1-6. 

(c)  Philo  wrote  a  systematic  work  on  Moses  and 
his  laws,  which  was  jirefaced  bj^  the  treatise  "  De 
Opificio  Mundi,"  which  in  the  present  editions  pre- 
cedes "De  Allcgoriis  Legum,"  book  i.  (comp.  "De 
Abrahamo,"  §  1  [ii.  1],  with  "  De  Prsemiis  et  Poenis," 

§  1  [ii.  408]).  The  Creation  is,  according  to  Philo, 
the  basis  for  the  Mosaic  legislation,  wliich  is  in 
complete  harmony  with  nature  ("De  Opificio 
Mundi,"  ^  1  [i.  1]).  The  exposition  of  the  Law  then 
follows  in  two  sections.  First  come  the  biographies 
of  the  men  who  antedated  the  several  written  laws  of 
the  Torah,  as  Enos,  P^noch,  Noah,  Abraham,  Isaac, 
and  Jacob.  These  were  the  Patriarchs,  who  were 
the  living  impersonations  of  the  active  law  of  virtue 
before  there  were  any  written  laws.     Then  the  laws 

are  discussed  in  detail:   first  the  chief 

On  the       ten  commandments  (the   Decalogue), 

Patriarchs,  and  then  the  precepts  in  amplification 

of  each  law.  The  work  is  divided  info 
the  following  treatises:  (1)  "De  Opificio  Mundi" 
(comp.  Siegfried  in  "Zeitschrift  fiir  Wi.ssenschaft- 
liche  Theologie,"  1874,  pp.  562-565;  L.  Cohn's  im- 
portant separate  edition  of  this  treatise,  Breslau,  1889, 
preceded  the  edition  of  the  same  in  "'  Philonis  Alexan- 
drini,"  etc.,  1896,  i.).  (2)  "  De  Abrahamo,"  on  Abra- 
ham, the  representative  of  the  virtue  acquii-ed  by 
learning.  The  lives  of  Isaac  and  Jacob  have  been 
lost.  The  three  patriarchs  were  intended  as  types  of 
the  ideal  cosmopolitan  condition  of  the  world.  (3) 
"De  Josepho,"  the  life  of  Joseph,  intended  to  show- 
how  the  wise  man  must  act  in  the  actually  existing 
state.  (4)  "DeVita  Mosis,"  books  i.-iii.;  Schiirer, 
I.e.  p.  523,  combines  the  three  books  into  two;  but, 
as  Massebieau  shows  {I.e.  pp.  42  et  seq.),  a  passage, 
though  hardl}'  an  entire  book,  is  missing  at  the  end 
of  the  present  second  book  (Wendland.  in  "Hermes," 
xxxi.  440).  Schiirer  {I.e.  pp.  515,  524)  excludes  this 
work  here,  although  he  admits  that  from  a  literary 
point  of  view  it  fits  into  this  group ;  but  he  considers 
it  foreign  to  the  work  in  general,  since  Moses,  un- 
like the  Patriarchs,  can  not  be  conceived  as  a  uni- 
versally valid  type  of  moral  action,  and  can  not  be 
described  as  such.  The  latter  point  may  be  ad- 
mitted; but  the  question  still  remains  whether  it  is 
necessary  to  regard  the  matter  in  this  light.  It 
seems  most  natural  to  preface  the  discussion  of 
the  law  with  the  biography  of  the  legislator,  while 
the  tran.sition  from  Joseph  to  the  legislation,  from 
the  statesman  who  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  divine 
laws  to  the  discussion  of  these  laws  themselves,  is 
forced  and  abrupt.  Moses,  as  the  perfect  man, 
unites  in  himself,  in  a  way,  all  the  faculties  of  the 
patriarchal  types.  His  is  the  "most  pure  mind" 
("De  Mutatione  Nominum,"  37  [i.  610]),  he  is  the 
"lover  of  virtue,"  who  has  been  purified  from  all  pas- 
sions ("  De  Allegoriis  Legum, "  iii.  45,  48  [i.  1 1 3,  1 15]). 
As  the  person  awaiting  the  divine  revelation,  he  is 
also  specially  fitted  to  announce  it  to  others,  after 

having  received  it   in  the  form  of  the 

On  the       Commandments  (i7).  iii.  4  [i.  89 et  seq.]). 

Law.         (5)  "De  Decalogo,"  the  introductory 

treatise  to  the  chief  ten  command- 
ments of  the  Law.  (6)  "De  Specialibus  Legibus," 
in  which  treatise  Philo  attempts  to  systematize  the 
several  laws  of  the  Torah,  and  to  arrange  them  in 
conformity  with  the  Ten  Commandments.  To  the 
first  and  second  commandments  he  adds  the  laws 
relating  to  priests  and  sacrifices;  to  the  third  (mis- 
use of  the  name  of  God),  the  laws  on  oaths,  vows, 
etc. ;  to  the  fourth  (on  the  Sabbath),  the  laws  on 
festivals;  to  the  fifth  (to  honor  father  and  mother), 

Philo  JudeeuB 



the  laws  on  respect  for  parents,  old  age,  etc. ;  to  the 
sixth,  the  marriage  laws;  to  the  seventh,  the  civil 
and  criminal  laws;  to  the  eighth,  the  laws  on  theft; 
to  the  ninth,  the  laws  on  truthful  testifying;  and  to 
the  tenth,  the  laws  on  lust  (comp.  Stade-Holtzmann, 
"Gesch.  des  Volkes  Israel,"  1888,  ii.  535-545;  on 
Philo  as  iurtuenced  by  the  Halakah,  see  B.  liitter, 
"Philo  uud  die  Halacha,"  Leipsic,  1879,  and  Sieg- 
fried's review  of  the  same  in  the  "Jenaer  Litera- 
turzeitung,"  1879,  No.  35).  The  first  book  includes 
the  following  treatises  of  the  current  editions:  "De 
Circumcisioue " ;  "De  Monarchia,"  books  i.  and  ii. ; 
"De  Sacerdotum  Honoribus";  "De  Victimis."  On 
the  division  of  the  book  into  these  sections,  the  titles 
of  the  latter,  and  newly  found  sections  of  the  text, 
see  SchUrer,  I.e.  p.  517;  Wendland,  I.e.  pp.  136  et 
teq.  The  second  book  includes  in  the  editions  a  sec- 
tion also  entitled  "  De  Specialibus  Legibus  "  (ii.  270- 
277),  to  which  is  added  the  treatise  "  De  Septenario," 
which  is,  however,  incomplete  in  Mangey.  The 
greater  part  of  the  missing  portion  was  supplied, 
under  the  title  "  De  Cophini  Festo  et  de  Colendis 
Parentibus,"  by  Mai  (1818),  and  was  printed  in 
Richter's  edition,  v.  48-50,  Leipsic,  1828.  The  com- 
plete text  of  the  second  book  was  published  by 
Tischendorf  in  his  "Philonea"  (pp.  1-83).  The 
third  book  is  included  under  the  title  "De  Speciali- 
bus Legibus  "  in  ed.  Mangey,  ii.  299-334.  The  fourth 
book  also  is  entitled  "De  Specialibus  Legibus";  to 
it  the  last  sections  are  added  under  the  titles  "De 
Judice  "  and  ''  De  Concupiscentia  "  in  the  usual  edi- 
tions; and  they  include,  also,  as  appendix,  the  sec- 
tions "De  Justitia "  and  "De  Creatione  Princi- 
pum."  (7)  The  treatises  "De  Fortitudine,"  "  De 
Caritate,"  and  "  De  Poenitentia  "  are  a  kind  of  appen- 
dix to  "De  Specialibus  Legibus."  Schlirer  (^.c.  pp. 
519  [note  82],  520-522)  combines  them  into  a  special 
book,  which,  he  thinks,  was  composed  by  Philo. 
(8)  "De  Praemiis  et  Pconis"  and  "De  Execratione." 
On  the  connection  of  both  see  Schiirer,  I.e.  pp.  522 
et  seq.  This  is  the  conclusion  of  the  exposition  of 
the  Mosaic  law. 

Independent  Works:  (1)  "Quod  Omnis  Probus 
Liber,"  the  second  half  of  a  work  on  the  freedom  of 
the  just  according  to  Stoic  principles.  The  genu- 
ineness of  this  work  has  been  disputed  by  Frankel 
(in  "Monatsschrift,"  ii.  ^Oetseq.,  Qletseq.),  by  Gratz 
("Gesch."  iii.  464  et  seq.),  and  more  recently  by  Ans- 
feld(1887),  Hilgenfeld  (in  "Zeitschrift  fiir  Wissen- 
schaftliche  Theologie,"  1888,  pp.  49-71),  and  others. 
Now  Wendland,  Ohle,  Schiirer,  Massebieau,  and 
Krell  consider  it  genuine,  with  the  exception  of  the 
partly  interpolated  passages  on  the  Essenes.  (2) 
"  In  Flaccum  "  and  "  De  Legatione  ad  Caium,"  an  ac- 
count of  the  Alexandrian  persecution  of  the  Jews 
under  Caligula.  This  account,  consisting  originally 
of  five  books,  has  been  preserved  in  fragments  only 
(see  Schiirer,  I.e.  pp.  525  et  seq.).  Philo  intended  to 
show  the  fearful  punishment  meted  out  bj'^  God  to 
the  persecutors  of  the  Jews  (on  Philo's  predilection 
for  similar  discussions  .see  Siegfried,  "  Philo  von  Al- 
exandria," p.  157).  (3)  "De Providcntia,"  preserved 
only  in  Armenian,  and  printed  from  Aucher's  Latin 
translation  in  the  editions  of  Richter  and  others  (on 
Greek  fragments  of  tlie  work  see  Schnrer,  I.e.  pp. 
531  et  seq.).     (4)  "De  Animalibus"  (on  the  title  see 

Schiirer,  I.e.  p.  532;  in  Richter's  cd.  viii.  101-144). 
(5)  'TrrodeTiKd  ("Counsels"),  a  work  known  only 
through  fragments  in  Eusebius,  "  Pneparatio  Evan- 
gelica,"  viii.  6,  7.  The  meaning  of  the  title  is  open 
to  discussion;  it  may  be  identical  with  the  follow- 
ing (No.  G).  (6)  Hf/jt  'Iov6(iiuv,  an  apology  for  the 
Jews  (Schiirer,  I.e.  pp.  5d'2  et  seq.). 

For  a  list  of  the  lost  works  of  Philo  see  Schiirer, 
I.e.  p.  5:U. 

Other  Works  Ascribed  to  Philo  :  (1)  "  De  Vita  Con- 
templativa "'  (on  the  dilferent  titles  comp.  Schiirer, 
I.e.  p.  535).  This  work  describes  the  mode  of  life 
and  the  religious  festivals  of  a  society  of  Jewish 
ascetics,  who,  according  to  the  author,  are  widely 
scattered  over  the  eurtii,  and  are  found  especially 
in  every^  nome  in  Egypt.  The  writer,  however, 
confines  himself  to  describing  a  colony  of  hermits 
.settled  on  the  Lake  Mareotis  in  Egypt,  where  each 
lives  separately  in  his  own  dwelling.  Six  days 
of  the  week  they  spend  in  pious  contemplation, 
chiefly  in  connection  with  Scripture.  On  the  sev- 
enth day  both  men  and  women  assemble  together  in 
a  hall ;  and  the  leader  delivers  a  discourse  consist- 
ing of  an  allegorical  interpretation  of  a  Scriptural 
passage.  The  feast  of  the  fiftieth  day  is  especially 
celebrated.  The  ceremony  begins  with  a  frugal 
meal  consisting  of  bread,  salted  vegetables,  and 
water,  during  which  a  passage  of  Scripture  is  inter- 
preted. After  the  meal  the  members  of  the  society 
in  turn  sing  religious  songs  of  various  kinds,  to  which 
the  assembly  answers  with  a  refrain.  The  ceremony 
ends  with  a  choral  representation  of  the  triumphal 
festival  that  Moses  and  lyiiriam  arranged  after  the 
passage  through  the  Red  Sea,  the  voices  of  the  men 
and  the  women  uniting  in  a  choral  symphony^  until 
the  sun  rises.  Aftera  common  morning  prayer  each 
goes  home  to  resume  his  contemplation.  Such  is 
the  contemplative  life  (Sio^  deufjTjTiKdc)  led  by  these 
QepaTTEvrai  ("  servants  of  Yiiwh  "). 

The  ancient  Church  looked  upon  these  Therapeutoe 
as  disguised  Christian  monks.  This  view  has  found 
advocates  even  in  very  recent  times;  Lucius'  opin- 
ion particularly,  that  the  Christian  monkdom  of  the 
third  century  was  here  glorified  in  a  Jewish  disguise, 
was  widely  accepted  ("Die  Therapeuten,"  1879). 
But  the  ritual  of  the  society,  which  was  entirely^  at 
variance  with  Christianity,  disproves  this  view. 
The  chief  ceremony  especially,  the  choral  represen- 
tation of  the  passage  through  the  Red  Sea,  has  no 
special  significance  for  Christianity ;  nor  have  there 
ever  been  in  the  Christian  Church  nocturnal  festi- 
vals celebrated  by  men  and  women 
"DeVita  together.  But  Massebieau  ("Revue 
Contempla-  de  I'Histoire  des  Religions,"  1887,  xvi. 
tiva."  170  et  seq.,  284  et  seq.),  Conybeare 
("Philo  About  the  Contemplative 
Life,"  Oxford,  1895),  and  Wendland  ("Die  Thera- 
peuten," etc..  Leipsic,  1896)  ascribe  the  entire  work 
to  Philo,  basing  their  argument  wholly  on  linguistic 
reasons,  which  seem  sufficiently  conclusive.  But 
there  are  great  dissimilarities  between  the  funda- 
mental conceptions  of  the  author  of  the  "De  Vita 
Contemplativa "  and  those  of  Philo.  The  latter 
looks  upon  Greek  culture  and  philosophy  as  allies, 
the  former  is  hostile  to  Greek  philosophy  (see  Sieg- 
fried in  "  Protestantische  Kirchenzeitung,"  1896,  No. 



Philo  Judaeus 

42).  He  repudiates  a  science  that  numbered  among 
its  followers  the  sacred  baud  of  the  Pythagoreans, 
inspired  men  like  Parmenides,  Empedocles,  Zeno, 
Cleanthes,  lleraclitus,  and  Plato,  whom  Philo  prized 
("Quod  Ouuiis  Probus,"  i.,  ii. ;  "Quis  Rerum  Divi- 
narum  Heres  Sit,"  43;  "De  Providentia,"  ii.  42,  48, 
etc.).  He  considers  the  symposium  a  detestable, 
common  drinking-bout.  This  can  not  be  explained 
as  a  Stoic  diatribe ;  for  in  this  Philo  would  not 
have  repeated  it.  And  Philo  would  have  been  the 
last  to  interpret  the  Platonic  Eros  in  the  vulgar  way 
in  which  it  is  explained  in  the  "De  Vita  Contempla- 
tiva,"  7  [ii.  480],  as  he  repeatedly  uses  the  myth  of 
double  man  allegorically  in  his  interpretation  of 
Scripture  ("De  Opificio  Mundi,"  24;  "De  Allegoriis 
Legum,"  ii.  24).  It  must  furthermore  be  remem- 
bered that  Philo  in  none  of  his  other  works  men- 
tions these  colonies  of  allegorizing  ascetics,  in  which 
he  would  have  been  highly  interested  had  he  known 
of  them.  But  pupils  of  Philo  may  subsequently 
have  founded  near  Alexandria  similar  colonies  that 
endeavored  to  realize  his  ideal  of  a  pure  life  tri- 
umphing over  the  senses  and  passions;  and  they 
might  also  have  been  responsible  for  the  one-sided 
development  of  certain  of  the  master's  principles. 
While  Philo  desired  to  renounce  the  lusts  of  this 
world,  he  held  fast  to  the  scientific  culture  of  Hel- 
lenism, which  the  author  of  this  book  denounces. 
Although  Philo  liked  to  withdraw  from  the  world 
in  order  to  give  himself  up  entirely  to  contempla- 
tion, and  bitterly  regretted  the  lack  of  such  repose 
("De  Specialibus  Legibus,"  1  [ii.  299]),  he  did  not 
abandon  the  work  that  was  required  of  him  by  the 
welfare  of  his  people. 

(2)  "De  Incorruptibilitate  Mundi."  Since  the 
publication  of  I.  Bernays'  investigations  there  has 
been  no  doubt  that  this  work  is  spurious.  Its  Peri- 
patetic basic  idea  that  the  world  is  eternal  and  in- 
destructible contradicts  all  those  Jewish  teachings 
that  were  for  Philo  an  indisputable  presupposition. 
Bernays  has  proved  at  the  same  time  that  the  text 
has  been  confused  through  wrong  pagination,  and 
he  has  cleverly  restored  it  ("  Gesammelte  Abhand- 
lungen,"  1885,  i.  283-290;  "Abhandlungder  Berliner 
Akademie,"  1876,  Philosophical-Historical  Division, 
pp.  209-278;  ib.  1882,  sect.  iii.  82;  Von  Arnim,  I.e. 
pp.  1-52). 

(3)  "De  Mundo,"  a  collection  of  extracts  from 
Philo,  especially  from  the  preceding  work  (comp. 
Wendland,  "Philo,"  ii.,  pp.  vi.-x.).  (4)  "DeSamp- 
sone "  and  "De  Jona,"  in  Armenian,  published  with 
Latin  translation  by  Aucher.  (5)  "  Interpretatio 
Hebraicorum  Nominum,"  a  collection,  by  an  anony- 
mous Jew,  of  the  Hebrew  names  occurring  in  Philo. 
Origen  enlarged  it  by  adding  New  Testament 
names ;  and  Jerome  revised  it.  On  the  etymology  of 
names  occurring  in  Philo's  exegetical  works  .see  be- 
low. (6)  A  "Liber  Antiquitatum  Biblicarum," 
which  was  printed  in  the  sixteenth  century  and  then 
disappeared,  has  been  discussed  by  Cohn  in  "J.  Q. 
R."  1898,  X.  277-332.  It  narrates  Biblical  history 
from  Adam  to  Saul  (see  Schiirer,  l.r.  p.  542).  (7) 
The  pseudo-Philonic  "  Breviarium  Temporum,"  pub- 
lished by  Annius  of  Viterbo  (see  Schiirer,  I.e.  note 

His  Exegesis.     Cultural  Basis  :  Philo,  of  Jewish 

descent,  was  by  birth  a  Hellene,  a  member  of  one 
of  tiiose  colonies,  organized  after  the  conquests  of 
Alexander  the  Great,  that  were  dominated  by 
Greek  language  and  culture.  The  vernacular  of  colonies,  Hellenistic  Greek  proper,  was  every- 
wiiere  corrupted  by  idiotisms  and  solecisms,  and  in 
specifically  Jewish  circles  by  Hebraisms  and  Semi- 
tisms,  numerous  examples  of  which  are  found  in  the 
Septuagint,  the  Apocrypha,  and  the  New  Testa- 
ment. Tiie  educated  classes,  however,  had  created 
for  themselves  from  the  classics,  in  the  so-called 
KotvT/  Sid/.eKToc,  a  purer  medium  of  expression.  In 
the  same  way  Philo  formed  his  language  by  means 
of  extensive  reading  of  the  classics.  Scholars  at  an 
early  date  pointed  out  resemblances  to  Plato  (Suidas, 
s.v. ;  Jerome,  "  De  Scriptoribus  Ecclesiasticis,"  Cata- 
logue, S.V.).  But  there  are  also  expressions  and 
phrases  taken  from  Aristotle,  as  well  as  from  Attic 
orators  and  historians,  and  poetic  phrases  and  allu- 
sions to  the  poets.  Philo's  works  offer  an  anthology 
of  Greek  phraseology  of  the  most  different  periods; 
and  his  language,  in  consequence,  lacks  simplicity 
and  purity  (see  Treitel,  "De  Philonis  Judaei  Ser- 
mone,"  Breslau,  1870;  Jessen,  "De  Elocutione  Phi- 
lonis Alexandriui,"  1889). 

But  more  important  than  the  influence  of  the  lan- 
guage was  that  of  the  literature.  He  quotes  the 
epic  and  dramatic  poets  with  especial  frequency,  or 
alludes  to  passages  in  their  works.  He  has  a  wide 
acquaintance  with  the  works  of  the  Greek  philos- 
ophers, to  which  he  was  devoted,  owing  to  them  his 
real  scholarship,  as  he  himself  says  (see  "De  Con- 
gressu  Quaerendae  Eruditionis  Gratia,"  6  [i.  550]; 
"De  Specialibus  Legibus,"  ii.  229;  Deane,  "The 
Book  of  Wisdom,"  1881,  p.  12,  note  1).  He  holds 
that  the  highest  perception  of  truth  is  possible  only 
after  a  study  of  the  encyclopedic  sciences.  Hence 
his  system  throughout  shows  the  influence  of  Greek 
philosophy.  The  dualistic  contrast  between  God 
and  the  world,  between  the  finite  and  the  infinite, 
appears  also  in  Neo-Pythagorism.  The  influence 
of  Stoicism  is  unmistakable  in  the  doc- 
Influence  trine  of  God  as  the  only  efficient  cause, 
of  in  that  of  divine  reason  immanent  in 

Hellenism,  the  world,  in  that  of  the  powers  ema- 
nating from  God  and  suffusing  the 
world.  In  the  doctrine  of  the  Logos  various  ele- 
ments of  Greek  philosophy  are  united.  As  Heinze 
shows  ("Die  Lehre  vom  Logos  in  der  Griechischen 
Philosophic,"  1872,  pp.  204  et  seq.),  this  doctrine 
touches  upon  the  Platonic  doctrine  of  ideas  as  well 
as  the  Stoic  doctrine  of  the  yeviKurardv  ti  and  the 
Neo -Pythagorean  doctrine  of  the  type  that  served  at 
the  creation  of  the  world;  and  in  the  shaping  of  the 
/l(5yof  TOfiEvg  it  touches  upon  the  Heraclitean  doctrine 
of  strife  as  the  moving  principle.  Philo's  doctrine 
of  dead,  inert,  non-existent  matter  harmonizes  in  its 
essentials  with  the  Platonic  and  Stoic  doctrine.  His 
account  of  the  Creation  is  almost  identical  with  that 
of  Plato;  he  follows  the  hitter's  "Timseus"  pretty 
closely  in  his  exposition  of  the  world  as  having  no 
beginning  and  no  end ;  and,  like  Plato,  he  places  the 
creative  activity  as  well  as  the  act  of  creation  out- 
side of  time,  on  the  Platonic  ground  that  time  begins 
only  with  the  world.  The  influence  of  Pythago- 
rism  appears  in  the  numeral-symbolism,  to  which 

Philo  JudeeuB 



Philo  frequently  recurs.  The  Aristotcliau  contrast 
between  liivafii^  and  h-rc/.cxeta  ("Metaphysics,"  iii. 
73)  is  found  in  Philo,  "De  Allegoriis  Leguni,"  i.  64 
(on  Aristotle  see  Freudenthal  in  "Monatsschrift," 
1875.  p.  233).  In  his  psychology  he  adopts  cither  the 
Stoic  division  of  the  soul  into  eight  faculties,  or  the 
Platonic  trichotomy  of  reason,  courage,  and  desire, 
or  the  Aristotelian  triad  of  the  vegetative,  emotive, 
and  rational  souls.  The  doctrine  of  the  body  as  the 
source  of  all  evil  corresponds  entirely  with  the 
Neo-Pythagorean  doctrine:  the  soul  he  conceives  as 
a  divine  emanation,  similar  to  Plato's  vovg  (see 
Siegfried,  "Philo,"  pp.  189  et  seq.).  His  ethics  and 
allegories  are  based  on  Stoic  ethics  and  allegories. 
Although  as  a  philosopher  Philo  must  be  classed 
with  the  eclectics,  he  was  not  therefore  merely  a  com- 
piler. He  made  his  philosophy  the  means  of  de- 
fending and  justifying  the  Jewish  religious  truths. 
These  truths  he  regarded  as  fi.xed  and  determinate; 
and  philosophy  was  merely  an  aid  to  truth  and  a 
means  of  arriving  at  it.  With  this  end  in  view 
Philo  chose  from  the  philosophical  tenets  of  the 
Greeks,  refusing  those  that  did  not  harmonize  with 
the  Jewish  religion,  as,  e.g.,  the  Aristotelian  doc- 
trine of  the  eternity  and  indestructibility  of  the 

Although  he  devoted  himself  largely  to  the  Greek 
language  and  literature,  especially  Greek  philoso- 
phy, Philo's  national  Jewish  education  is  also  a  fac- 
tor to  be  taken  into  account.  While  he  read  the  Old 
Testament  chiefly  in  the  Greek  trans- 
His  Knowl-  lation,  not  deeming  it  necessary  to  use 

edge  of      the  Hebrew  te.xt  because  he  was  imder 

Hebrew,  the  wrong  impression  that  the  Greek 
corresponded  with  it,  he  nevertheless 
understood  Hebrew,  as  his  numerous  etymologies  of 
Hebrew  names  indicate  (see  Siegfried,  "Philonische 
Studien,"  in  Merx,  "Archiv  filr  Wissenschaftliche 
Erforschung  des  A.  T."  1871,  ii.  2,  143-168;  id^yn, 
"Hebraische  Worterklarungen  des  Philo  und  Ihre 
Einwirkung  auf  die  KirchenvSter,"  1863).  These 
etymologies  are  not  in  agreement  with  modern  He- 
brew philology,  but  are  along  the  lines  of  the  etymo- 
logic midrash  to  Genesis  and  of  the  earlier  rabbinism. 
His  knowledge  of  the  Halakah  was  not  profound. 
B.  Ritter,  however,  has  shown  (I.e.)  that  he  was 
more  at  home  in  this  than  has  been  generally  assumed 
(see  Siegfried's  review  of  Ritter's  book  in  "Jenaer 
Literaturzeituug,"  1879,  No.  35,  where  the  principal 
points  of  Philo's  indebtedness  to  the  Halakah  are 
enumerated).  In  the  Haggadah,  however,  he  was 
very  much  at  home,  not  only  in  that  of  the  Bible,  but 
especially  in  that  of  the  earlier  Palestinian  and  the 
Hellenistic  Midrash  (Frankel,  "Ueber  den  Einfluss 
der  Paliistinensischen  Exegese  auf  die  Alexaudri- 
nische  Hermeneutik,"  1851,  pp.  190-200;  SchUrer, 
I.e.  p.  540:  "De  Vita  Mosis,"  i.  1  [ii.  81]). 

His  Methods  of  Exegesis:  Philo  bases  his  doctrines 
on  the  Old  Testament,  which  he  considers  as  the 
source  and  standard  not  only  of  religious  truth  but 
in  general  of  all  truth.  Its  pronouncements  are  for 
him  divine  pronouncements.  They  are  the  words 
of  the  kpbr  ?.6}'n(,  ^cior  '/.dyo^,  bpdu^  }^yo^{"'  De  Agricul- 
turaNoe,"gl2[i.  308];  "  De  Somniis,"  i.  681,  ii.  25) 
uttered  sometimes  directly  and  sometimes  through 
the  mouth  of  a  prophet,  especially  through  Moses, 

wiiom  Philo  considers  the  real  medium  of  revelation, 
while  the  other  writers  of  the  Old  Testament  appear 
as  friends  or  pupils  of  Moses.  Although  he  distin- 
guishes between  the  words  uttered  by  God  Himself, 
as  the  Decalogue,  aud  the  edicts  of  Moses,  as  the 
special  laws  ("  De  Specialibus  Legibus,"  §§  2  et  seq. 
[ii.  ZQOet  seq.] ;  "  De  Pra?miis  et  Pa'nis,"§  1  [ii.  408]), 
he  does  not  carry  out  this  distinction,  since  he  be- 
lieves in  general  that  everything  in  the  Torah  is  of 
divine  origin,  even  the  letters  and  accents  ("  De  Mu- 
tatione  Nominum,"  §  8  [i.  587]).  The  extent  of  his 
canon  can  not  be  exactly  determined  (comp.  Horne- 
mann,  "  Observationes  ad  lUustrationem  Doctrin.t 
de  Canone  V.  T.  ex  Philone,"  1776;  B.  Pick. 
"Philo's  Canon  of  the  O.  T.,"  in  "Jour,  of  Excg. 
Society,"  1895,  pp.  126-143;  C.  Bissel,  "The  Canon 
of  the  O.  T.,"  in  " Bibliotheca  Sacra,"  Jan.,  1886.  pp. 
83-86;  and  the  more  recent  introductions  to  the  Old 
Testament,  especially  those  of  Buhl,  "Canon  and 
Text  of  the  O.  T. "  1891,  pp.  17,  43,  45 ;  Ryle,  "  Philo 
and  Holy  Script,"  1895,  pp.  xvi.-xxxv. ;  and  other 
references  in  Schilrcr,  I.e.  p.  547,  note  17).  He  does 
not  quote  Ezekiel,  Daniel,  Canticles,  Ruth,  Lamen- 
tations, Ecclesiastes,  or  Esther  (on  a  quotation  from 
Job  see  E.  Kautzsch,  "De  Locis  V.  T.  a  Paulo 
Apostolo  Allegatis,"  1869,  p.  69;  on  Philo's  manner 
of  quoting  see  Siegfried,  I.e.  p.  162).  Philo  regards 
the  Bible  as  the  source  not  only  of  religious  revela- 
tion, but  also  of  philosophic  truth;  for,  according 
to  him,  the  Greek  philosophers  also  have  borrowed 
from  the  Bible:  Heraclitus,  according  to  "Quis 
Rerum  Divinarum  Heres  Sit,"  §  43  [i.  503];  Zeno, 
according  to  "Quod  Omnis  Probus  Liber,"  §  8  [ii. 

Greek  allegory  had  preceded  Philo  in  this  field. 
As  the  Stoic  allegorists  sought  in  Homer  the  basis 
for  their  philosophic  teachings,  so  the  Jewish  alle- 
gorists, and  especially  Philo,  went  to  the  Old  Testa- 
ment.    Following  the  methods  of  Stoic  allegory, 

they  interpreted  the  Bible  philosoph- 

Stoic         ically  (on  Philo's  predecessors  In  the 

Influence,    domain    of    the  allegoristic   Midrash 

among  the  Palestinian  and  Alexan- 
drian Jews,  see  Siegfried,  I.e.  pp.  16-37).  Philo  bases 
his  hermeneutics  on  the  assumption  of  a  twofold 
meaning  in  the  Bible,  the  literal  and  the  allegorical 
(comp.  "Quod  Deus  Sit  Immutabilis,"  g  11  [i.  280]; 
"De  Somniis,"  i.  40  [i.  656]).  He  distinguishes  the 
pTiTTj  Kal  (pavepa  a7v66oaic  ("  De  Abrahamo,"  §  36  [ii.  29 
et  seq.]),  "ad  litteram"in  contrast  to  "allegorice" 
("  Quaestioues  in  Genesin,"  ii.  21).  The  two  inter- 
pretations, however,  are  not  of  equal  importance: 
the  literal  sense  is  adapted  to  human  needs;  but  the 
allegorical  sense  is  the  real  one,  which  only  the  ini- 
tiated comprehend.  Hence  Philo  addresses  himself 
to  the  iihtyTai  ("initiated  ")  among  his  audience,  by 
whom  he  expects  to  be  really  comprehended  ("  De 
Cherubim,"  §  14  [i.  47];  "De  Somniis,"  i.  33  [i. 
649]).  A  special  method  is  requisite  for  determin- 
ing the  real  meaning  of  the  words  of  Scripture 
("Canons  of  Allegory,"  "  De  VictimasOfferentibus," 
§  5  [ii.  255] ;  "Laws  of  Allegory,"  "  De  Abrahamo," 
§  15  [ii.  11]);  the  correct  application  of  this  method 
determines  the  correct  allegory,  and  is  therefore 
called  "the  wise  architect"  ("  De  Somniis,"  ii.  2  [i. 
660]).     As  a  result  of  some  of  these  rules  of  inter- 



Philo  JudaeuB 

prctatinn   the  literal  sense  of   certain   passages   of 
the  Bible  must  be  excluded  altogether;  e.g.,  passages 
in  which  according  to  a  literal  inter- 
Attitude      pretation  something  unworthy  is  said 
Toward      of  God ;  or  in  which  statements  are 
Literal       made  tlmt  are  unworthy  of  the  Bible, 
Meaning,     senseless,  contradictory,  or  inadmissi- 
ble; or  in   which  allegorical  expres- 
sions are  used  for  the  avowed  purpose  of  drawing 
the  reader's  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  literal  sense 
is  to  be  disregarded. 

There  are  in  addition  special  rules  that  not  only 
direct  the  reader  to  recognize  the  passages  wliich 
demand  an  allegorical  interpretation,  b>it  help  the 
initiated  to  find  the  correct  and  intended  meaning. 
These  passages  are  such  as  contain:  (1)  the  doubling 
of  a  phrase;  (2)  an  apparently  superfluous  ex- 
pression in  the  text;  (3)  the  repetition  of  statements 
previously  made;  (4)  a  change  of  phraseology — all 
these  phenomena  point  to  something  special  that  the 
reader  must  consider.  (5)  An  entirely  different 
meaning  may  also  be  found  by  a  different  combination 
of  the  words,  disregarding  the  ordinarily  accepted 
division  of  the  sentence  in  question  into  phrases 
and  clauses.  (6)  The  synon5Mns  must  be  carefully 
studied;  e.r/.,  why  Idbq  is  used  in  one  passage  and 
ykvoq  in  another,  etc.  (7)  A  play  upon  words  must  be 
utilized  for  finding  a  deeper  meaning;  e.y.,  sheep 
(■n-pSfiarov)  stand  for  progress  in  knowledge,  since 
they  derive  their  name  from  the  fact  of  their  pro- 
gressing (Trpofiaiveiv),  etc.  (8)  A  definite  allegorical 
sense  may  be  gathered  from  certain  particles,  ad- 
verbs, prepositions,  etc. ;  and  in  certain  cases  it 
can  be  gathered  even  from  (9)  the  parts  of  a  word ; 
e.g.,  from  rJm  in  6idXevKoq.  (10)  Every  word  must 
be  explained  in  all  its  meanings,  in  order  that 
different  interpretations  may  be  found.  (11)  The 
skilful  interpreter  may  make  slight  changes  in  a 
word,  following  the  rabbinical  rule,  "Read  not  so, 
but  so "  (Ber.  10a).  Philo,  therefore,  changed  ac- 
cents, breathings,  etc.,  in  Greek  words.  (12)  Any 
peculiarity  in  a  phrase  justifies  the  assumption  that 
some  special  meaning  is  intended;  e.g.,  where  iiia 
("  one  ")  is  used  instead  of  np6)Ti^  ("  first "  ;  Gen.  i.  5), 
etc.  Details  regarding  the  form  of  words  are  very 
important:  (13)  the  number  of  the  word,  if  it  show-s 
any  peculiarity  in  the  singular  or  the  plural;  the 
tense  of  the  verb,  etc. ;  (14)  the  gender  of  the 
noun;  (15)  the  presence  or  omission  of  the  article; 
(16)  the  artificial  interpretation  of  a  single  expres- 
sion ;  (17)  the  position  of  the  verses  of  a  passage ;  (18) 
peculiar  verse-combinations;  (19)  noteworthy  omis- 
sions; (20)  striking  statements;  (21)  numeral  sym- 
bolism. Philo  found  much  material  for  this  83'm- 
bolism  in  the  Old  Testament,  and  he  developed  it 
more  thoroughly  according  to  the  methods  of  the 
Pythagoreans  and  Stoics.  He  could  follow  in  many 
points  the  tradition  handed  down  by  his  allegorizing 
predecessors  ("Dc  Vita  Contemplativa,"  §  8  [ii. 

Philo  regards  the  singular  as  God's  number  and 
the  basis  for  all  numbers  ("De  Allegoriis  Legum," 
ii.  12  [i.  66]).  Two  is  the  number  of  schism,  of  that 
which  has  been  created,  of  death  ("De  Opificio 
Mundi,  §  9  [i.  7] ;  "  De  Allegoriis  Legum,"  i.  2  [i.  44] ; 
*'De  Somniis,"  ii.  10  [i.  688]).     Three  is  the  number 

of  the  bodyC'De  Allegoriis  Legum,"  i.  2  [i.  44]) 
or  of  the  Divine  Being  in  connection  with  His  fun- 
damental powers  ("  De  Sacrificiis  Abe- 
Views  on  lis  et  Caini,"  ^15  [i.  173]).  Four  is 
Numbers,  potentially  what  ten  is  actually,  the 
perfect  number  ("  De  Opificio  Mundi," 
^^  15,  16  [i.  10,  11],  etc.);  but  in  an  evil  sense 
four  is  the  number  of  the  passions,  Tr^af^T/  ("De  Con- 
gressu  Quserendtt;  Eruditionis  Gratia."  §  17  [i.  532]). 
Five  is  the  number  of  the  senses  and  of  sen.sibilitj' 
("De  Opificio  Mundi,"  §  20  [i.  14],  etc.).  Six,  the 
product  of  the  masculine  and  feminine  numbers  3x2 
and  in  its  parts  equal  to  3-f-3,  is  the  symbol  of  the 
movement  of  organic  beings  ("  De  Allegoriis  Legum, " 
i.  2  [i.  44]).  Seven  has  the  most  various  and  mar- 
velous attributes  ("  De  Opificio  Mundi,"  ^g  30-43  [i. 
21  et  seq.] ;  comp.  I.  G.  MQller,  "Philo  unddie  Welt- 
sch5pfung,"  1841,  p.  211).  Eight,  the  number  of  the 
cube,  has  many  of  the  attributes  determined  by  the 
Pythagoreans  ("  Quoestiones  in  Genesin,"  iii.  49  [i. 
223,  Aucher]).  Nine  is  the  number  of  strife,  ac- 
cording to  Gen.  xiv.  ("  De  Congressu  Q'u.  Eruditionis 
Gratia,"  §  17  [i.  532]).  Ten  is  the  number  of  per- 
fection ("  De  Plautatione  NoK,"  §  29  [i.  347]).  Philo 
determines  also  the  values  of  the  numbers  60,  70, 
and  100, 12,  and  120.  (22)  Finally,  the  symbolism  of 
objects  is  very  extensive.  The  numerous  and 
manifold  deductions  made  from  the  comparison  of 
objects  and  the  relations  in  which  they  stand  come 
very  near  to  confusing  the  whole  system,  this  being 
prevented  only  by  assigning  predominance  to  certain 
forms  of  comparison,  although  others  of  secondary 
importance  are  permitted  to  be  made  side  by  side 
with  them.  Philo  elaborates  an  extensive  symbol- 
ism of  proper  names,  following  the  example  of  the 
Bible  and  the  Midrash,  to  which  he  adds  manj'  new 
interpretations.  On  the  difference  between  the 
physical  and  ethical  allegory,  the  first  of  which 
refers  to  natural  processes  and  the  second  to  the 
psychic  life  of  man,  see  Siegfried,  I.e.  p.  197. 

Philo 's  teaching  was  not  Jewish,  but  was  derived 
from  Greek  philosophy.  Desiring  to  convert  it  into 
a  Jewish  doctrine,  he  applied  the  Stoic  mode  of  alle- 
goric interpretation  to  the  Old  Testament.  No  one 
before  Philo,. except  his  now  forgotten  Alexandrian 
predecessors,  had  applied  this  method  to  the  Old 
Testament — a  method  that  could  produce  no  lasting 
results.  It  was  attacked  even  in  Alexandria  ("  De 
Vita  Mosis,"  iii.  27  [ii.  168]),  and  disappeared  after 
the  brief  florescence  of  Jewish  Hellenism. 

His  Doctrine  of  God:  Philo  obtains  his  theol- 
ogy in  two  ways:  by  means  of  negation^nd  by  posi- 
tive assertions  as  to  the  nature  of  God  (comp.  Zeller, 
"Philosophie  der  Griechen,"  3d  ed.,  iii.,  §  2,  pp. 
353-360;  Drummond,  "Philo  Jud8eus,"ii.  1-64.  Lon- 
don, 1888).  In  his  negative  statement  he  tries  to 
define  the  nature  of  God  in  contrast  to  the  world. 
Here  he  can  take  from  the  Old  Testament  only  cer- 
tain views  of  later  Jewish  theology  regarding  God's 
sublimity  transcending  the  world  (Isa.  Iv.  9),  and 
man's  inability  to  behold  God  (Ex.  xxxii.  20  et  seq.). 
But  according  to  the  conception  that  predominates 
in  the  Bible  God  is  incessantly  active  in  the  world, 
is  filled  with  zeal,  is  moved  by  repentance,  and 
comes  to  aid  His  people ;  He  is,  therefore,  cntirelj' 
different  from  the  God  described  by  Philo.     Philo 

Fhilo  Judaens 



does  not  consider  God  similar  to  heaven  or  the  world 
or  man;  He  exists  neither  in  time  nor  space;  He  has 
no  human  attributes  or  emotions.  Indeed,  He  has 
no  attributes  whatever  (dT/otf),  and  in  consequence 
no  name  (a^pjyrof),  and  for  that  reason  he  can  not  be 
perceived  by  man  {aKara/j^-roi).  He  can  not  change 
(drpf^TTOf) :  He  is  always  the  s&me{ai6to().  He  needs 
no  other  being  {xp',K<^^  ov^evdc  'o  TopdTav),  and  is  self- 
sufficient  (eni-rCi  Uavdc).  He  can  never  perish  (aodap- 
Tof).  He  is  the  simply  existent  (6  uv,  to  dv),  and  as 
such  has  no  relations  with  any  other  being  (to  yap  ri 
6v  iariv  ovxi  tuv  ~p6q  ti). 

It  is  evident  that  this  is  not  the  God  of  the  Old 
Testament,  but  the  idea  of  Phito  designated  as  Geoc, 
in  contrast  to  matter.  Nothing  remained,  therefore, 
but  to  set  aside  the  descriptions  of  God  in  the  Old 
Testament  by  means  of  allegory.  Fhilo  character- 
izes as  A  monstrous  impiety  the  anthropomorphism 
of  the  Bible,  which,  according  to  the  literal  mean- 
ing, ascribes  to  God  hands  and  feet,  eyes  and  ears, 
tongue  and  windpipe  ("  De  Confusione  Linguarum," 
§  27  [i.  425]).  Scripture,  he  says,  adapts  itself  to 
human  conceptions  {ib.)\  and  for  pedagogic  reasons 
God  is  occasionally  represented  as  a  man  ("Quod 
Deus  Sit  Immutabilis,"  §  11  [i.  281]).  The  same 
holds  good  also  as  regards  His  anthropopathic  at- 
tributes. God  as  such  is  untouched  by  unreason- 
able emotions,  as  appears,  e.g.,  from  E.\.  ii.  12,  where 
Moses,  torn  by  his  emotions,  perceives  God  alone  to 
be  calm  ("'De  Allegoriis  Legum,"  iii.  12  [i.  943] ). 
He  is  free  from  sorrow,  pain,  and  all  such  affections. 
But  He  is  frequently  represented  as  endowed  with 
human  emotions;  and  this  serves  to  explain  expres- 
sions referring  to  His  repentance. 
Views  on  Similarly  God  can  not  exist  or  change 
Anthropo-  in  space.  He  has  no  "  where  "  (toi',  ob- 
mor-         tained  by  changing  the  accent  in  Gen. 

phisms.  iii.  9:  "Adam,  where  [ttov]  art  thou?"), 
is  not  in  any  place.  He  is  Himself  the 
place;  the  dwelling-place  of  God  means  the  same 
as  God  Himself,  as  in  the  Mishnah  ClpO  =:  "  God  is  " 
(comp.  Freudenthal,  "  Hellenistische  Studien,"  p. 
73),  corresponding  to  the  tenet  of  Greek  philosophy 
that  the  existence  of  all  things  is  summed  up  in  God 
(comp.  SchQrer,  "Der  Begriff  des  Himmelreichs," 
in  "Jahrbuch  fiir  Protestantisclie  Theologie,"  1876, 
i.  170).  The  Divine  Being  as  such  is  motionless,  as 
the  Bible  indicates  by  the  phrase  "God  stands" 
(Deut.  v.  31 ;  Ex.  xvii.  6).  It  was  difficult  to  har- 
monize the  doctrine  of  God's  namelessness  with  the 
Bible;  and  Philo  was  aided  here  by  his  imperfect 
knowledge  of  Greek.  Not  noticing  that  the  Sep- 
tuagint  translated  the  divine  name  Yiiwii  by  Kvfuoc, 
he  thought  himself  justified  in  referring  the  two 
names  Stof  and  Kipioc  to  the  two  supreme  divine 

Philo's  transcendental  conception  of  the  idea  of 
God  precluded  the  Creation  as  well  as  any  activity 
of  God  in  the  world;  it  entirely  separated  God  from 
man;  and  it  deprived  ethics  of  all  religious  basis. 
But  Philo,  who  was  a  pious  Jew,  could  not  accept 
the  un-Jewish,  pagan  conception  of  the  world  and 
the  irreligious  attitude  which  would  have  been  the 
logical  result  of  his  own  system ;  and  so  he  accepted 
the  Stoic  doctrine  of  the  immanence  of  God,  which 
led    him  to  statements  opposed    to  those  he  hud 

previously  made.  While  he  at  first  had  placed  God 
entirely  outside  of  the  world,  he  now  regarded  Him 
as  the  only  actual  being  therein.  God  is  the  only 
real  citizen  of  the  world ;  all  other  beings  are  merely 
sojourners  therein  ("De  Cherubim,"  i^  34  [i.  661]). 
While  God  as  a  transcendent  being  could  not 
operate  at  all  in  the  world,  He  is  now  considered 
as  doing  everything  and  as  the  only  cause  of  all 
things  ("De  Allegoriis  Legum,"  iii.  3  [i.  88]).  He 
creates  not  only  once,  but  forever  {ib.  i.  13  [i.  44]). 
He  is  identical  with  the  Stoic  "efficient  cause."  He 
is  impelled  to  activity  chiefly  by  His  goodness, 
which  is  the  basis  of  the  Creation.  God  as  creator 
is  called  Qe6c  (from  Tltiz/fn;  comp.  "De  Confusione 
Linguarum,"  §  27  [i.  425]).  This  designation  also 
characterizes  Him  in  conformity  with  His  goodness, 
because  all  good  gifts  are  derived  from  God,  but 
not  evil  ones.  Hence  God  must  call  upon  other 
powers  to  aid  Him  in  the  creation  of  man,  as  He 
can  have  nothing  to  do  with  matter,  which  con- 
stitutes the  physical  nature  of  man  :  with  evil 
He  can  have  no  connection ;  He  can  not  even  pun- 
ish it.  God  stands  in  a  special  relation  to  man. 
The  human  soul  is  God's  most  characteristic  work. 
It  is  a  reflex  of  God,  a  part  of  the  divine  reason, 
just  as  in  the  system  of  the  Stoics  the  human  soul  is 
an  emanation  of  the  World-Soul.  The  life  of  the 
soul  is  nourished  and  supported  b^'  God,  Philo  using 
for  his  illustrations  the  figures  of  the  light  and  the 
fountain  and  the  Biblical  passages  referring  to  these. 
Doctrine  of  the  Divine  Attributes :  Al- 
though, as  shown  above,  Philo  repeatedly  endeav- 
ored to  find  the  Divine  Being  active  and  acting  in 
the  world,  in  agreement  with  Stoicism,  yet  his  Pla- 
tonic repugnance  to  matter  predominated,  and  con- 
sequently whenever  he  posited  that  the  divine  could 
not  have  any  contact  with  evil,  he  defined  evil  as 
matter,  with  the  result  that  he  placed  God  outside 
of  the  world.  Hence  he  was  obliged  to  separate 
from  the  Divine  Being  the  activity  displayed  in  the 
world  and  to  transfer  it  to  the  divine  powers,  which 
accordingly  were  sometimes  inherent  in  God  and 
at  other  times  exterior  to  God.  This  doctrine,  as 
worked  out  by  Philo,  was  composed  of  very  differ- 
ent elements,  including  Greek  philosophy,  Biblical 
conceptions,  pagan  and  late  Jewish  views.  The 
Greek  elements  were  borrowed  partly  from  Platonic 
philosophy,  in  so  far  as  the  divine  powers  were  con- 
ceived as  types  or  patterns  of  actual  things  ("arche- 
typal ideas  "),  and  partly  from  Stoic  philosophy,  in  so 
far  as  powers  were  regarded  as  the  efficient 
causes  that  not  only  represent  the  types  of  things, 
but  also  produce  and  maintain  them.  Thej'  fill  the 
whole  world,  and  in  them  are  contained  all  being  and 
all  individual  things  ("De  Confusione  Linguarum," 
§  34  [i.  481]).  Philo  endeavored  to  harmonize  this 
conception  with  the  Bible  by  designating  these 
powers  as  angels  ("De  Gigantibus,"  §  2  [i.  263]; 
"De  Somniis,"  i.  22  [i.  641  et  seq.]),  whereby  he  des- 
troyed an  essential  characteristic  of  the  Biblical  view. 
He  further  made  use  of  the  pagan  conception  of 
demons  (ib.).  And  finally  he  was  influenced  by  the 
late  Jewish  doctrine  of  the  throne-chariot  (^£^•yo 
nSD'IO),  in  connection  with  which  he  in  a  way  de- 
taches one  of  God's  fundamental  powers,  a  point 
which  will  be  discussed  further  on.    In  the  Haggadah 



Fhilo  Judaeus 

this  fundainontal  power  dividi-s  into  two  contrasts, 
which  modify  each  other:  D^DHin  moi  ]nr[  mO- 
In  the  same  way  Philo  contrasts  the  two  divine  at- 
tributes of  goochiess  and  power  {ayadd-r/g  and  apx'/, 
(Vivdfiii  ;);ut)ia7iK//  and  avynoAaaTiKij).  They  are  also  ex- 
pressed in  the  names  of  God;  but  Philo's  explanation 
is  confusing.  "  Yiiwii  "  really  designates  God  as  the 
kind  and  merciful  one,  wiiile  "Elohim"  designates 
liim  as  the  just  one.  Philo,  however,  interpreted 
"Elohim"  (LXX.  Ofof)  as  designating  the  "cosmic 
power  "  ;  and  as  he  considered  tiie  Creation  the  most 
important  proof  of  divine  goodness,  he  found  the 
idea  of  goodness  especially  in  Qeoq  ("  De  Migratione 
Abrahami,"  ti,  '62  [i.  4G4]).  On  the  parallel  activity 
of  the  two  powers  and  the  symbols  used  therefor 
in  Scripture,  as  well  as  on  their  emanation  from 
God  and  their  further  development  into  new  pow- 
ers, their  relation  to  God  and  the  world,  their 
part  in  the  Creation,  their  tasks  toward  man,  etc., 
see  Siegfried,  "Philo,"  pp.  214-218.  Philo's  expo- 
sition here  is  not  entirely  clear,  as  he  sometimes  con- 
ceives the  powers  to  be  independent  hypostases  and 
sometimes  regards  them  as  immanent  attributes  of 
the  Divine  Being. 

The  Logos  :  Philo  considers  these  divine  powers 
in  their  totality  also,  treating  them  as  a  single 
independent  being,  which  he  designates  "Logos." 
This  name,  which  he  borrowed  from  Greek  philos- 
ophy, was  first  used  by  Heraclitus  and  then  adopted 
l)y  the  Stoics.  Philo's  conception  of  the  Logos  is 
influenced  by  both  of  these  schools.  From  Heracli- 
tus he  borrowed  the  conception  of  the  "dividing 
Logos"  {'Ao^oq  TOfievQ),  which  calls  the  various  objects 
into  existence  by  the  combination  of  contrasts  ("  Quis 
Rerum  Divinarum  Heres  Sit,"  §  43  [i.  503]),  and 
from  Stoicism,  the  characterization  of  the  Logos  as 
the  active  and  vivifying  power.  But  Philo  borrowed 
also  Platonic  elements  in  designating  the  Logos 
as  the  "idea  of  ideas"  and  the  "archetypal  idea" 
("  De  Migratione  Abrahami,"  §  18  [i.  4o2] ;  "Dc  Spe- 
cialibus  Legibus,"  §  36  [ii.  333]).  There  are,  in  ad- 
dition. Biblical  elements:  there  are  Biblical  passages 
in  which  the  word  of  Yiiwii  is  regarded  as  a  power 
acting  independently  and  existing  by  itself,  as 
Isa.  Iv.  11  (comp.  Matt.  x.  13;  Prov.  xxx.  4);  these 
ideas  were  further  developed  by  later  Judaism  in 
the  doctrines  of  the  Divine  Word  creating  the  world, 
the  divine  throne-chariot  and  its  cherub,  the  divine 
splendor  and  its  shekinali,  and  tlie  name  of  God  as 
well  as  the  names  of  the  angels ;  and  Philo  borrowed 
from  all  these  in  elaborating  his  doctrine  of  the 
Logos.  He  calls  the  Logos  the  "archangel  of  many 
names,"  "taxiarch"  (corps-commander),  the  "name 
of  God,"  also  the  "heavenly  Adam"  (comp.  "De 
Confusione  Linguarum,"  tij  11  [i.  41  Ij),  the  "man, 
the  word  of  the  eternal  God."  The  Logos  is  also 
designated  as  "high  priest,"  in  reference  to  the  ex- 
alted position  which  the  high  priest  occupied  after 
the  Exile  as  the  real  center  of  the  Jewish  state. 
The  Logos,  like  the  high  priest,  is  the  expiator  of 
sins,  and  the  mediator  and  advocate  for  men:  iKerriq 
("Quis  Rerum  Divinarum  Hercs  Sit,"  §  42  [i.  501], 
and  -apnK?j/Toq  ("De  Vita  Mosis,"  iii.  14  [ii.  155]). 
From  Alexandrian  theology  Philo  borrowed  the  idea 
of  wisdom  as  the  mediator;  he  thereby  somewhat 
confused  his  doctrine  of  the  Logos,  regarding  wis- 

dom as  the  higher  jjrinciple  from  which  the  Logos 
proceeds,  and  again  coordinating  it  with  the  latter. 
Philo,  in  connecting  his  doctrine  of  the  Logos 
with  Scripture,  first  of  all  bases  on  Gen.  i.  27  the  re- 
lation of  the  Logos  to  God.     He  trans- 
Relation  of  lates  this  passage  as  follows:    "lie 
the  Logos    made  man  after  the  image  of  God," 
to  God.       concluding  therefrom  that  an  image 
of  God  existed.     This  image  of  God 
is  the  type  for  all  other   things  (the  "Archetypal 
Idea  "  of  Plato),  a  seal  impressed  upon  things.     The 
Logos  is  a  kind  of  shadow  cast  by  God,  having  the 
oiitiines  but  not  the  blinding  light  of  the  Divine 

The  relation  of  the  Logos  to  the  divine  powers, 
especiall}'  to  the  two  fundamental  powers,  must 
now  be  examined.  And  here  is  found  a  twofold 
series  of  exegetic  expo.sitions.  According  to  one, 
the  Logos  stands  higher  than  the  two  powers ;  ac- 
cording to  the  otlier,  it  is  in  a  way  the  product  of 
the  two  i)owers;  similarly  it  occasionally  appears 
as  the  chief  and  leader  of  the  innumerable  powers 
proceeding  from  the  primal  powers,  and  again  as 
the  aggregate  or  product  of  them.  In  its  relation 
to  the  world  the  Logos  appears  as  the  universal 
substance  on  which  all  things  depend  ;  and  from  this 
point  of  view  the  manna  (as  yeviK<l)TaT6v  -i)  becomes 
a  symbol  for  it.  The  Logos,  however,  is  not  only 
the  archetype  of  things,  but  also  the  power  that 
produces  thefn,  appearing  as  such  especially  under 
the  name  of  the  Logos  -o/zf ;?  (" the  divider").  It 
separates  the  individual  beings  of  nature  from  one 
another  according  to  their  characteristics;  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  it  constitutes  the  bond  connecting  the 
individual  creatures,  uniting  their  spiritual  and 
phj^sical  attributes.  It  may  be  said  to  have  in- 
vested itself  with  the  whole  world  as  an  inde- 
structible garment.  It  appears  as  the  director  and 
shepherd  of  the  things  in  the  world 
Pneuma-  in  so  far  as  they  are  in  motion.  The 
tology.  Logos  has  a  special  relation  to  man. 
It  is  the  type ;  man  is  the  coi)y.  The 
similarity  is  found  in  the  mind  (volx)  of  man.  For 
the  shaping  of  his  nous,  man  (earthly  man)  has  the 
Logos  (the  "heavenly  man")  for  a  pattern.  The 
latter  officiates  here  also  as  "the  divider"  (rofievg), 
separating  and  uniting.  The  Logos  as  "  interpreter  " 
announces  God's  designs  to  man,  acting  in  this 
respect  as  prophet  and  priest.  As  the  latter,  he 
softens  punishments  by  making  the  merciful  power 
stronger  than  the  punitive.  The  Logos  has  a  spe- 
cial mystic  influence  upon  the  human  soul,  illu- 
minating it  and  nourishing  it  with  a  higher  spiritual 
food,  like  the  manna,  of  which  the  smallest  piece  has 
the  same  vitality  as  the  whole. 

Cosmology  :  Philo's  conception  of  the  matter 
out  of  which  the  world  was  created  is  entirely  un- 
Biblical  and  un-Jewish;  he  is  here  wholly  at  one 
with  Plato  and  the  Stoics.  According  to  him,  God 
does  not  create  the  world-stuff,  but  finds  it  ready 
at  hand.  God  can  not  create  it,  as  in  its  nature  it 
resists  all  contact  with  the  divine.  Sometimes,  fol- 
lowing the  Stoics,  he  designates  God  as  "tlieetticient 
cause, "  and  matter  as  "  the  affected  cause. "  He 
seems  to  have  found  this  conception  in  the  Bible 
(Gen.  i.  2)  in  the  image  of  the  spirit  of  God  hover- 

Philo  Judaeus 



ing  over  the  waters  ("De  Opificio  Mundi,"  §  2  [i. 
12]).  On  the  connection  of  these  doctrines  with  the 
speculations  on  the  n'K'Kia  n\r]}^.  see  Siegfried.  I.e. 
pp.  230  et  8fq. 

Philo.  again  like  Plato  and  the  Stoics,  conceives 
of  matter  as  having  no  attributes  or  form;  this, 
however,  does  not  harmonize  with  the  assumption 
of  four  elements.  Philo  conceives  of  matter  as  evil, 
on  the  ground  that  no  praise  is  meted  out  to  it  in 
Genesis  ("Quis  Rerum  Divinarum  Heres  Sit,"  §  32 
[i.  49.^]).  As  a  result,  he  can  not  posit  an  actual 
Creation,  but  only  a  formation  of  the  world,  as  Plato 
holds.     God  appears  as  demiurge  and  cosmoplast. 

Philo  frequently  compares  God  to  an  architect  or 
gardener,  who  formed  the  present  world  (the  Koafio^ 
a/ffi^vrtif  )accordiug  to  a  pattern,  the  ideal  world  (Koa/unc 
:■■-■<).  Philo  takes  the  details  of  his  story  of  the 
Creation  entirely  from  Gen.  i.  A  specially  impor- 
tant position  is  assigned  here  to  the  Logos,  which 
executes  the  several  acts  of  the  Creation,  as  God 
can  not  come  into  contact  with  matter,  actually 
creating  only  the  soul  of  the  good. 

Anthropology.  The  Doctrine  of  Man  as  a  Nat- 
ural Being  :  Philu  regards  the  physical  natuie  of  man 
as  something  defective  and  as  an  obstacle  to  his  de- 
velopment that  can  never  be  fully  surmounted,  but 
still  as  something  indispensable  in  view  of  the 
nature  of  his  being.  With  the  body  the  necessity 
for  food  arises;  as  Philo  explains  in  various  alle- 
gories. The  body,  however,  is  also  of  advantage 
to  the  spirit,  since  the  spirit  arrives  at  its  knowledge 
of  the  world  by  means  of  the  five  senses.  But 
higher  and  more  important  is  the  spiritual  nature  of 
man.  This  nature  has  a  twofold  tendency:  one 
toward  the  sensual  and  earthly,  which  Philo  calls 
sensibilit}'  (aia^/juig),  and  one  toward  the  spiritual, 
which  he  calls  reason  (voix).  Sensibility  has  its  seat 
in  the  body,  and  lives  in  the  senses,  as  Philo  elabo- 
rates in  varying  allegoric  imagery.  Connected  with 
this  corporealit)^  of  the  sensibility  are  its  limitations; 
but,  like  the  body  itself,  it  is  a  necessity  of  nature, 
the  channel  of  all  sense-perception.  Sensibility, 
however,  is  still  more  in  need  of  being  guided  by 
rea.son.  Reason  is  that  part  of  the  spirit  whicli 
looks  toward  heavenly  things.  It  is  the  highest, 
the  real  divine  gift  that  has  been  infused  into  man 
from  without  (" De  Opiticio  Mundi,"  i.  15;  "De  Eo 
Quod  Deterius  Potiori  Insidiatur,"  i.  206);  it  is  the 
masculine  nature  of  the  soul.  The  voi;f  is  originally 
at  rest;  and  when  it  begins  to  move  it  produces  the 
several  phenomena  of  mind  ih^vfiT/nnra).  The  prin- 
cipal powers  of  the  voif  are  judgment,  memory, 
and  language. 

Man  as  a  Moral  Being  :  More  important  in  Philo 's 
system  is  the  doctrine  of  the  moral  development  of 
man.  Of  this  he  distinguishes  two  conditions:  (1) 
that  before  time  was,  and  (2)  that  since  the  begin- 
ning of  time.  In  the  pretemporal  condition  the 
soul  was  without  body,  free  from  earthly  matter, 
■without  sex,  in  the  condition  of  the  generic  (yeviKoc) 
nmn,  morally  perfect,  i.e.,  without  flaws,  but  still 
striving  after  a  higher  purit}'.  On  entering  upon 
time  the  soul  loses  its  punt)'  and  is  confined  in  a 
bodj'.  The  nous  becomes  earthly,  but  it  retains  a 
tendency  toward  something  higher.  Philo  is  not 
entirely  certain  whether  the  body  in  itself  or  merely 

in  its  preponderance  over  the  spirit  is  evil.  But 
the  body  in  any  case  is  a  source  of  danger,  as  it 
easily  drags  the  spirit  into  the  bonds  of  sensibility. 
Here,  also,  Philo  is  undecided  whether  sensibility  is 
in  itself  evil,  or  whether  it  may  merely  lead  into 
temptation,  and  must  itself  be  regarded  as  a  mean 
(/ifffov).  Sensibility  in  any  case  is  the  source  of  the 
passions  and  desires.  The  passions  attack  the  sensi- 
bility in  order  to  destroj'  the  whole  soul.  On  their 
numberand  their  sj'mbolsin  Scripture  see  Siegfried, 
I.e.  pp.  245  et  seq.  The  "desire  "is  either  the  lustful 
enjoyment  of  sensual  things,  dwelling  as  such  in  the 
abdominal  cavity  (Koi?Ja),  or  it  is  the  craving  for  this 
enjoyment,  dwelling  in  the  breast.  It  connects  the 
nous  and  the  sensibility,  this  being  a  psychologic 
necessity,  but  an  evil  from  an  ethical  point  of  view. 

According  to  Philo,  man  passes  through  .several 
steps  in  his  ethical  development.  At  first  the  sev- 
eral elements  of  the  human  being  are  in  a  state  of 
latency,  presenting  a  kind  of  moral  neutrality  whicli 
Philo  designates  by  the  terms  "naked  "  or  "medial." 
The  nous  is  nude,  or  stands  midway  so  long  as  it 
has  not  derided  either  for  sin  or  for  virtue.  In  this 
period  of  moral  indecision  God  endeavors  to  prepare 
the  earthly  nous  for  virtue,  presenting  to  him  in  the 
"earthly  wisdom  and  virtue"  an  image  of  heavenly 
wisdom.  But  man  (nous)  quickly  leaves  this  state 
of  neutrality.  As  soon  as  he  meets  the  woman 
(sensibility)  he  is  filled  with  desire,  and  passion  en- 
snares him  in  the  bonds  of  sensibility.  Here  the 
moral  duties  of  man  arise;  and  according  to  his  at- 
titude there  are  two  opposite  teadencies  in  hu- 

Ethics.  Sensual  Life :  The  soul  is  first  aroused 
by  the  stimuli  of  sensual  pleasures;  it  begins  to  turn 
toward  them,  and  then  becomes  more  and  more  in- 
volved. It  becomes  devoted  to  the  body,  and  begins 
to  lead  an  intolerable  life  {tiiog  a,3iuToc).  It  is  inflamed 
and  excited  by  irrational  impulses.  Its  condition  is 
restless  and  painful.  The  sensibility  endures,  ac- 
cording to  Gen.  iii.  16,  great  pain.  A  continual 
inner  void  produces  a  lasting  desire  which  is  never 
satisfied.  All  the  higher  aspirations  after  God 
and  virtue  are  stifled.  The  end  is  complete  moral 
turpitude,  the  annihilation  of  all  sense  of  dut}',  the 
corruption  of  the  entire  soul:  not  a  particle  of  the 
soul  that  might  heal  the  rest  remains  whole.  The 
worst  consequence  of  this  moral  death  is,  according 
to  Philo,  absolute  ignorance  and  the  loss  of  the 
power  of  judgment.  Sensual  things  are  placed 
above  spiritual;  and  wealth  is  regarded  as  the  high- 
est good.  Too  great  a  value  especially  is  placed 
upon  the  human  nous;  and  things  are  wrongly 
judged.  Man  in  his  folly  even  opposes  God,  and 
thinks  to  scale  heaven  and  subjugate  the  entire 
earth.  In  the  field  of  politics,  for  example,  he  at- 
tempts to  rise  from  the  position  of  leader  of  the 
people  to  that  of  ruler  (Philo  cites  Joseph  as  a  type 
of  this  kind).  Sensual  man  generally  employs  his 
intellectual  powers  for  sophistry,  perverting  words 
and  destroying  truth. 

Ascent  to  Reasons  Abraham,  the  "immigrant,"  is 
the  symbol  of  man  leaving  sensuality  to  turn  to 
reason  ("De  Migratione  Abrahami,"  §  4  [i.  439]). 
There  are  three  methods  whereby  one  can  rise  toward 
the  divine:    through    teaching,    through    practise 



Philo  Judaeus 

(uaKTjaic),  and  througli  natural  goodness  (ooioTijg). 
On  Philo's  predecessors  on  this  point  see  Siegfried, 
I.e.  p.  257. 

The  metliod  through  teaching  begins  Avith  a  pre- 
liminary presentiment  and  hope  of  higher  knowl- 
edge, Avhich  is  especially  exemplified  in  Enos.  The 
real  "teaching"  is  represented  in  the  case  of  Abra- 
ham, the  "  lover  of  learning."  The  pupil  has  to  pass 
througli  three  stages  of  instruction.  The  first  is  that 
of  "physiolog}',"  during  which  physical  nature  is 
studied.  Abraham  was  in  this  stage  until  he  went  to 
Ha  ran ;  at  this  time  he  was  the  "  physiologer  "  of  na- 
ture, the  "meteorologer. "  Recognizing  his  short- 
comings, he  went  to  Ilaran,  and  turned  to  the  study 
of  the  spirit,  devoting  himself  at  first  to  the  prepara- 
tory learning  that  is  furnished  by  general  education 
{iyKiK/.to^  :vai6cia);  this  is  most  completely  anah'zed 
by  Philo  in  "De  Congre.ssu  Quaerendie  Eruditionis 
Gratia,"  §  3  [i.  520].  The  pupil  must  study  gram- 
mar, geometry,  astronomy,  rhetoric,  music,  and 
logic;  but  he  can  never  attain  to  more  than  a  partial 
mastery  of  these  sciences,  and  this  only  -with  the 
utmost  labor..  He  reaches  only  the  boundaries  of 
knowledge  (eTrtarT/fir/)  proper,  for  the  "soul's  irra- 
tional opinions"  still  follow  him.  He  sees  only  the 
reflection  of  real  science.  The  knowledge  of  the 
medial  arts  (/leaai  Tex^nt)  ofter^  proves  erroneous. 
Hence  the  "lover  of  learning  "  will  endeavor  to  be- 
come a  "wise  man."  Teaching  will  have  for  its 
highest  stage  philosophy,  which  begins  to  divide 
the  mortal  from  the  immortal,  finite  knowledge  from 
infinite  knowledge.  The  tendency  toward  the  sen- 
suous is  given  up,  and  the  insufficiency  of  mere 
knowledge  is  recognized.  He  perceives  that  wisdom 
{ao(pi(i)  is  something  higher  than  sophistry  {ao(piaTEia) 
and  that  the  only  subject  of  contemplation  for  the 
wise  is  ethics.  He  attains  to  possession  (kytjoic)  and 
use  ixPV'^i-i) ;  and  at  the  highest  stage  he  beholds 
heavenly  things,  even  the  Eternal  God  Himself. 

By  the  method  of  practise  man  strives  to  attain  to 
the  highest  good  by  means  of  moral  action.  The 
preliminary  here  is  change  of  mind  (/leravota),  the 
turning  away  from  the  sensual  life.  This  turning 
away  is  symbolized  in  Enoch,  Avho,  according  to 
Gen.  v.  24,  "  was  not."  Rather  than  undertake  to  en- 
gage in  the  struggle  with  evil  it  is  better  for  man  to 
escape  therefrom  by  running  away.  He  can  also 
meet  the  passions  as  an  ascetic  combatant.  Moral 
endeavor  is  added  to  the  struggle.  Many  dangers 
arise  here.  The  body  (Egypt),  sensuality  (Laban 
and  others),  and  lust  (the  snake)  tempt  the  ascetic 
warrior.  The  sophists  (Cain,  etc.)  try  to  lead  him 
astray.  Discouraged  by  his  labors,  the  ascetic 
flags  in  his  endeavors;  but  God  comes  to  his  aid,  as 
exemplified  in  Eliezer,  and  fills  him  with  love  of 
labor  instead  of  hatred  thereof.  Thus  the  warrior 
attains  to  victor}'.  He  slays  lust  as  Phinehas  slays 
the  snake;  and  in  this  way  Jacob  ("he  who  trips 
up"),  the  wrestling  ascetic,  is  transformed  into 
Israel,  who  beholds  God. 

Good  moral  endowment,  however,  takes  prece- 
dence of  teaching  and  practise.  Virtue  here  is  not 
the  result  of  hard  labor,  but  is  the  excellent  fruit 
maturing  of  itself.  Noah  represents  the  prelimi- 
nary stage.  He  is  praised,  while  no  really  good  deeds 
are  reported  of  him,  whence  it  may  be  concluded 

that  the  Bible  refers  to  his  good  disposition.  But 
as  Noah  is  praised  only  in  comparison  with  his 
contemporaries,  it  follows  that  he  is  not  yet  a  per- 
fect n)an.  There  are  several  types  in  the  Bible  rep- 
resenting the  perfect  stage.  It  appears  in  its  purest 
form  in  Isaac.  He  is  perfect  from  the  beginning: 
perfection  is  a  part  of  his  nature  (cpvai^);  and  he  can 
never  lose  it  (av-r/Koog  kuI  airofxadr/c).  With  such  per- 
sons, therefore,  the  soul  is  in  a  state  of 
Views  on  rest  and  joy.  Philo's  doctrine  of  vir- 
Virtue.  tue  is  Stoic,  although  he  is  undecided 
whether  complete  dispassionateness 
{cnrd'dEia;  "  De  Allegoriis  Legum,"  iii.  45  [i.  513])  or 
moderation  {fiETpio-^a^elv;  "De  Abrahamo,"  §  44  [ii. 
137])  designates  the  really  virtuous  condition.  Philo 
identifies  virtue  in  itself  and  in  general  with  divine 
wisdom.  Hence  he  uses  the  symbols  interchange- 
ably for  both ;  and  as  he  also  frequently  identifies 
the  Logos  with  divine  wisdom,  the  allegoric  desig- 
nations here  too  are  easily  interchanged.  The  Gar- 
den of  Eden  is  "  the  wisdom  of  God  "  and  also  "  the 
Logos  of  God  "  and  "  virtue."  The  fundamental  vir- 
tue is  goodness;  and  from  it  proceed  four  cardinal 
virtues — prudence,  courage,  self-control,  and  justice 
(<pp6vr/aig,  dvdpia,  au<ppo<svvri,  diKaioavvt)) — as  the  four 
rivers  proceed,  from  the  river  of  Eden.  An  essential 
difference  between  Philo  and  the  Stoics  is  found  in 
the  fact  that  Philo  seeks  in  religion  the  basis  for  all 
ethics.  Religion  helps  man  to  attain  to  virtue, 
which  he  can  not  reach  of  himself,  as  the  Stoics 
hold.  God  must  implant  virtue  in  man  ("De  Alle- 
goriis Legum,"  i.  53  [i.  73]).  Hence  the  goal  of  the 
ethical  endeavor  is  a  religious  one:  the  ecstatic  con- 
templation of  God  and  the  disembodiment  of  souls 
after  death. 

Hellenistic  Judaism  culminated  in  Philo,  and 
through  him  exerted  a  deep  and  lasting  influence  on 
Christianity  also.  For  the  Jews  themselves  it  soon 
succumbed  to  Palestinian  Judaism.  The  develop- 
ment that  ended  in  the  Talmud  offered  a  surer  guar- 
anty for  the  continuance  of  Judaism,  as  opposed  to 
paganism  and  rising  Christianity,  than  Jewish  Hel- 
lenism could  promise,  which,  with  all  its  loyalty  ta 
the  laws  of  the  Fathers,  could  not  help  it  to  an  inde- 
pendent position.  The  cosmopolitanism  of  Chris- 
tianity soon  swept  away  Hellenistic  Judaism,  which 
could  never  go  so  far  as  to  declare  the  Law  super- 
fluous, notwithstanding  its  philosophic  liberality. 
(For  the  extent  and  magnitude  of  Philo's  influence 
on  Judaism  and  Christianity  see  Siegfried,  I.e.  pp. 

Bidliography:  Schurer.  Gesch.;  Siegfried,  P7n7o  vnn  Alex- 
andria, etc.,  1875.  On  the  Greek  MSS.  of  Philo's  extant 
works:  Schurer,  I.e.  lil.  493,  note  26;  Cohn-Wendland,  P/it- 
loni.s  Alexandnni  Opera  Qiiw  Supermnt,  vol.  i..  pp.  1.- 
cxiv.;  vol. )!.,  pp.  i.-xxxiv.;  vol.  iii.,  pp.  l.-xxil.  On  the  indi- 
rect sources  that  may  be  used  for  reconstructing  the  text: 
Schurer,  i.e.  pp.  ■t94c(.<eq.,notes28,29.  On  tninslationsof  Phi- 
lo's works  :  Schurer,  I.e.  p.  496.  note  30:  Cohn-Wendland.  I.e. 
vol.  i.,  pp.  Ixxx.etseq.  Other  German  translations  :  M.J  [est], 
Philox  (iemmmelte  Schriften  Ucbcraetztyheipsic,  18.^)6-73; 
M.  Friedlander,  Ueher  die  Philanthropie  ties  Mosaischen 
Gesetzes,  Vienna,  1880. 
T.  C.    S. 

-His  Relation  to  the  Halakah  :    Philo's  rela- 

tion to  Palestinian  exegesis  and  exposition  of  the 
Law  is  twofold :  that  of  receiver  and  that  of  giver. 
While  his  method  of  interpretation  was  influenced 
by  the  Palestinian  Midrash,  he  in  his  turn  influenced 

Philo  Judaeus 



this  Midrash ;  for  many  of  bis  ideas  were  adopted 
by  Palestinian  scliolai-s,  and  are  still  found  scattered 
throughout  the  Talmud  and  the  Midrashim.  The 
Palestinian  Halakah  was  probably  known  in  Alexan- 
dria even  before  the  time  of  Philo,  and  was  appar- 
ently introduced  by  Judah  b.  Tabbui,  or  Joshua  b. 
Penihyah.  who  tied  from  the  persecutions  of  Hyr- 
canus  to  Alexandria,  where  he  remained  for  some 
time.  Philo  had,  moreover,  the  opportunity  of 
studyiun  Palestinian  exegesis  in  its  home;  for  he 
visiteil  Jerusalem  once  or  twice,  and  at  these  times 
could  communicate  his  views  and  his  method  of 
exegesis  to  the  Palestinian  scholars.  Furthermore, 
later  teachers  of  the  Law  occasionally  visited  Alex- 
andria, among  tliem  Joshua  b.  Hananiah  (comp. 
Niddah  (j9b);  and  these  carried  various  Philonic 
ideas  back  to  Palestine.  The  same  expositions  of 
the  Law  and  the  same  Biblical  exegesis  are  very 
frequently  found,  therefore,  in  Philo  and  in  the 
Talmud  and  3Iidrashim.  The  only  means  of  as- 
certaining Philo's  exact  relation  to  Palestinian 
exegesis  lies  in  the  determination  of  the  priority  of 
one  of  two  parallel  passages  found  in  both  authori- 
ties. In  the  solution  of  such  a  problem  a  distinction 
must  first  be  drawn  between  the  Halakah  and  the 

With  regard  to  the  Halakah,  which  originated  in 
Palestine,  it  may  be  assumed  with  certainty  that  the 
interpretations  and  expositions  found  in  Pliilo  which 

coincide  with  those   of  the  Halakah 

His  Debt      have  been  borrowed  b}'  him  from  the 

to  the        latter;  and  his  relation  to  it  is,  therc- 

Halakah,     fore,  only  that  of  the  recipient.     Any 

influence  which  he  may  have  exercised 
upon  it  can  have  been  only  a  negative  one,  inasmuch 
as  he  aroused  the  opposition  of  Palestinian  scholars 
by  many  of  liis  interpretations,  and  inspired  them 
to  controvert  him.  Tlie  following  examples  may 
serve  to  elucidate  his  relation  to  the  Halakah:  Philo 
says  (•'  De  Specialibus  Legibus,"  ed.  Leipsic,  §  13,  ed. 
ilange}'  [cited  hereafter  as  M.],  312),  in  interpreting 
Deut.  xxii.  23-27,  that  the  distinction  made  in  the 
Law  as  to  whether  the  violence  was  offered  in  the 
city  or  in  the  field  must  not  be  taken  literally,  the 
point  being  whether  the  girl  cried  for  help  and  could 
have  found  it,  without  reference  to  the  place  where 
she  was  assaulted.  The  same  view  is  found  in  the 
Halakah :  "  One  might  think  that  if  the  deed  occurred 
in  the  city,  the  girl  was  guilty  under  all  circum- 
stances, and  that  if  it  took  place  in  the  field,  she 
was  invariably  innocent.  According  to  Deut.  xxii. 
27,  however,  'the  betrothed  damsel  cried,  and  there 
was  none  to  save  her.'  This  shows  that  wherever 
help  may  be  expected  the  girl  is  guilty,  whether 
the  assault  is  made  in  tlie  city  or  in  the  field ;  but 
where  no  lielp  is  to  be  expected,  she  is  innocent, 
whether  the  assault  occurs  in  the  city  or  in  the  field  " 
(Sifre,  Deut.  243  [ed.  Friedmann,  p.  118b]).  Piiilo 
explains  (I.e.  g  21  [M.  319-320])  the  words  "God 
delivers  him  into  his  hand"  (E.x.  xxi.  13,  Hebr.)as 
follows:  "A  man  has  secretly  committed  a  premed- 
itated murder  and  lias  escaped  human  justice;  but 
his  act  has  not  been  hidden  from  divine  vengeance, 
and  he  shall  be  punished  for  it  by  death.  Another 
man  who  lias  committed  a  venial  offense,  for  which 
he  deserves  exile,  also  has  escaped  human  justice. 

This  latter  man  God  uses  as  a  tool,  to  act  as  the 
executioner  of  the  murderer,  whom  He  causes  him 
to  meet  and  to  slay  unintentionally.  The  murderer 
has  now  been  punished  by  death,  while  his  execu- 
tioner is  exiled  for  manslaughter;  the  latter  thus 
suft'ering  the  punishment  which  he  has  merited  be- 
cause of  his  original  minor  oilense."  This  same  in- 
terpretation is  found  in  the  Halakah  as  well  (Mak. 
10b;  comp.  also  ^lek.,  Mishpatim,  iv.  [ed.  Weiss, 
p.  86a]).  In  explaining  the  law  given  in  Deut.  xxi. 
10-14,  Philo  says,  furthermore  ("De  Caritate,"  §  14 
[M.  394]),  that  a  captive  woman  taken  in  war  shall 
not  be  treated  as  a  slave  if  her  captor  will  not  take 
her  to  wife.  The  same  interpretation  is  found  in 
the  Halakah  (Sifre,  Deut.  214  [ed.  Friedmann,  p. 
113a]),  wliich  explains  the  words  "lo  tit'amer  bah" 
(=  "thou  shalt  not  do  her  wrong")  to  mean,  "thou 
shalt  not  keep  her  as  a  slave." 

Numerous  instances  are  also  found  in  which, 
though  Philo  departs  in  the  main  point  from  the 
Halakah,  he  agrees  with  it  in  certain  details.  Thus, 
in  interpreting  the  law  set  forth  in  Ex.  xxi.  22 
("De  Specialibus  Legibus, "§  19  [M.  317])  he  differs 
entirely  from  the  Halakah,  except  that  he  says  that 
the  man  in  question  is  liable  to  punishment  only  in 
case  he  has  beaten  the  woman  on  the  belly.  The 
Halakah  (Mek.  I.e.  v.  [ed.  Weiss,  p.  90a])  deduces 
tliis  law  from  the  word  "harah"(=  "pregnant"). 

Philo  agrees  with  the  Halakah  also  in  his  justifi- 
cation of  various  laws.  The  law  given  in  Ex.  xxii. 
1,  according  to  which  the  owner  lias  the  right  to 
kill  a  thief,  is  based  by  Philo  on  the  assumption  that 
the  thief  breaks  in  with  murderous  intent,  in  which 
case  he  would  certainly  be  ready  to  kill  the  owner 
should  the  latter  try  to  prevent  him  from  stealing 
("De  Specialibus  Legibus,"  §  2  [M.  337]).  The 
ISIishnah  (Sanh.  viii.  6  and  Talmud  72a)  gives  the 
same  explanation. 

It  is  especially  interesting  to  note  that  Philo  bor- 
rowed certain  halakot  that  have  no  foundation  in 
Scripture,  regarding  them  as  authoritative  interpre- 
tations of  the  law  in  question.  He  says,  for  instance 
[I.e.  g  5  [M.  304]),  that  the  marriage  of  a  Jew  with 
a  non-Jewish  woman  is  forbidden,  no  matter  of 
what  nation  she  be,  although  the  Talmud  says  ('Ab. 
Zarah  36b)  that,  according  to  the  Pentateuchal  law 
(Deut.  vii.  3),  only  a  marriage  with  a  member  of  any 
of  the  seven  Canaanitish  peoples  was  forbidden,  the 
extension  of  this  prohibition  to  all  other  nations 
being  merely  a  rabbinic  decree. 

The  most  important  feature  of  Philo's  relation  to 
the  Halakah  is  liis  frequent  agreement  with  an 
earlier  halakah  where  it  differs  from  a  later  one. 
This  fact  has  thus  far  remained  unnoticed,  although 
it  is  most  important,  since  it  thus  frequently  be- 
comes possible  to  determine  which  portions  of  the 
accepted  halakah  are  earlier  and  which  are  later  in 
date.  A  few  examples  may  serve  to  make  this 
clear.  Philo  says  ("  De  Caritate,"  §  14 
Agreement    [M.  393]),  in  explaining  the  law  given 

with  the     in    Deut.    xxi.    10-14,    regarding    a 

Earlier       woman  taken  captive  in  war,  that  she 
Halakah.     must  cut  her  nails.     This  interpreta- 
tion of  verse  12  of  the  same  chapter 
agrees  with  the  earlier  halakah.  represented  by  H. 
Eliezer  (Sifre,  Deut.  212  [ed.  Friedmann,  p.  112b]); 



Philo  Judseus 

])ut  tlie  later  lialakah  (Sifro,  I.e.),  represcnled 
by  K.  Akiba,  ('.\i)laiiis  the  words  "wc-'asctah 
et-ziparnolia  "  as  meaning  "she  shall  let  lier  nails 
grow. "  Again,  Philo  says  ("  De  Specialibus  Legibus, " 
§  19  [M.  317j),  in  interpreting  the  law  of  Ex.  xxi. 
18-19:  "If  the  person  in  question  lias  so  far  recov- 
ered from  his  hurt  that  lie  is  able  to  go  out  again, 
although  it  may  be  necessary  for  him  to  be  assisted 
by  another  or  to  use  crutches,  his  assailant  is  no 
longer  liable  to  jninishment,  even  in  case  his  victim 
subsequently  dies;  for  it  is  not  absolutely  certain 
that  liis  death  is  a  result  of  the  blow,  since  he  has 
recovered  in  the  meantime."  Hence  Philo  takes  tlic 
phrase  "  upon  his  stall  "  (ib.  verse  19)  literally.  In 
like  manner  he  interprets  {I.e.  §  2  [M.  336-337])  the 
passage  "If  the  sun  be  risen  upon  him  "  (ib.  xxii.  3) 
as  follows:  "If  the  owner  catches  the  thief  before 
sunrise  he  may  kill  him;  but  after  the  sun  has  risen, 
he  no  longer  has  this  right."  Both  these  explana- 
tions by  Philo  contradict  the  accepted  halakah, 
which  interprets  the  passages  Ex.  xxi.  19,  xxii.  3, 
as  well  as  Deiit.  xxii.  17,  figuratively,  taking  the 
phrase  "upon  his  staff"  to  mean  "supported  by  his 
own  strength,"  and  interpreting  the  passage  "If  the 
sun  be  risen  upon  him"  to  mean  "when  it  is  clear  as 
daylight  that  the  thief  would  not  have  killed  the 
owner,  even  had  the  latter  prevented  him  from  the 
robber}^"  (conip.  Mek.,  Mishpatim,  vi.  [ed., 
p.  88b]).  Philo  here  follows  the  earlier  halakah, 
whose  representative,  R.  Eliezer  (Sifre,  Deut.  237 
[ed.  Friedmann,  p.  l'18a]),  saj^s  "debarim  ki-keta- 
bam  "  (="the  phrases  must  be  taken  literally"). 
Although  only  Deut.  xxii.  17  is  mentioned  in  Ket. 
46a  and  Yer.  Ket.  28c  in  connection  with  R.  Eliezer's 
statement,  it  is  not  expressly  said  that  such  state- 
ment must  not  be  applied  to  the  other  two  phrases; 
and  it  may  be  inferred  from  Philo  that  these  three 
phrases,  wliich  were  explained  figuratively  by  R. 
Ishniael,  were  taken  literally  by  the  old  halakah. 

The  same  agreement  between  Philo  and  the  earlier 
halakah  is  found  in  the  following  examples:  Philo 
takes  the  phrases  Ex.  xxi.  23-25  and  Deut.  xix.  21, 
"eye  for  eye,"  "tooth  for  tooth,"  etc.,  literally,  say- 
ing {I.e.  §  33  [M.  329])  that,  according  to  the  Mo- 
saic law,  the  "  lex  talionis  "  must  hold. 

Supports     This  explanation  differs  from  that  of 

the   "  Lex    the  accepted  halakah,  which  interprets 

Talionis."    the   phrases  in  question  as  meaning 

merely  a  money  indemnity  (Mek.  I.e. 

viii.  [ed.  Weiss,  p.  90b] ;  B.  K.  93b-94a),  whereas 

the  earlier  halakah  (as  represented  by  R.  Eliezer,  B. 

K.  94a)  says  "  'ajin  tahat  'ayin  mammash  "  (=  "an 

eye  for  an  eye  "  is  meant  in  the  literal  sense).     This 

view  of  the  earlier  halakali  was  still  known  as  such 

to  the  later  teachers;   otherwise  the  Talmud  (B.  K. 

I.e.)  would  not  have  taken  special  pains  to  refute  this 

view,  and  to  prove  its  incorrectness. 

It  frequently  liappens  that  when  Philo  differs 
from  the  Halakah  in  expounding  a  law,  and  gives 
an  interpretation  at  variance  with  it,  such  divergent 
explanation  is  mentioned  as  a  possible  one  and  is  dis- 
proved in  the  Talmud  or  the  lialakic  midrashim.  This 
fact  is  especially  noteworthy,  since  in  many  cases  it 
Tenders  possible  the  reconstruction  of  the  earlier  hala- 
kah by  a  comparison  with  Philo's  interpretations, 
as  is  shown  by  the  following  example:  Philo  says 
X.— 2 

{I.e.  §  27  [M.  323J),  in  discussing  the  law  of  Ex.  xxi. 
28-29,  that  if  an  ox  known  to  be  vicious  kills  a  per- 
son, then  the  ox  as  well  as  its  owner  shall  be  sen- 
tenced to  deatli.  Philo  interprets  the  words  "his 
owner  also  shall  be  put  to  death"  {ib.  29)  to  re- 
fer to  "death  by  legal  sentence," although  in  certain 
circumstances  tlie  Law  may  exempt  the  owner  from 
this  penalty  and  impose  a  fine  instead.  The  ac- 
cepted Halakah,  however,  explains  the  phrase  in 
question  to  mean  that  the  owner  Avill  suffer  death 
at  the  hand  of  God,  while  human  justice  can  punish 
him  only  by  a  fine,  in  no  case  having  the  right  to 
])ut  him  to  death  because  his  ox  has  killed  a  man 
(Mek.  I.e.  x.  [ed.  Weiss,  p.  93a] ;  Sauli.  15a,  b). 
This  interpretation  of  the  Halakah  was  not,  on  the 
other  liaud,  imiversally  accepted;  for  in  Mek.  I.e. 
and  especially  in  the  Talmud,  I.e.  it  is  attacked 
in  tlie  remark:  "Perhaps  the  passage  really  means 
that  the  owner  shall  be  sentenced  to  death  by  a 
human  court."  It  appears  from  this  statement  as 
well  as  from  Sanli.  i.  4  (comp.  Geiger,  "Urschrift," 
pp.  448  et  scq.)  that  the  earlier  halakah  held  that  the 
owner  should  be  sentenced  to  death.  Tliis  view 
was  vigorously  opposed  by  the  later  halakah,  and 
was  not  entirely  set  aside  until  a  very  late  date,  as 
appears  from  Sauli.  I.e. 

It  is  impossible,  however,  to  ascribe  to  the  earlier 
Halakah  all  the  interpretations  of  Philo  that  are 
mentioned  and  refuted  in  the  Talmud  and  the  hala- 
kic  midrashim ;   and  extreme  caution  must  be  ob- 
served in  determining  which  of  Philo's  interpreta- 
tions that  differ  from  the  accepted  Halakah  are  to  be 
assigned  to  the  earlier  one.     Many  of  Philo's  ex- 
planations are  quoted  according  to  the 
Influence     rulings  of  the  court  of  Alexandria  and 
of  the        to  its  interpretation  of  the  Law,  and 
Court  of  Al-  were  never  recognized  in  the  Pales- 
exandria.     tiuian  Halakah.     They  are,  neverthe- 
less, cited  as  possible  interpretations, 
and.  are  refuted  in  the  Talmud  and  in  the  3Iidrashim, 
Alexandrian    judicial  procedure   in   general   being 
frequently  made  an  object  of  criticism. 

Philo's  relation  to  the  Palestinian  haggadic  exe- 
gesis is  different,  for  it  can  not  be  said  that  wherever 
Palestinian  ideas  coincide  with  his  own  it  must  in- 
variably have  formed  the  basis  of  his  statements 
(comp.  Freudentlial,  "  llellenistische  Studien,"  pp. 
57-77).  While  this  dependence  may  have  existed 
in  numerous  instances,  it  may  confidently  be  afiirmed 
that  in  many  other  cases  the  Palestinian  sources  bor- 
rowed ideas  which  Philo  had  drawn  from  Hellenistic 
authorities.  The  following  examples  may  serve  to 
show  that  the  Palestinian  Ilaggadah  is  indebted  to 
Philo:  Gen.  R.  viii.  1  explains  the  passage  Gen.  i.  27 
to  mean  that  God  originall}'  created  man  as  an  An- 
DROGYNOS,  this  idea  being  first  expressed  by  Philo 
in  explanation  of  the  same  pa.ssage  ("  Dc  Opificio 
Muudi,"  §  24  [M.  17]  and  more  clearly  in  "De  Alle- 
goriis  Legum,"  ii.  4  [M.  49]).  In  like  manner  the 
idea  expressed  in  Gen.  R.  xiv.  3  of  a  twofold  creation 
of  man,  in  part  divine  and  in  part  earthly,  has  been 
taken  from  Philo,  who  was  the  first  to  enunciate  this 
doctrine  ("  De  Opificio  Mundi,"  §  12  [M.  49-50]),  while 
the  interpretation  given  in  Ex.  R.  xxvi.  1,  that  Closes 
was  called  by  the  same  carne  as  the  water,  is  certainly 
taken  from  Philo,  who  says  ("Vita  Mosis,"  i.  4  [M. 




83])  that  Moses  receivetl  Lis  name  because  lie  was 
found  in  the  water,  the  Egyptian  word  for  whicli  is 
**  mos. " 

In  the  case  of  many  of  the  ideas  and  principles 
found  both  in  Philo  and  in  the  Talmudic  and 
Midrashic  literature  it  is  impossible  to 
Relation  to  assert  that  there  has  been  borrowing 
Palestinian  on  either  side;  and  it  is  much  more 
Hagg-adic  justifiable  to  assume  that  such  ideas 
iixegesis.  originated  independently  of  each 
other  in  Palestine  and  in  Alexandria. 
This  may  have  been  the  case  also  with  the  rules  of 
hermeneutics.  The  principles  which  Philo  framed 
for  the  allegoiic  interpretation  of  Scripture  corre- 
spond in  part  to  the  exegetic  system  of  the  Pales- 
tinian Halakah.  It  is  highly  probable,  however, 
that  neither  borrowed  these  rules  from  the  other, 
but  that  both,  feeling  the  need  of  interpreting  Scrip- 
ture, though  for  dififerent  purposes,  independently 
invented  and  formulated  these  methods  while  fol- 
lowing the  same  trend  of  thought.  Some  examples 
of  similarity  in  the  rules  may  be  given  here.  Philo 
formulates  the  principle  that  a  deeper  meaning  is 
implied  in  the  repetition  of  well-known  facts  C'De 
Congressu  Eruditionis  Gratia,"  §  14  [M.  529]);  and 
this  same  rule  was  formulated  by  Akiba  also  (Sifre, 
Num.  2,  according  to  the  reading  of  Elijah  Wilna). 
Philo  states  as  another  rule  that  there  is  no  superflu- 
ous word  in  the  Bible,  and  Avherever  there  is  a  word 
which  seems  to  be  such,  it  must  be  interpreted. 
Hence  he  explains  ("  De  Profugis,"  §  10  [:\I.  554])  the 
apparently  superfluous  word  in  Ex.  xxi.  12.  This 
principle  is  formulated  by  Akiba  also  (Yer.  Shab.  xix. 
17a;  comp.  also  Sanh.  64b,  Avhere  Akiba  deduces  the 
same  meaning  from  the  apparently  redundant  word 
in  Num.  xv.  31,  as  Philo  does  from  Ex.  xxi.  12). 

Bibliography  :  Z.  Frankel,  Ueber  den  Einfluss  der  Palitsti- 
nf.u><ii!chfn  Excgcue  nufdie  Alerandrinv^cheHermeneutik, 
pp.  liXKia-^,  Leipsic.  18.51;  idem,  Ueber  PnU'iatinen.'iUiChe  uud 
Alesandrinifclie  Schriftforscluina,  in  The  Programme  of 
the  lirexlnu  Semiiniry,  18.54;  Bernhard  Ritter.  Philo  iind 
die  Halachn.  ib.  1879;  lirilz,  Dax Korbfcxt  der  Erstlinge  bei 
Philo,  in  MniuititKchrift,  1877,  pp.  433-442;  Carl  Siejrlried, 
Philo  von  Alexandria  als  Au.sleger  dei>  Alien  Testaments, 
Jena,  1875:  N.  J.  VVeinstein,  Zitr  Genenisder  Agada:  pariii., 
Die  Alexandrinii<che  Agada,  GOttingen,  19f)l. 
T.  J.   Z.    L. 

PHINEHAS:  1.— Biblical  Data  :  SonofElea- 
zar  and  grandson  of  Aaron  (Ex.  vi.  25;  1  Chron.  v. 
30,  vi.  35  [A.  V.  vi.  4,  50]).  His  mother  is  said  to 
have  been  one  of  Putiel's  (laughters;  and  it  seems 
that  he  was  the  only  child  of  his  parents  (Ex.  I.e.). 
Pliinehas  came  into  prominence  through  his  execu- 
tion of  Zimri,  son  of  Sabi,  and  Cozbi,  daughter  of 
Zur,  a  Midianite  prince,  at  Shittim,  where  the  Israel- 
ites worsiiiped  Baal-peor.  Through  his  zeal  he  also 
stayed  the  plague  which  had  broken  out  among  the 
Israelites  as  a  punishment  for  their  sin ;  and  for  this 
act  be  was  approved  by  God  and  was  rewarded 
with  the  divine  that  the  priesthood  should 
remain  in  his  family  forever  (Num.  xxv.  7-15). 
After  this  event  Phinehas  accompanied,  as  priest, 
the  expedition  sent  against  the  Midianites,  the  result 
of  which  was  the  destruction  of  the  latter  {ib.  xxxi. 
6  et  set).).  When  the  Israelites  had  settled  in  the 
land  of  Canaiin,  Phinehas  headed  the  party  which 
was  sent  to  remonstrate  with  the  tribes  of  Reuben 
and   Gad  and  the  half-tribe  of  Manasseh  because 

of  the  altar  that  had  been  built  by  them  east  of  th 
Jordan  (Josh.  xxii.  13). 

At  the  time  of  the  distribution  of  the  land,  Phine 
has  received  a  hill  in  Jlount  Ephraim,  where  hi 
father,  Eleazar,  was  buried  (ib.  xxi  v.  33).  He  i 
further  mentioned  as  delivering  the  oracle  to  th 
Israelites  in  their  war  with  the  Benjamites  (Judge 
XX.  28).  In  I  Chron.  ix.  20  he  is  said  to  have  beei 
the  chief  of  the  Korahites  who  guarded  the  eutrano 
to  the  sacred  tent. 

The  act  of  Phinehas  in  executing  judgment  am 
his  reward  are  sung  by  the  Psalmist  (Ps.  cvi.  30 
31).  Phinehas  is  extolled  in  the  Apocrypha  also 
"  And  Phinehas,  the  son  of  Eleazar,  is  the  third  ii 
glory"  (Ecclus.  [Sirach]  xlv.  23);  "And  he  \va; 
zealous  for  the  law,  even  as  Phinehas  did  unt( 
Zimn,  the  son  of  Salu  "  (I  Mace.  ii.  26). 

E.  G.  H.  M.  Sel. 

In    Rabbinical     Literature  :      Phinehas    i: 

highly  extolled  by  the  Kabbis  for  his  promptnesi 
and  energy  in  executing  the  prince  of  the  tribe  o 
Simeon  and  the  Midianitish  woman.  While  evei 
Moses  himself  knew  not  Avhat  to  do,  and  all  tli« 
Israelites  were  weeping  at  the  door  of  the  Taber 
nacle  (Num.  xxv.  6),  Phinehas  .alone  was  self-pos 
sessed  and  decided.  He  first  appealed  to  the  brav* 
men  of  Israel,  asking  who  would  be  willing  to  kil 
the  criminals  at  the  risk  of  his  own  life ;  and,  receiving 
no  answer,  he  then  undertook  to  accomplish  the  ex 
ecution  himself  (Sifre,  Num.  131;  Targ.  pseudo 
Jonathan  to  Num.  xxv.  7).  According  to  Midr 
Agada  to  Num.  I.e.,  however,  Phinehas  thought  thai 
the  punishment  of  Zimri  was  inc\imbeut  on  him,  say ■ 
ing:  "Reuben  himself  having  committed  adultery 
[Gen.  XXXV.  22],  none  of  his  descendants  is  qualifiec 
to  punish  the  adulterers;  nor  can  the;  punishment bt 
inflicted  by  a  descendant  of  Simeon,  because  the 
criminal  is  a  Simeonite  prince;  but  I,  a  descend 
ant  of  Levi,  who  with  Simeon  destroyed  the  inhab 
itants  of  Shechem  for  having  committed  adultery, 
will  kill  the  descendant  of  Simeon  for  not  having 
followed  his  ancestor's  example."  Phinehas,  having 
removed  the  iron  point  from  his  spear  (according  tc 
Pirke  R.  El.  xlvii.,  it  was  Moses'  spear  that  Phine- 
has had  snatched),  leaned  on  the  shaft  as  on  a 
rod;  otherwise  the  Simeonites  would  not  have  al 
lowed  him  to  enter  the  tent.  Indeed,  the  people  in- 
quired his  object  in  entering  the  tent,  whereupon 
he  answered  that  he  was  about  to  follow  the  ex- 
ample of  Zimri,  and  was  admitted  imopposed. 
After  having  stabbed  the  man  and  the  woman, 
Phinehas  carried  both  of  them  on  his  spear  out  of 
the  tent  so  thatall  the  Israelites  might  see  that  they 
had  been  justly  punished. 

Twelve  miracles  were  wrought  for  Phinehas  at 
this  time,  among  others  the  following:  he  was 
aided  by  divine  providence  in  carrying  the  two 
bodies  on  his  spear  (comp.  Josephus,  "'Ant."  iv.  6, 
§  12);  the  wooden  shaft  of  the  spear  supported  the 
weight  of  two  corpses;  the  lintel  of 
The  the  tent  was   raised   by  an  angel  so 

Twelve        tiiat   Phinehas    was  not    required   to 
Miracles,      lower  his   spear;    the   blood   of   the 
victims   was   coagulated    so    that   it 
might  not   drop  on  Phinehas  and  render  liim   un- 
clean.    Still,  when  he  came  out  the  people  of  the 




tribe  of  Simeon  gatbered  around  liim  with  tlie  in- 
tention of  killing  him,  upon  which  the  angel  of 
death  began  to  juow  down  the  Israelites  with  greater 
fury  tlian  before.  Phinehas  dashed  the  two  corpses 
to  the  ground,  saying:  "Lord  of  th((  world,  is  it 
worth  while  tiiat  so  many  Israelites  perish  through 
these  two?  "  and  thereupon  the  plague  was  stayed. 
An  allusion  to  this  incident  is  made  by  the  Psahn- 
ist:  "Then  stood  up  Phinclias,  and  executed  judg- 
ment" (Ps.  cvi.  30),  tlie  Eabbis  explaining  tlie  word 
"  wa-yefallcl"  as  meaning  "he  disputed  witli  God." 
Tiie  archangels  were  about  to  eject  Phinehas  from 
liis  place,  but  God  said  to  them:  "Leave  him;  lie 
is  a  zealot,  llie  son  of  a  zealot  [that  is,  Levi],  one 
who,  like  his  father  [AaronJ,  appeases  My  anger" 
(Sanh.  82b;  Sifre,  l.c.\  Targ.  pseudo-Jonathan  to 
Num.  XXV.  7;  Tan.,  Balak,  30;  Num.  K.  xx.  26). 
In  Ber.  6b,  however,  the  above-quoted  passage  from 
the  Psalms  is  interpreted  to  mean  that  Phinehas 
prayed  to  God  to  check  the  plague.  The  ])cople  of 
all  the  other  tribes,  out  of  envy,  mocked  Phinehas, 
saying :  "  Have  ye  seen  how  a  descendant  of  one  who 
fattened  ["pittein  "]  calves  for  sacrifices  to  the  idol 
[referring  to  his  grandfather  Putiel;  comp.  Jetiiuo 
IN  R.\BBiNiCAL  Liteuatuke]  killed  the  prince  of  a 
tribe?"  God  then  pointed  out  that  Phinehas  was 
in  reality  the  son  of  Eleazar  and  the  grandson  of 
Aaron  (Sanh.  I.e.;  B.  B.  109b;  Sifre,  I.e.). 

Although  the  priesthood  had  been  previously 
given  to  Aaron  and  his  oiTspring,  Phinehas  became 
a  priest  only  after  he  had  executed  Zimri,  or,  ac- 
cording to  K.  Ashi,  after  lie  had  reconciled  the  tribes 
in  the  allair  of  the  altar  (Zel).  101b;  comp.  Phine- 
has, Biblical  Data).  The  priestly  jiortions  of 
every  slaughtered  animal — the  shoulder,  the  two 
cheeks,  and  the  maw  (Deut.  xviii.  3) — were  assigned 
by  God  to  the  priests  solely  because  of  the  m(!rit  of 
Phinehas  in  killing  Zimri  and  Cozbi:  the  shoulder 
as  a  reward  for  carrying  (m  his  shoulder  the  two 
corpses;  the  two  cheeks,  for  having  pleaded  with 
liis  mouth  in  favor  of  the  Lsraelites;  and  the  maw, 
for  having  stabbed  the  two  adulterers  in  that  part 
(Sifre.  Deut.  165;  Hul.  134b;  Midr.  Agada  to  Num. 
XXV.  13).  Owing  to  the  sad  consequences  attending 
the  Israelites'  lapse  into  idolatry,  Phinehas  pro- 
nounced an  anathema,  under  the  autliority  of  the 
Unutterable  Name  and  of  the  writing  of  the  tables, 
and  in  the  name  of  the  celestial  and  terrestrial  courts 
of  justice,  against  any  Israelite  who  should  driniv 
the  wine  of  a  heathen  (Pirke  \\.  El.  xlvii.). 

Phinelias  accompanied,  in  the  capacity  of  a  priest 
specially  anointed  ("meshuah  milhamah")  for  such 
purposes  (comp.  Deut.  xx.  2),  the  ex- 
Other        pedition  sent  by  Moses  against  IMidian. 
Exploits.     Tlie  question  why  Phinehas  was  sent 
instead  of  liis  father  is  answered  by 
the  Rabbis  in  two  different  ways:  (I)  Phinehaswent 
to  avenge  liis  maternal  grandfather,  Joseph  (with 
whom  certain  rabbis  identify  Putiel),  upon  the  j\Iid- 
ianites  who  had  sold  him  into  Egj'pt  (comp.  Gen. 
xxxvii.  28-36).     (2)  He  went  simply  because  Moses 
said  that  he  who  began  a  good  deed  ought  to  finish 
it;   and  as  Phinehas  had  been  the  first  to  avenge 
the  Israelites  upon  the  IMidianitcs,  it  was  proper  that 
he  should  take  part  in  the  war  against  the  latter 
(Sifre,    Num.   157;    Sotah  43a;    Num.   K.  xxii.  4). 

Phinehas  was  one  of  the  two  spies  sent  by  Joshua 
to  explore  Jericho,  as  mentioned  in  Josh.  ii.  1  etstq., 
Caleb  being  the  otlier.  This  idea  is  based  on  the 
Masoretic  text  of  verse  4  of  tlie  same  chapter,  which 
reads"  wa-tizpeno  "  =  "and  she  hi(V  him,"  that  is  to 
say,  one  spy  only;  for  Phinehas,  being  a  priest,  was 
invisible  like  an  angel  (Num.  K.  xvi.  1).  This  is 
apparently  tlie  origin  of  the  Rabbis'  identification 
of  Phinehas  with  tlie  angel  of  God  sent  to  liochim 
(Judges  ii.  1;  Seder  'Olam,  xx. ;  Num.  R.  I.e.; 
comp.  Targ.  pseudo-Jonathan  to  Num.  xxv.  12). 
On  the  identification  of  Phinehas  with  Elijah  see 
Elijah  in  Rabbinical  Liteuatlre. 

According  to  B.  B.  15a,  the  last  verse  of  the  Book 
of  Joshua  was  written  by  Phinelias.  The  Raiibis, 
however,  hold  that  tlie  hill  where  Eleazar  was 
buried  (see  Phinehas,  Biblical  Data)  was  not  ap- 
portioned to  Phinehas  as  a  special  lot,  but  was  in- 
herited by  him  from  his  wife,  and  was  therefore 
called  by  his  name  (B.  B.  11  lb).  Apart  from  his 
identification  with  Elijah,  Phinehas  is  considered  by 
the  Rabbis  to  have  attained  a  very  great  age,  since 
according  to  them  he  was  still  living  in  the  time  of 
Jephthah,  340  years  after  the  Exodus  (comp.  Judges 
xi.  26).  In  the  matter  of  Jephthah 's  vow,  Phinehas 
is  represented  in  a  rather  unfavorable  light  (see 
jEPnTiiAii  IN  Rabbinical  Literature).  For  him 
who  sees  Phinehas  in  a  dream  a  miracle  will  be 
wrought  (Ber.  56b). 

E.  c.  31.  Sel. 

2.  Son  of  Eli,  the  high  priest  and  judge  of  Israel ; 
younger  brother  of  Hoplini.  According  to  I  Sam. 
ii.  12-17,  the  two  brothers  broke  the  law  given  in 
Lev.  vii.  34  (whence  they  were  termed  "sons  of 
Belial  ")  by  striking  the  llesh-hook  in  the  pot  and 
taking  for  themselves  whatever  meat  it  brought  up, 
even  against  the  wish  of  the  sacrificer.  As  judges 
they  sinned  through  licentious  conduct  with  the 
women  who  went  to  Sliiloh  (I  Sam.  ii.  22).  In 
punishment  for  these  sins  it  was  announced  to  Eli 
that  his  sons  should  perish  on  the  same  day  {ib.  ii.  34) ; 
and  in  the  ensuing  battle  between  Israel  and  the 
Philistines  both  fell  beside  the  Ark  (ib.  iv.  11). 

A  posthumous  son  was  born  to  the  wife  of  Phine- 
has, whom  .she  called  Ichabod  (I  Sam.  iv.  19);  and 
in  continuation  of  the  priestlj'  genealogy  a  grand- 
nephew  of  Phinehas,  named  Aliijah,  is  mentioned  in 
connection  with  the  battle  of  Jonathan  against  the 
Philistines  (ib.  xiv.  3). 

3.  Father  of  Eleazar,  a  priest  who  returned  from 
captivity  with  Ezra  (Ezra  viii.  33). 

E.  G.  II.  S.   O. 

PHINEHAS  :  Guardian  of  the  treasury  at  Jeru- 
salem. In  the  last  days  of  Jerusalem,  in  the  year 
70  C.E.,  he  followed  the  example  of  his  priestly  col- 
league Jesus  b.  Thcbouthi,  and  betrayed  his  trust; 
collecting  many  of  the  linen  coats  of  the  priests,  their 
girdles,  much  purple  and  silk  wliicli  had  been  pre- 
pared for  the  sacred  curtain,  and  the  costly  spices 
for  the  holy  incense,  to  save  his  life  he  went  over 
to  the  Romans  (Josephus.  "B.  J."  vi.  8,  §  3).  He 
appears  to  be  identical  with  the  Phinehas  mentioned 
in  the  ]\Iishnah  Shckalim  v.  1.  who  was  guardian  of 
the  sacred  wardrobe.     See  Phinehas  b.  Samvel. 

G.  S.  Kr. 

Phinehas  ben  Clusoth 



PHINEHAS  BEN  CLUSOTH  :  Leader  of  the 
Idumcaus.  Siiuou  b.  Gioni  uutiL-itook  several  ex- 
peilitious  into  the  territory  of  the  Idunieans  to  req- 
uisition provisions  for  his  people.  The  Idunieans, 
after  their  complaints  in  Jerusalem  had  not  brought 
assistance,  formed  a  band  of  volunteers  numbering 
20,000  men,  who  from  that  time  acted  as  wildly 
and  mercilessly  as  did  the  Sicarians.  Their  lead- 
ers were  Johannes  and  Jacob  b.  Sosa,  Simon  b. 
Kathla,  and  Phinehas  ben  Clusoth  (Josephus,  "  B.  J." 
iv.  4.  t;  2). 

G.     '  S.  Kr. 

PHINEHAS  B.  HAMA  (ironcrally  called  R. 
Phinehas,  aiui  occasionally  Phinehas  ha-Ko- 
hen)  :  Palestinian  amora  of  the  fourth  century ; 
born  probably  in  the  town  of  Siknin,  where  he  was 
living  when  his  brother  Samuel  died  (Midr.  Sliemuel 
ix.).  He  was  a  pupil  of  R.  Jeremiah,  of  whose 
ritual  practises  he  gives  various  details  {e.g.,  in  Yer. 
Kil.  29b;  Yer.  Hag.  8Ub;  Yer.  Ket.  41a),  and  of  R. 
Hilkiah.  He  seems  also  to  have  lived  for  a  time  in 
Babylonia,  since  a  R.  Phinehas  who  once  went  from 
that  country  to  Palestine  is  mentioned  in  Yer.  'Er. 
22d  as  conversing  with  R.  Judah  b.  Shalom.  This 
passage  apparently  refers  to  Pliinelias  b.  Hama,  as 
a  conversation  between  him  and  Judah  b.  Slialom  is 
also  related  elsewhere  (e.g.,  Ex.  R.  xii.);  and  it  like- 
wise explains  the  fact  that  R.  Phinehas  transmitted 
a  halakah  by  Hisda  (Yer.  Sanh.  25c).  His  haggadic 
apliorisms,  mentioned  in  B.  B.  116a,  were,  therefore, 
probaldy  propounded  by  him  during  his  re.sidence 
in  Babylonia,  and  were  not  derived  from  Pales- 
tine, as  Bacher  assumes  ("Ag.  Pal.  Amor."  p.  311, 
note  5). 

Wlien  the  purity  of  the  descent  of  the  Jewish 
families  in  Babylonia  was  doubted  in  Palestine, 
Phinehas  publicly  proclaimed  in  the  academy  that 
in  tliis  respect  Palestine  outranked  all  countries  ex- 
cepting Babylonia  (Kid.  71a).  Man^^  halakic  sen- 
tences by  Phinehas  have  been  preserved,  most  of 
which  occur  in  citations  by  Hananiah  {e.g.,  Yer. 
Demai  23b ;  Yw.  Ma'as.  50c ;  Bik.  God ;  Yer.  Pes. 
30(1 ;  and  elsewhere).  Phinehas  liimself  occasionally 
transmitted  earlier  halakic  maxims  {e.g.,  Yer.  Pes. 
29c),  and  is  frequently  the  autiiority  for  haggadic 
aphorisms  by  such  .scholars  as  R.  Hoshaiah  (Lam. 
R.  proem  xxii. ;  Cant.  R.  v.  8,  end),  Reuben  (Tan., 
Kedoshim,  l)eginning),  Abbaliu  (Gen.  R.  Ixviii. 
1;,  and  many  others  (comp.  Bacher,  I.e.  p.  314, 
note  4). 

Pliinelias'  own  haggadah  is  very  extensive,  and 
includes  many  maxims  and  aphorisms,  as  well  as 
homiletic  and  exegetic  interpretations.  The  follow- 
ing citations  may  serve  as  examples  of  liis  style: 
"Poverty  in  the  liousc  of  man  is  more  bitter  tiian 
fifty  plagues"  (B.  B.  116a).  "A  chaste  woman  in 
the  Iiouse  protectctli  and  reconcileth  like  an  altar" 
(Tan.,  Wayisiilah,  on  Gen.  xxxiv.  1).  "  Wiiile  oilier 
laws  decree  that  one  must  renounce  his  parents  on 
pledging  his  allegiance  as  a  follower  and  .soldier  of 
tlif  king  [the  reference  may  be  to  Matt.  x.  35-37], 
the  Decalogue  .saitii:  'Honor  tliy  father  and  thy 
mother'"  (Num.  R.  viii.  4).  "Ps.  xxvi.  10  refers 
to  dice-plaj'crs,  who  reckon  with  Die  left  hand  and 
sum  uj)  Willi  the  right,  and  thus  rob  one  another" 

(Midr.  Teh.  adloc.).  "The  name  that  a  man  wins 
for  himself  is  worth  more  than  that  which  is  given 
him  by  his  father  and  mother"'  (Eccl.  R.  vii.  4). 

Bibliography  :  Bacher,  Ag.  Pal.  Amor.  iii.  310-344. 
E.  C.  J.   Z.   L. 

PHINEHAS  BEN  JAIR  :  Tannaof  the  fourth 
gcneralion  ;  lived,  piobahly  at  Lydda,  in  the  second 
half  of  the  second  century;  son-in-law  of  Simeon 
ben  Yohai  and  a  fellow  disciple  of  Judah  I.  He 
was  more  celebrated  for  piety  than  for  learning,  al- 
though his  discussions  with  his  father-in-law  (Shab. 
33b)  evince  great  sagacity  and  a  profound  knowl- 
edge of  tradition.  A  haggadah  gives  the  follow- 
ing illustration  of  Phinehas'  .scrupulous  honesty: 
Once  two  men  deposited  with  him  two  seahs  of 
wheat.  After  a  prolonged  absence  of  the  depositors 
Phinehas  sowed  the  wheat  and  preserveil  the  har- 
vest. This  he  did  for  seven  consecutive  years,  and 
when  at  the  men  came  to  claim  tlieir  deposit 
he  returned  them  all  the  accumulated  ajrain  (Deut. 
R.  iii.). 

Phinehas  is  said  never  to  have  accepted  an  invita- 
tion to  a  meal  and,  after  he  had  attained  his  major- 
it5%  to  have  refused  to  eat  at  the  table  of  his  father. 
The  reason  given  by  him  for  this  course  of  conduct 
was  that  there  are  two  kinds  of  people  r  (1)  those 
who  are  willing  to  be  hospitable,  but  can  not  af- 
ford to  be  so,  and  (2)  those  who  have  the  means  but 
are  not  willing  to  extend  hospitality  to  others  (Hul. 
7b).  Judah  I.  once  invited  him  to  a  meal,  and  ex- 
ceptionally he  decided  to  accept  the  invitation;  but 
on  arriving  at  the  house  of  the  patriarch  he  noticed 
in  the  yard  mules  of  a  certain  kind  the  use  of  which 
was  forbidden  by  local  custom  on  account  of  the 
danger  in  handling  them.  Thereupon  he  retraced 
his  steps  and  did  not  return  (I.Iul.  I.e.). 

Special  weight  was  laid  by  Phinehas  upon  the 
prescriptions  relating  to  the  tithe.  This  feature  of 
Phinehas'  piety  is  described  hyperboHcally  in  the 
Haggadah.  The  latter  relates  a  story  of  a  mule  be- 
longing to  Phinehas  which,  having  been  stolen,  was 
released  after  a  couple  of  days  on  account  of  its  re- 
fusal to  eat  food  from  which  the  tithe  had  not  been 
taken  (Gen.  R.  xlvi. ;  comp.  Ab.  R.  N.  viii.,  end). 
To  Phineliasisattributcd  the  abandonment  by  Judah 
I.  of  his  project  to  abolish  the  }'ear  of  release  (Yer. 
Demai  i.  3;  Ta'an.  iii.  1). 

Phinehas  draws  a  gloomy   picture   of   his  time. 

"Since  the  destruction  of  the  Temple,"  he  says, 

"the  members  and  freemen  are  put  to 

Account   of  sliame,  those  who  conform  to  the  Law 

His  Own     are  held  in  contempt,  the  violent  and 

Times.  the  informer  havetlie  upper  hand,  and 
no  one  cares  for  the  ])eop]e  or  asks 
pit}-  for  them.  "We  have  no  hope  but  in  God" 
(Sotah  49a).  Elsewhere  lie  says:  "  Why  is  it  that 
in  our  time  the  ])rayeis  of  the  Jews  are  not  heard? 
Because  they  do  not  know  the  holy  name  of  God" 
(Pesik.  R.  xxii.,  end;  Midr.  Teh.  to  Ps.  xci.  15). 
Pliinchiis,  however,  believes  in  man's  perfectibility, 
and  enumerates  the  virtues  which  render  man 
worthy  to  receive  the  Holy  Spirit.  The  Law,  he 
says,  leads  to  carefulness;  carefulness,  to  diligence; 
diligence,  to  cleanliness;  cleanliness,  to  retirement; 
retirement,  to   purity;   purity,  to  piety;   piety,  to 



Phinehas  ben  Clusoth 

liumility;  Immility,  to  fear  of  sin;  fear  of  sin,  to 
Jiolincss;  lioliness,  to  the  reception  of  tiie  lloly 
Spirit;  and  tlie  Holy  Spirit,  to  resurrection  ("Ab. 
Zarah  20b;  with  some  slight  variants,  Sotah  ix.  15). 

The  Hairiiadah  records  many  miracles  jjcrformed 

by  Phinehas.     Among  these  is  that  of  having  passed 

on  dry  ground  througli  the  River  Ginai,  Avhicli  lie 

had   to  cross  on  Ids  way  to  ransom 

Miracles  prisoners  (Yer.  Demai  i.  3).  Accord- 
Attributed  ing     to    another    version,    Phinehas 

to  Him.  performed  this  miracle  wliile  he  was 
going  to  the  school  to  deliver  a  lec- 
ture. His  pupils,  who  had  followed  him,  asked  if 
they  might  without  danger  cross  the  river  by  the 
same  way,  whereupon  Phinelias  answered:  "Only 
those  who  Iiave  never  offended  any  one  may  do  so  " 
(Hul.  7a).  To  Phinehas  is  attributed  the  authorship 
of  a  later  midrash  entitled  "Tadshe"  or  "Baraita 
de-Rabbi  Pinchas  ben  Ya'ir."  The  only  reasons  for 
tills  ascription  are  the  facts  (1)  that  the  midrash  be- 
gins with  Phinehas'  explanation  of  Gen.  i.  11,  from 
which  the  work  derives  its  name,  and  (2)  that  its 
seventh  chapter  commences  with  a  saying  of  his  on 
the  tree  of  knowledge  (see  Ji'^w.  Encyc.  viii.  578, 
s.v.  MiDKAsn  T-\DSiiE).  Phinehas  was  buried  in  Ke- 
far  Biram. 

BiBLiOGRAniY :  Heilprin,  i^cdrrhn-Dorot,  ii.;  Jellinek,  B.  H. 
iii.  lt)4  et  seq.,  v\. '^.i ;  lien  Cliaiunijn.  iv.'S'Ii-  P.aclier.  .1(7. 
'fan.  ii.  405  ct  seq.;  Isaac  Halevy,  Doroi  ha-Rifhinihu,  ii.  4S; 
Uraunsolnveiger,  7)i('  Ldirer  dcr  Mischtia,  p.  241,  Fraiik- 
foit-on-the-Main.  1903;  Epstein,  Beitraye  zur  JiuHxcltcn 
Alterthumskwidc,  i.,  p.  x. 
W.  B.  I.    Bu. 

PHINEHAS  B.  SAMUEL:  The  last  liigh 
priest ;  according  to  the  reckoning  of  Josephus,  the 
eighty-third  since  Aaron.  He  was  a  wholly  un- 
worthy person  who  was  not  of  high-priestly  lineage 
and  who  did  not  even  know  what  the  high  priest's 
office  was,  but  was  chosen  by  lot,  and  in  67-68  was 
dragged  by  the  revolutionary  party  against  his  will 
from  his  village  Ajihthia,  where  he  was  a  farmer,  to 
Jerusalem,  to  take  the  place  of  the  deposed  j\Iatthias 
ben  Theophilus.  He  was  clothed  in  the  high-priestly 
garments  and  instructed  as  to  what  he  had  to  do  on 
every  occasion.  He  was  an  object  of  ridicule  for 
the  evil-minded,  but  this  godlessness  drew  tears 
from  the  e^ves  of  the  worthy  priests.  He  mot  his 
death  probably  in  the  general  catastrophe.  His  name 
is  written  in  various  ways  by  Josephus  ("B.  J."  iv. 
3,  ^  8,  ed.  Niese).  It  is  su])posed  that  he  was  iden- 
tical with  the  Dnj2  mentioned  in  the  Mi.shnah  as  a 
functionary  of  the  Temple ;  in  this  case  his  correct 
name  would  lie  Phineas.  But  Josephus  writes  this 
Biblical  name  dilferently.  In  regard  to  the  Phinehas 
mentioned  by  the  Rabbis  see  Puinehas,  guardian  of 
the  treasury. 

Binr.iocRAPiiY  :  Derenliourg,  Essai  ^•^(r  VHistnirede  la  Pales- 
tine, p.  26!»;  Ora.lz,  Gesch.  iii.  4,  751;  Scliurer,  Gesch.  i .  3, 
618  ;  ii.  3.  --_'0. 

G.  S.   Kr. 


PHRYGIA :  Province  in  Asia  iMinor.  Anti- 
ochus  the  Great  transferred  2,000  Jewish  fannlies 
from  Mesopotamia  and  Babylonia  to  Phrygia  and 
Lydia  (Josephus,  "Ant."  xii.'S.  ^  4).  They  settled 
principally  in  Laodicca  and  Apamea.  The  Christian 
Apostles  also  were  familiar  with  Jews  from  Phrygia 

(Acts  ii.  10).  Christian  teachings  easily  gained  en- 
try there  on  account  of  the  numerous  Jews  in  tlie 
country.  It  is  noteworthy  that  in  the  Plirygiau  city 
Mantalos  tliere  is  an  inscription  written  from  right 
to  left  (Ramsay, "Th(!  Historical  Geographj'  of  Asia 
Minor,"  j).  150,  London,  1890).  In  the  Byzantine 
period  Amorion  was  a  Phrygian  city,  in  which  Jews 
held  the  supremacy  (see  Jew.  Encyc.  iii.  453,  s.v. 
JiYZANTiXE  E.mi'IKe).  Ibu  Kliunladhbah  also  men- 
tions a  Hisn  al-Yahud  (=  "Jews'  Castle  "  ;  Ramsay, 
i/>.  ]).  445)  in  this  region. 

niin.iooRAPUY:   Schurer,  Ge^ch.  lil.  3,  .5,  10,  13;  W.  M.  Ram- 
say, Tin:   Citien  and  BinhopricH  of  Plirygia,  i.,  part  ii.,  OHT- 
1)7(1,  London,  1897. 
G.  S.  Ku. 

PHYLACTERIES  ("tefillin").— Legal  View  : 
The  laws  governing  the  wearing  of  piiylacteries 
were  derived  by  the  Rabbis  from  four  Biblical  ])as- 
sages  (Deut.  vi.  8,  xi.  18;  Ex.  xiii.  9,  16).  While 
these  passages  were  interpreted  literally  by  most 
commentators  (comp.,  however,  Ibn  Ezra  and 
RaShbaM  on  Ex.  xiii.  9),  the  Rabbis  held  that  the 
general  law  only  was  expressed  in  the  Bible,  the 
application  and  elaboration  of  it  being  entirely  mat- 
ters of  tradition  and  inference  (Sanh.  88b).     The 

(In  the  Uritish  Musvum.) 

earlier  tannaim  had  to  resort  to  fanciful  interpreta- 
tions of  tiie  texts  in  order  to  find  Biblical  support 
for  the  custom  of  inscril)ing  the  four  selections  in 
the  phylacteries  (Men.  341):  Zeb.  37b;  Sanh.  4b; 
Rashi  and  Tos.  ad  U/c).  There  are  more  laws — 
ascrilied  to  oral  delivery  l)y  God  to  Moses — clus- 
tering about  the  institution  of  tefillin  than  about  any 




other  institution  of  Judaism  (Men.  35a:  Yer.  Meg. 
i.  9;  Mairaonides,  in  "Yad."  Tefillin,  i.  3,  mentions 
ten;  Rodkinssohn,  in  "Telillah  le-Moslieb,"  p.  20. 
ed.  Presburg,  1883,  mentions  eighteen;  comp.  Weiss, 
"Dor,"  i.  74-75).  Thus,  even  if  most  Jewish  com- 
mentators are  followed  in  their  literal  interpretations 
of  the  Biblical  passages  mentioned  above,  rabbinic 
interpretation  and  traditional  usage  must  still  be 
relied  upon  for  the  determination  of  the  nature  of 
the  tefillin  and  the  laws  concerning  them  (see  Phy- 
L.\CTEUiEs — nisToiiic.\i.  and  CitiTrc.\L  Views). 
Pliylactcrics,  as  universally  used  at  the  present 

(NniDyD:  ^len.  35a)  at  the  ends,  through  which  are 
passed  leathern  straps  (niyiV^^  made  of  the  skins  of 
clean  animals  (Shab.  28b)  and  blackened  on  the  out- 
side (Men.  35a;  comp.  "Sefer  Hasidim,"  ed.  Wisti- 
netski,  §  1669).  The  strap  that  is  passed  through 
the  head-phylactery  ends  at  the  back  of  the  head  in 
a  knot  representing  the  letter  i ;  the  one  that  is 
pa.ssed  through  the  hand-phylactery  is  formed  into 
a  noose  near  the  box  and  fastened  in  a  knot  in  the 
shape  of  the  letter  '(comp.  Heilprin,  "Seder  ha- 
Dorot,"  i.  208,  ed.  Maskileison,  Warsjiw,  1897,  where 
a  wonderful  storv  in  relation  to  the  laws  governinsr 

Phylacteries  a.nd  Bag. 

(In  the  United  St«tes  Natlunal  Museum,  Washington,  D.  C.) 

time,  consist  of  two  leathern  boxes — one  worn  on 
the  arm  and  known  as  "shel  yad  "  (Men.  iv.  1)  or 

'•  shel  zeroa'  "  (Mik.  x.  3),  and  the  other 

Details  of    worn  on  the  head  and  known  as  "slid 

Manu-        rosh  " — made  of  tlie  skins  of  clean  ani- 

facture.       mals  (Men.  42b;   Sanh.  48b;    "Yad," 

l.i-.  ill.  15).  The  boxes  must  be  square 
(Men.  35a):  their  height  may  be  more  or  less  than 
the  length  or  the  width  ("Yad,"  I.e.  iii.  2);  and  it 
is  desirable  thai  they  be  black  (Shulhan  'Aruk,  Orah 
Hayyim,  32,  40).  The  boxes  are  fastened  on  tiie 
under  side  with  square  pieces  of  thick  leather 
(Klin^n:  Men.  35a)  by  means  of  twelve  stitches 
made  with  threads  prepared  from  the  veins  of  clean 
animals  (Shab.  28b),  and  are  provided  with  loops 

the  making  of  these  knots  is  told).  The  box  con- 
taining the  head-phylactery  has  on  the  outside  the 
letter  {»>,  both  to  the  right  (with  three  strokes: 
5J>)  and  to  the  left  (with  four  strokes:  {2>;  Men.  35a; 
comp.  Tos.,  s.t.  "Shin";  probablj'  as  a  reminder  to 
insure  the  correct  insertion  of  the  four  Biblical  pas- 
sages): and  this,  together  with  the  letters  formed  by 
the  knots  of  the  two  straps,  make  up  the  letters  of 
the  Hebrew  word  "Shaddai"  (nK' =  "Almighty," 
one  of  the  names  of  God;  Men.  35b;  Kashi,  s.v. 
"  Kesher  '").  The  measurements  of  the  boxes  are  not 
given ;  but  it  is  recommended  that  they  should  not 
be  smaller  than  the  width  of  two  lingers  ('Er.  95b; 
Tos.,s.r.  "Makom";  Men.  35a:  Tos.,  «.?•.  "Shin"). 
The  width   of  the   straps    should   be  equal  to  the 




length  of  a  grain  of  oats.  The  strap  that  is  passed 
throiigli  the  lieud  pliyhxctery  should  he  long  onoiigli 
to  encircle  the  hend  and  to  allow  for  the  knot;  and 
the  two  ends,  falling  in  front  over  either  shoulder, 
should  reach  the  navel,  or  somewhat  above  it.  The 
strap  that  is  passed  through  the  hand-phylactery 
should  be  long  enough  to  allow  for  the  knot,  to  en- 
circle the  whole  length  of  the  arm,  and  then  to  be 
wound  three  times  around  the  middle  linger  ("  Yad," 
I.e.  iii.  12;  Orah  Hayyim,  27,  8,  11). 

Each  box  contains  the  four  Scriptural  passages 
Ex.  xiii.  1-10,  11-16;  Deut.  vi.  4-9,  xi.  13-21  (conip. 
Zohar,  ed.  Amsterdam,  1789,  to  Bo,  p. 
Contents.     43a,  b),  written  with  black  iidc  (Yer. 
Meg.  1.  9)  in  Hebrew  scjuare  charac- 
ters (n^llK'X;   Meg.  8b;   Soferim  xv.  1)  on  parch- 
ment (Shab.  79b;   Men.  32a)  si)ecially  prepared  for 
the  purpose  (Orah  Hayyim,  32,  8;    comp.   "Be'er 
Heteb"    and    "Sha'are   Teshubah,"   ad  loc.)   from 
the  skin  of  a  clean  animal  (Shab.  108a).     The  hand- 
phylactery  has  only  one  compartment,  which  con- 
tains the  four  Biblical   selections  written  upon  a 
single  strip  of  parchment  in  four  parallel  columns 
and  in  the  order  given  in  the  Bible  (IMen.  34b).     The 
head-phylactery    has   four   compartments,    formed 
from  one  piece  of  leather,  in  each  of  which  one  selec- 
tion written  on  a  separate  piece  of  parchment  is  de- 
posited perpendicularly.     The  pieces  of  parchment 
on  which  the  Biblical  selections  are  written  are  in 
either  case  tied  round  with  narrow  strips  of  parch- 
ment and  fastened  with  the  thoroughly  washed  hair 
of  a  clean  animal  (Shab.   28b,  108a),  preferably  of 
a  calf  ("Yad,"  I.e.   iii.   8;    Orah   Hayyim,   32,  44). 
There  was  considerable  discussion  among  the  com- 
mentators of  the  Talmud  (Men.  34b)  as  to  the  order 
in  which  the  Biblical  selections  shoidd  be  inserted 
into  the  head-phylactery.     The  chief  disputants  in 
this  case  were   R.  Solomon  Yizhaki 
Arrange-     (Raslii)  and   H.   Jacob   b.  Meir  Tam 
ment  of      (Rabbenu    Tam),    although    different 
Passages,    possible  arrangements  have  been  sug- 
gested by  other  writers  ("Shimmusha 
Rabba"    and    RABaD).     The    following    diagram 
shows  the  arrangements  of  the  Bible  verses  as  ad- 
vocated respectively  by   Rabbenu  Tam  and  Rashi 
(comp.  RodUinssohn,  "Tefillali  le-Mosheh,"  p.  25): 

R.  Tam 

Raslil . 

E.X.  xiii.  1-10, 

Ex.  xiii.  1-10, 

Ex.  xiii.  11-16, 

Ex.  xiii.  11-16, 

Deut.  xl.  13-; 


Deut.  vi.  4 


The  prevailing  custom  is  to  follow  the  opinion  of 
Rashi  ("Yad,"  I.e.  iii.  5;  comp.  RABaD  and  "  Kesef 
Mishneh"  ad  loc;  Orah  Hayyim,  34.  1),  although 
some  are  accustomed,  in  order  to  be  certain  of  per- 
forming their  duty  properly,  to  lay  two  pairs  of 
tefillin  (comp.  'Er.  95b),  one  prepared  in  accordance 
with  the  view  of  Rashi,  and  the  other  in  accordance 
with  that  of  Rabbenu  Tam.  If,  however,  one  is 
uncertain  as  to  the  exact  position  for  two  pairs  of 
tetillin  at  the  same  time,  one  should  tlrst  "lay  "  the 
tefillin  prepared  in  accordance  with  Rashi's  opinion, 
and  then,  removing  these  during  the  latter  part  of 

the  service,  without  pronouncing  a  blessing  lay 
those  prepared  in  accordance  with  Rabbenu  Tain's 
opinion.  Only 'the  specially  pious  wear  both  kinds 
(Orah  Hayyim,  34,  2,  3). 

The  i)ar(hment  on  which  the  Biblical  passages  are 
written  need  not  be  ruled  ("Yad,"  I.e.  i.  12),  al- 
though the  custom  is  to  rule  it.  A  pointed  instru- 
ment that  leaves  no  blot  should  be  used  in  ruling; 
the  use  of  a  pencil  is  forbidden  (Orah  Hayyim,  32, 
6,  Is.serles'  gloss).  The  scribe  should  be  very  care- 
ful in  writing  the  selections.  Before 
Mode  of  beginning  to  write  he  sliould  pro- 
Writing,  nounce  the  words,  "I  am  writing  this 
for  the  sake  of  the  holiness  of  tefillin  "  ; 
and  before  he  begins  to  write  any  of  the  names  of 
God  occurring  in  the  texts,  he  should  say,  "I  am 
writing  this  for  the  sake  of  the  holiness  of  the 
Name. "  Throughout  the  writing  his  attention  must 
not  be  diverted;  "even  if  the  King  of  Israel  should 
then  greet  liim,  he  is  forbidden  to  reply  "  ("Yad," 
I.e.  i.  15;  Orah  Hayyim,  32,  19).  If  he  omits  even 
one  letter,  the  wliole  inscription  becomes  unfit.  If 
he  inserts  a  superfluous  letter  at  the  beginning 
or  at  the  end  of  a  word,  he  may  erase  it,  but  if 
in  the  middle  of  a  word,  the  whole  becomes  unfit 
("Yad,"  I.e.  ii. ;  Orah  Hayyim,  32,  23,  and  "Be'er 
Heteb,"  ad  loe.).  The  letters  must  be  distinct  and 
not  touch  each  other;  space  must  be  left  between 
them,  between  the  words,  and  between  the  lines,  as 
also  between  the  verses  (Orah  Hayyim,  32,  32,  Is- 
serles'  gloss;  comp.  "jNIagen  Abraham"  and  "Be'er 
Heteb"  ad  loc.).  The  letters  p  ]^nv^  where  they 
occur  in  the  selections  are  adorned  with  some 
fanciful  ornamentation  (Men.  29b;  see  Tos.,  s.v. 
"  Sha'atnez  ") ;  some  scribes  adorn  other  letters  also 
(Orah  ilayyim,  36,  3,  and  "Be'er  Heteb,"  arf  loc.). 
In  writing  the  selections  it  is  customary  to  devote 
seven  lines  to  each  paragraph  in  the  hand-phylac- 
tery, and  four  lines  to  each  paragrapli  in  the  head- 
phylactery  (Orah  Hayyim,  35). 

In  putting  on  the  tefillin,  the  hand-phylactery  is 
laid  first  (Men.  36a).  Its  place  is  on  the  inner  side 
of  the  left  arm  {ih.  36b,  37a),  just  above  the  elbow 
(comp.  "  Sefer  Hasidim,"  §§  434,  638,  where  the  exact 
place  is  given  as  two  fist-widths  from  the  shoulder- 
blade;  similarly  the  head-phylactery  is  worn  two 
fist-widths  from  the  tip  of  the 
nose) ;  and  it  is  held  in  position 
by  the  noose  of  the  strap  so  that 
when  the  arm  is  bent  the  phy- 
lactery may  rest  near  the  beait 
(Men.  37a,  based  on  Deut.  xi.  8; 
comp.  "Sefer  Hasidim,"  §§435, 
1742).  If  one  is  left-handed,  he 
lays  the  hand-phylactery  on  the  same  place  on  his 
right  hand  (Men."  37a;  Orah  Hayyim,  27b).  After 
the  phylactery  is  thus  fastened  on  the 
How  bare  arm,   the  strap  is  wound  seven 

Put  on.  limes  round  the  arm.  The  head-phy- 
lactery is  phtced  so  as  to  overhang  the 
middle  of  the  forehead,  with  the  knot  of  the  strap  at 
the  back  of  the  head  and  overhanging  the  middle  of 
the  neck,  while  the  two  ends  of  the  strap,  with  the 
blackened  side  outward,  hang  over  the  shoulders  in 
front  (Orah  Hayyim,  27,  8-11).  On  laying  the  hand- 
phylactery,  before  the  knot  is  fastened,  the  following 

Deut.  vi.  4-9, 

Deut.  xi.  13-21. 




benediction  is  pronounced:  "Blessed  art  Thou  .  .  . 
who  sanctilietli  us  with  His  commaudintuts  and 
hast  commanded  us  to  lay  tetillin. "  Before  the  head- 
phylactery  is  fastened  the  blessing  is  repeated  with 
the  substitution  of  the  phrase  "concerning  the  com- 
maudnieut  of  tefillin  "  for  "to  lay  telilliu."     Some 

glorious  kingdom  for  ever  and  ever,"  lest  the  second 
benediction  be  pronounced  unnecessarily.  If  lie  who 
lays  the  tefilliu  has  talked  between  the  laying  of  the 
hand-phylactery  and  that  of  the  head-phylactery, 
he  should  repeat  both  blessings  at  the  laying  of  the 
latter  (Men.  3Ga  ;  "  Yad,"  I.e.  iv.  4,  o  ;  Oruh  Hayyim, 


A.  For  the  arm.    B.  As  aUJusted  un  the  arm.    C.  For  the  head.    D.  Jew  wearing  phylacteries. 

(From  Plcsrt,  1725.) 

authorities  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  blessing  on 
laying  the  head-phylaetcry  should  be  pronounced 
only  when  an  inleiruption  has  occurred  through 
conversation  on  the  part  of  the  one  engaged  in  per- 
forfiiing  thecoiiiiiiandment;  otherwise  the  one  bless- 
ing ijroiiounccd  on  laying  the  hand-piiylaetery  is 
suflicieut.  The  prevailing  custom,  however,  is  to 
pronounce  two  blessings,  and,  after  the  second  bless- 
ing, to  say  the  words,  "Blessed  be  the  name  of  His 

25,  5;  Isserles'  gloss,  9,  10;  comp.  ib.  206,  6).  Then 
the  strap  of  the  hand-pliylactery  is  wound  three 
times   around   the  niiddU;   linger   so   as  to   form  a 

{j>  and   the  passages  Hos.  ii.   21   and 

The  22  are  recited.     The  seven  twistiiigs 

Blessings,    of   the    strap   on   the   arm   are    then 

counted  while  the  seven  wordsof  Dent, 
iv.  4  are  recited.  A  lengthy  prayer  in  which  the  sig- 
niticance  of  the  tetillin  is  exjilained  and  which  con- 




tains  traces  of  cabalistic  influence  is  recited  by  some 
before  putting  on  tlie  tefilliu.  After  the  tetilliu  are 
laid  Ex.  xiii.  1-lG  is  recited.  In  removing  the  tetil- 
lin  the  three  twistings  on  the  middle  finger  are 
loosened  first;  then  the  hcud-phylactery  is  removed  ; 
and  finally  the  hunil -phylaclery  (Men.  36a).  It  is 
customary  to  lay  and  to  remove  the  tefilliu  -while 
standing;  also  to  kiss  them  when  they  are  taken 
from  and  returned  to  the  phylactery-bag  (Orah 
Hayyim,  28.  2,  3). 

Originally  tefilliu  were  worn  all  day,  but  not 
during  the  night  (Men.  86b).  Now  the  prevailing 
custom  is  to  wear  them  during  the  daily  morning 
service  only  (comp.  Bcr.  14b).  They  are  not  worn 
on  Sabbaths  and  holy  days ;  for  these,  being  in  them- 
selves "signs,"  render  the  tefilliu,  which  are  to  serve 

is  engaged  in  the  study  of  the  Law  (K.  Jonah  to 
Alfasi  on  Ber.  il.  5,  s.r.  "Le-Memra"),  and  .scribes 
of  and  dealers  in  tetillin  and  mezuzot  while  engaged 
in  their  work  if  it  can  not  be  postponed,  are  also 
free  from  this  obligation  (Suk.  26a;  Orah  Hayyim, 
38,  8-10).  It  is  not  permitted  to  enter  a  cemetery 
(Ber.  18a)  or  any  unseemly  place  {ib.  23a;  Shab. 
10a),  or  to  eat  a  regular  meal  or  to  sleep  (Ber.  23b; 
Suk.  26a),  while  wearing  tetillin.  The  bag  usexl  for 
tefilliu  should  not  be  used  for  any  other  purpose,  un- 
less a  condition  was  expressly  made  that  it  might 
be  used  for  any  purpose  (Ber.  231);  Sanh.  48a). 

Maimonides  ("  Yad,"  I.e.  iv.  25,  20)  concludes  the 
laws  of  tetillin  with  the  following  exhortation  (the 
references  are  not  in  Maimonides) : 

"The  sanctity  of  teflllin  is  very  great   (comp.  Shab.  49a; 







Phylactkry  for  arm. 

(From  the  Cairo  Genizah.) 

as  signs  themselves  (Ex.  xiii.  9,  16),  unnecessary 
(Men.  36b;  'Er.  96a).  In  those  places  where  tetillin 
are  worn  on  the  week-days  of  the  festivals  (see 
Holy  Days),  and  on  New  JNIoons,  they  are  re- 
moved before  the  "Musaf  "  prayer  (Orah  Hayyim, 
25,  13). 

The  duty  of  laying  tefillin  rests  upon  males 
after  the  age  of  thirteen  years  and  one  day.  Women 
are  exempt  from  the  obligation,  as  are  also  slaves 
and  minors  (Ber.  20a).  Women  who  wish  to  lay 
tetillin  are  precluded  from  doing  so  (Orah  Hayyim, 
38,  3,  Isserles'  gloss);  in  ancient  times  this  was  not 
the  case  ('Er.  96a,  b).  A  mourner  during  the  first 
day  of  his  mourning  period  (M.  K.  15a;  Suk.  25b), 
a  bridegroom  on  his  wedding-day  (Suk.  I.e.),  an 
excommunicate,  and  a  leper  (^M.  K.  15a)  are  also 
exempt.  A  suflerer  from  stomach-trouble  (Hul. 
110a),  one  who  is  otherwise  in  pain  and  can  not 
concentrate  his  mind  ("Yad,"  I.e.  iv.  13),  one  who 

Masseket  Teflllin,  toward  the  end:  Zohar,  section  "  Wa'etha- 
nan,"  p.  269b).  As  long  as  the  teflllin  are  on  the  head  and  on 
the  arm  of  a  man,  he  is  modest  and  God-fearinp  and  will 
not  be  attracted  by  hilarity  or  idle  talk,  and  will  have  no  evil 
thoughts,  but  will  devote  all  his  thoughts  to  truth  and  right- 
eousness (comp.  JSIen.  43b  ;  "SeferHasidim,"§5.54).  Therefore, 
every  man  ought  to  try  to  have  the  teflllin  upon  him  the  whole 
day  (Masseket  Teflllin.  I.e.;  comp.  SIfre  t^)  Deut.  v.  9);  for  only 
in  this  way  can  he  fulfll  the  commandment.  It  is  related  that 
Kab  (Abba  Arika),  the  pupil  of  our  holy  teacher  (R.  Judah  ha- 
Nasi),  was  never  seen  to  walk  four  cubits  without  a  Torah,  with- 
out fringes  on  his  garments  ("  zizit"),  and  without  teflllin  (Suk. 
29a,  where  R.  Johaiian  b.  Zakkai  and  R.  Eliezer  are  mentioned  ; 
comp.  Meg.  24a.  where  R.  Zera  is  mentioned) .  Although  the  Law 
enjoins  the  wearing  of  teflllin  the  whole  day.  it  is  especially  com- 
mendable to  wear  them  during  prayer.  The  sages  say  that  one 
who  reads  the  Shenia'  without  teflllin  is  as  if  he  testifled  falsely 
against  himself  (Ber.  14b,  15a).  He  who  does  not  lay  teflllin 
transgresses  eight  commandments  (Men.  44a  ;  comp.  R.  H.  ITa); 
for  in  each  of  the  four  Biblical  passages  there  is  a  commandment 
to  wear  teflllin  on  the  head  and  on  the  arm.  But  he  who  is  ac- 
customed to  wear  teflllin  will  live  long,  as  it  is  written,  '  When 
the  Lord  is  upon  them  they  will  live '  "  (Isa.  xxxviii.  Iti,  Hebr.; 
comp.  A.  v.;  Men.  44a). 




BiBLlOGRAPHT:  Miunekft  Tt-nUin,  published  by  KIrchheim  in 
his  edition  of  the  seven  smaller  treatises  of  the  Talmud.  Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main.  1851 ;  Rosh.  Hilkot  Ttfillin,  in  Halaknt 
Ktiannot,  hnd  ShimmuKha  Rabba,  published  with  Menahot 
In  mtwt  editions  of  the  Talmud:  K'll  Ii<>,  §21.  FQrth,  1782; 
Hambuiver.  li.B.T.  ii.,  s.v.  TephiUin  ;  Hastings.  Dirt.  Bible  ; 
Friediander.  I7u  Jtuw/i  IitU\/ion,  pp.  SU-SW.  London,  1900;  Ttnilali  U-Mofheh,  Pivsbui>r,  1SW3 ;  Zunz,  G.S. 
11.  172-176,  Berlin.  U<76.  t     tt     /-• 

E.  c.  J-  H.   G. 

Historical  View  :    The  only  instance  of  the 

name  "  iihyhiciories  "  in  Biblical  times  occurs  in  the 
New  Testament  (Matt,  xxiii.  5).  whence  it  has  passed 
into  the  1  a  n  - 
guages  of  Eu- 
rope. In  rab- 
binical literature 
it  is  not  found 
even  as  a  foreign 
word.  The  Sep- 
tuagint  renders 
"totafot"  (A. 
y.  and  E.  V. 
Ex.  xiii.  16  and 
Deut.  vi.  8)  by 
aaa/.evrdv  (  = 
"something  im- 
movable ") ;  nor 
do  Aquila  and 
Symmachus  use 
the  word  "  phy- 
lacteries." The 
Targumim  (Jon- 
athan, Onkelos) 
and  the  Peshitta 
use  "tefillin  " 
(Ex.  xiii.  9,  16; 
xxviii.  37;  Deut. 
vi.  8,  xxviii.  10; 
Ezek.  xxiv.  23; 
Cant.  viii.  1)  or 
"totafot"  (II 
Sam.  i.  10;  Ezek. 
xxiv.  17  et  seq.). 
The  terms  "te- 
fiUah,"  "tefillin" 
only  are  found 
in  Talmudic  lit- 
erature,  al- 
though the  word 
"  totafah  "  was 
still  current,  be- 
ing used  with 
the  meaning  of  "frontlet  "  (Shab.  vi.  1).  The  con- 
clusions in  regard  to  the  tefillin  wiiich  are  based 
on  its  current  uame  "phylacteries," 
therefore,  lack  historical  basis,  since 
this  name  was  not  used  in  truly  Jew- 
ish circles. 
In  regard  to  their  origin,  however,  the  custom  of 
wearing  protecting  coverings  on  the  head  and  hands 
must  be  borne  in  mind.  Saul's  way  of  appearing  in 
battle,  with  a  crown  on  his  head  and  wearing  l)race- 
lets,  is  connected  with  this  idea.  The  Proverbs  re- 
flect popular  conceptions,  for  they  originated  in 
great  part  with  the  iieople.  or  were  addressed  to 
them.  Prov.  i.  9,  iii.  3,  vi.  21,  and  vii.  3  (comp. 
Jer.  xvi-i.  1,  xxxi.  32-33)  clearly  indicate  the  custom 


(Id  the  j>n«»;aBioD  of  M.iurlce  Herrmann, 

Name  and 

of  wearing  some  object,  with  or  without  inscription, 
around  the  neck  or  near  the  heart ;  the  actual  cus- 
tom appears  in  the  figure  of  speech.  In  view  of 
these  facts  it  may  be  assumed  that  Ex.  xiii.  9,  16, 
and  Deut.  vi.  8,  xi.  18  must  be  interpreted  not  fig- 
uratively but  literally ;  therefore  it  must  be  assumed 
that  the  custom  of  wearing  strips  inscribed  with 
Biblical  passages  is  commanded  in  the  Torah. 
"  Bind  them  as  signs  on  thy  hand,  and  they  shall  be 
as  totafot  between  thy  eyes  "  assumes  that  totafot 

were  at  the  time 
known  and  in 
use,  but  that 
thenceforth  the 
words  of  the 
Torah  were  to 
serve  as  totafot 
(on  signs  see  also 
I  Kings  XX.  41 ; 
Ezek.  ix.  4,  6; 
Psalms  of  Solo- 
mon, XV.  9;  see 

BUE.\ST  -  PI..A.TE 

OF  THE  High 
Phiest;  Caix). 
It  is  not  known 
whether  this 
command  was 
carried  out  in 
the  earliest  time, 
and  if  so ,  in 
what  manner. 
But  from  the 
relatively  large 
number  of  regu- 
lations referring 
to  the  phylac- 
teries— some 
of  them  con- 
nected with  the 
names  of  the 
first  tannaim — 
and  also  from 
the  fact  that 
among  the  fifty- 
five  "Sinaitic 
c  o  m  m  a  n  d  s  " 
("halakah  le- 
>I  o  .5  h  e  h  m  i  - 
Sinai '').eiglit  re- 
fer to  the  tefillin 
alone  and  seven  to  the  tefillin  and  the  Torah  to- 
gether, it  follows  that  they  were  used  as  early  as 
the  time  of  the  Soferim — the  fourth, 
Epoch,  of  or  at  least  the  thiid,  century  u.c. 
In-  The  earliest  ex  illicit  reference  to  them 

troduction.    that  has  been  preserved — namely,  in 
the  Letter  of  Aristeas  (verse  159;  see 
Kaulzsch,  "  Apokryphen,"  ii.  18) — speaks  of  them 
as  an  old  institution. 

Josephus  ("Ant."  iv.  8,  §  13)  also  regards  them 
as  an  ancient  institution,  and  he  curiously  enough 
places  the  tefillin  of  the  head  first,  as  the  Talmud 
generally  does  (comp.  Justin,  "Dial,  cum  Tryph." 
ed.  Otto,  ii.  154).  The  tefillin  are  mentioned  in  con- 
nection with  Simeon  b.   Shetah,  brother-in-law  of 

New  York.) 




Alexander  Janna'us  (Ycr.  IIuij.  77(1):  uiul  Sliammai 
produces  tlie  tefillin  of  his  motlier's  father  (Mek.,  Bo, 
§  17  [ed.  Friedmann,  21b] ;  the  parallel  passage  Yer. 
'Er.  20a  reads  "  Ilillcl  ").  The  date  here  given  is  the 
seventh  decade  of  the  first  century  ii.c.  Schorr  (in 
"Ile-Haluz,"  vol.  iv.)  assumes  that  they  were  intro- 
duced in  the  Maccabean  period,  and  A.  Krochinal  re- 
gards the  reference  to  Elisha's  "wings"  (Shab.  '14a; 
Yer.  Ber.  4c)  as  indicating  that  lie  was  one  of  the  first 
of  the  high  priests  to  wear  the  tefiUah  ("  'lyyun  Te- 
lillah,"'  pp.  27  et  seq.).  Johanan  1).  Zakkai  never 
went  four  ells  without  tefillin  ;  neither  did  his  pupil 
Eliezer  (Yer.  Ber.  4c).  Gamaliel  II.  (r.  100  O.K.) 
gives  directions  as  to  what  shall  be  done  with  te- 
fillin found  on  the  Sabbath,  making  a  distinction 
between  old  and  new  tefillin  ('Er.  x.  1),  a  fact  that 
clearly  indicates  the  extent  to  which  they  were  used. 
Even  the  slaves  of  this  patriarch  wore  tefillin  (Yer. 
'Er.  26a).  Judali  b.  Bathyra  refers,  about  150  c.e., 
to  llie  tefillin  which  he  inherited  from  his  grand- 
father; these  were  inscribed  to  the  dead  awakened 
by  Ezekiel  (xxxvii.  ;  Sanli.  92b).  In  the  following 
centuries  they  were  used  to  an  increasing  extent,  as 
appears  from  the  numerous  sentences  and  ndes  re- 
ferring to  them  by  the  authorities  of  the  Babylonian 
and  Palestinian  Talmuds. 

Tefillin  resembled  amulets  in  their  earliest  form, 

strips  of  parchment  in  a  leather  case,  which  is  called 

either  "  bag  "  or  "  little  house."     Tefil- 

Earliest  lin  and  "  keme'ot  "  are,  in  fact,  often 
Form.  mentioned  side  by  side  (SJiab.  vi.  2: 
]Mik.  vi.  4;  Kelim  xxiii.  9;  et  al.),  and 
■were  liable  to  be  mistaken  one  for  the  other  ('Er.  x. 
1  et  al.).  iis  in  the  case  of  the  Torah  roll,  the  only 
permissible  material  was  parchment,  while  the  "me- 
zuzah  "  was  made  of  a  different  kind  of  parchment 
(Shab.  viii.  'Set  al.)\  for  this  reason  a  discarded 
tefillah  could  be  made  into  a  mezuzah,  but  not  vice 
versa  (Men.  32a).  It  was  made  square,  not  round 
(Meg.  iv.  8).  The  head-tefillah  consisted  of  four 
strips  in  four  compartments,  while  the  hand-tefillah 
consisted  of  one  strip.  The  former  could  be  made 
out  of  the  latter,  but  not  vice  versa ;  and  they  were 
independent  of  each  other  (Kelim  xviii.  8;  Men.  iii. 
7,  iv.  1,  34b;  Yer.  Hag.  77d  et  passim).  The  here- 
tics had  a  way  of  covering  the  tefillah  with  gold, 
■wearing  it  on  the  sleeve  and  on  the  forehead  (Meg. 
iv.  8).  The  straps  (Yad.  iii.  8)  were  made  of  the 
same  material  as  the  boxes,  but  could  be  of  any  color 
except  blood-red ;  they  were  sometimes  blue  or  of  a 
reddish  purple  (Men.  35a). 

The  most  important  tefillah  was  the  head-tefillah 
(Kelim  xviii.  8  et  passim).  It  was  put  on  according 
to  rule  (Sheb.  iii.  8,  11;  Men.  36a)  and  was  worn 
fron\  morning  until  night,  with  the  exception  of 
Sabbath  and  feast-days  (Targ.  to  Ezek.  xiii.  10; 
Men.  36b);  some  wore  tefillin  also  in  theevening,  as 
did  Akiba  ('Er.  96a),  Abbahu  (Yer.  'Er.  26a),  Rabba 
and  Iluna  (Men.  36b)  during  the  evening  prayer, 
and  Ashi  (beginning  of  5th  cent.). 

The  head-tefillah  was  the  principal  one,  because 
the  tefillah  worn  on  the  arm  was  not  visible  (Men. 
37b).  A  Jew  was  recognized  by  the  former,  which 
he  wore  proudly,  because,  according  to  Deut.  x xviii. 
10,  all  peoples  knew  thereby  that  the  Name  of  the 
Eternal  had  been  pronounced  over  him  (Men.  35b ; 

Targ.  Esth.  viii.  15;  comp.  Cant.  viii.  1;  Ezek. 
xxiv.  17,  23).  Jerome  says  (on  Galatians  iv.  22) 
that  the  Jews  feared  to  appear  in  the  cities,  because 
they  attracted  attention;  jirobably  they  Avere  recog- 
nized by  the  tefillah.  It  was  not  worn  in  times  of 
danger  ('Er.  x.  1).  The  law  in  regard  to  tefillin, 
therefore,  which  did  not  demand  obedience  at  the 
jK'ril  of  life,  had  not  taken  such  a  deep  hold  upon 
the  people  as  other  laws  (Shab.  130a;  R.  H.  17a; 
Yer.  Ber.  4c;  Pesik.  R.,  ed.  Friedmann,  p.  111b). 
However,  it  must  not  be  inferred  from  this  state- 
ment that  the  tefillah  was  not  w^orn  to  any  great 
extent  (Rodkinson,  "Ursprung  und  Entwickelung 
des  Phylacterien-Ritus  bei  den  Juden,"  p.  5),  but 
merely  that  it  was  not  generally  worn. 

Tlie  tefillin  have  been  connected  with  magic,  as 
the  name  "  phylacteries  "  primarily  indicates.  Fried- 
lander  takes  the  tefillah  to  be  a  substitute  for  the 

"signum  serpentinum  "  of  the  antino- 

Tefillin       mistic    Gnostics.     The   tefillin,    how- 

and  Magic,  ever,  originated  at  a  time  prior  to  that 

of  the  Gnostics,  as  has  been  shown 
above.  Although  the  institution  of  the  tefillin  is  re- 
lated in  form  to  the  custom  of  wearing  amulets,  in- 
dicating the  ancient  views  regarding  that  means  of 
protection,  yet  there  is  not  a  single  passage  in  the 
old  literature  to  show  that  they  were  identified  with 
magic.  Their  power  of  protecting  is  similar  to  that 
of  the  Torah  and  the  Commandments,  of  which  it  is 
said,  "They  protect  Israel "  (Blau,  "  AltjLidisches 
Zauberwesen,"  p.  152).  One  of  the  earliest  tannaim, 
Eliezer  b.  Ilyrcanus  (b.  70  C.E.),  who  laid  great 
stress  upon  the  tefillin,  actively  advocating  their 
general  use,  derives  the  duty  of  wearing  them  from 
Josh.  i.  8,  "Thou  shalt  meditate  therein  day  and 
night"  (treatise  Tefillim,  near  end).  In  conform- 
ity with  this  view  they  contain  chiefl}'  the  Shema', 
the  daily  reading  of  which  takes  the  place  of  the 
daily  study  of  the  Bible. 

The  tannaitic  Midrash,  indeed,  takes  pains  to  prove 
that  the  Decalogue  has  no  place  in  the  tefillin  (Sifre, 
Deut.  34,  35 ;  Ber.  lib).  Jerome,  therefore  (to  Matt. 
XXV.  3),  is  not  correct  in  saying  that  the  tefillin  con- 
tain also  the  Ten  Commandments;  although  this 
may  have  been  the  case  among  the  "minim,"  or 
heretics.  The  newlj^  discovered  Hebrew  papyrus 
with  Shema'  and  Decalogue  belonged,  perhaps,  to 
the  tefillah  of  a  "  min."  The  Samaritans  did  not  ob- 
serve the  command  to  wear  the  tefillah  (Men.  42b, 
above).  They  are  ranked  with  the  pagans,  there- 
fore, as  persons  not  fit  to  write  them  (ib.). 

Although  the  tefillin  were  worn  throughout  the 
day,  not  only  in  Palestine  but  also  in  Babylon,  the 

custom  of  wearing  them  did  not  be- 

In  the        come   entirely   popular;    and   during 

Diaspora     the  Diaspora    they    were  worn    no- 

and  Post-    where    during  the   day.     But  it   ap- 

Talmudic     pears  from  the  Letter  of  Aristeas  and 

Times.       from  Josephus  that  the  tefillin  were 

known  to  the  Jews  of  the  Diaspora. 
At  this  time  it  may  have  become  customary  to  wear 
them  only  during  prayer,  traces  of  this  custom 
being  found  in  Babylon  (Men.  36b).  In  France 
in  the  thirteenth  century  they  were  not  generally 
worn  even  during  prayer  (Rodkinson,  I.e.,  quoting 
Tos.    Shab.  49a;    comp.   "Semag,"  Commandment 




No.  3;  Gratz,  "Gesch."  vii.  71).  The  diflference  of 
opinion  between  Isaac  ( Uaslii ;  d.  1105)  and  his  grand- 
son Jacob  Tarn  (d.  1171)  in  regard  to  thearningemeut 
of  the  four  sections  indicates  that  no  tixed  custom  iu 
wearing  them  had  arisen.  Rashi  and  Tam's  tefillin 
are  referred  to ;  scruindously  pious  persons  put  ou 
thetelillinofH.  Tarn  after  prayer  (Men.  34b;  Shulhan 
Aruk,  Orah  Hayyim,  34).  There  were  differences 
of  opinion  between  the  Spanish  and  the  German  Jews 
iu  regard  to  the  knot  iu  the  strap  (see  iUustratious  in 
Surenhusius,  cited  below).  At  the  time  of  the  Re- 
form movement,  in  the  tirst  half  of  tiie  nineteenth 
century,  especially  in  Germany,  the  custom  of  wear- 
ing the  tetillin.  like  other  ritual  and  ceremonial  ordi- 
nances, was  attacked,  calling  forth  the  protests  of 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY:  The  chief  works  are:  Klein,  Die  Totaphnt 
nach  Dihd  utul  Traditimi  la  Jahrfi.  fllr  Pn)t€i>tantische 
r/.<< •/'.(/!«,  1S81,  pp.  ti«k>-689,  and  M.  L.  Rodkloson,  Ur- 
ftpniim  ttnil  EtitwickehttiiHies  I'hflJncterieu-RiUts  hei  deii 
Jwhu,  Prrtburp,  18K{  (reviewed  in  /\'.  E.  J.  vi.  2S8);  idem, 
HiMDrtinf  A  inulet.i,  ClinrinMaiKt  Tali^smau.i,  New  York,  189:}. 
Fordescrlption  and  illustrations  see  Surenhusius. 3/i.s7i/ifl/i. vol. 
l...\msterdain.  16W  (before  p.  Ui,  and  Bodensrhatz,  Kirchlkhe 
Vfrfa-^tuugder  HeutiiiiiiJudcii,  iv.  14-19;  see  also  Winer. 
B.  R.  3d  ed..  1. .%,  ii.  2«(»:  Hamburger.  R.  B.  T.  ii.  KJtio.  1203- 
laW;  Hautinps.  DiVf.  iJiWf,  iii.  86&-874 ;  Z.  Frankel,  Lehcr 
deii  Kiiirtuiis  dtr  PaUMiiti.scheti  Exegcse  axif  die  AJexan- 
driiiisrhf  Ifcrmoirutik.  pp.  90  et  «CQ.,  Leipsie,  1851;  M. 
Friedlunder,  Dcr  AtitichriM  in  den  Vnrchristlichen  JU- 
dwc/if  )i  ijiuUen.  pp.  1.'>.>-Iti">.  Goitingen,  19t)l  ;  M.  Griinbaum, 
Gcsammeltc  AufMltze.  pp.  208  et  »io.,  Berlin,  1901 ;  Herrfeld, 
GcKch.  des  I'oJAcs  7j<rne/,  lil.  223-2ii.  Nordhausen,  18.57;  A. 
Kn>chmal.  "lujnin  TefiUah,  pp.  24  ct  scq.,  Lemberg,  1883;  S. 
Munk.  PaleMine,  p.  2«8;  O.  H.  Schorr,  in  He-Holuz,  vol.  iv.; 
Sehurer,  Ge.ich.  M  ed.,  ii.  484  et  sei/.;  Zunz,  d.  S.  ii.  172-176 
{TefiUin.  €i)ie  Dctrachtunij).  See  earlier  Christian  bibllog- 
raphv  in  Sehurer,  Gcscli. 
J.  L.   B. 

Critical  View  :  The  etymology  of  the  term — 

from  the  Gi'isi^k vi'/ auri/piov,  itself  derived  from  (pv/.da- 
a£tv{=  "to  guard  against  evil,"  "to  protect") — indi- 
cates the  meaning,  in  the  Hellenistic  period,  to  have 
been  "amulet"  (an  object  worn  as  a  protection 
against  evil).  The  language  of  the  four  passages  iu 
which  a  reference  occurs  to  "sign  upon  the  hand" 
and  "  frontlets,"  or  "  memorials,"  "  between  the  eyes  " 
(E.\.  xiii.  9,  16;  Deut.  vi.  8,  xi.  18,  Hebr.)  proves 
that  among  the  Hebrews  the  practise  of  wearing  ob- 
jects of  this  kind  around  the  forehead  and  on  the  hand 
must  liave  prevailed.  Later  rabbinical  exegesis  re- 
garded the  figurative  reference  and  simile  in  Deut. 
vi.  8  and  xi.  18  as  a  command  to  be  carried  out  liter- 
ally. Comparison  with  Ex.  xiii.  9, 16,  where  the  same 
terminology  is  employed,  sutttces  to  demonstrate  that 
in  Deut.  vi.  8,  xi.  18  the  writer  expressed  himself  fig- 
uratively, with  allusion,  of  course,  to  a  popular  and 
wide-spread  custom.  It  is  plain  that  a  sound  con- 
struction of  the  Deuteronomic  passages  must  reject 
the  interpietation  which  restricts  the 
Figurative  bearing  (jf  the  phrase  "  ha-debarim  ha- 
Ex-  elleh  "  (Deut.  vi.  6)  to  the  immediately 

pressions.  i)re(eding  Shema",  or  of  "debarai  el- 
leh "  of  Deut.  xi.  18  to  the  preceding 
verse.  In  the  phraseology  of  Deuteronomy,  "these 
my  words  "  embrace  the  whole  book,  the  Torah,  and 
it  would  have  been  as  impossible  to  write  the  whole 
book  on  one's  hand  as  it  was  to  carry  the  sacrifice  of 
the  first-born  (Ex.  xiii.)  as  "a  sign  on  one's  hand." 
Prov.  i.  9,  iii.  3.  vi.  21,  vii.  3,  and  Jer.  xvii.  1,  xxxi. 
33  illustrate  in  what  sense  the  expressions  "write" 
or  "bind  "  in  this  connection  are  to  be  taken.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  phylacteries  as  described  by  the  Rabbis 

did  not  come  into  use  before  the  last  pre-Christian 
centur}';  the  Samaritans  knew  nothing  of  them. 

That  amulets  and  signs  were  iu  use  among  the  an- 
cient Hebrews  is  evident  from  Gen.  iv.  15  (Cain's, 
sign),  I  Kings  xx.  41,  and  Ezek.  ix.  4-6  (comp.  Rev. 
vii.  3;  xiii.  16;  xiv.  1,  9;  Psalms  of  Solomon,  xv.  10). 
Originally,  the  "sign  "  was  tattooed  ou  the  skin,  the 
forehead  ("between  the  eyes")  and  the  hand  natu- 
rally being  chosen  for  the  display.  Later,  some 
visible  object  worn  between  the  eyes  or  bound  on 
the  hand  was  substituted  for  the  writing  on  the  skin. 

But  the  original  practise  is  still  discernible  in  the 
use  of  the  word  "yad  "  (hand)  to  connote  a  "  token  " 
(Ex.  xvii.  16)  with  an  inscription,  the  "zikkaron," 
which  latter  is  the  technical  term,  apjiearing  in  Ex. 
xiii.  and  Deut.  xi.  18.  This  fact  explains  also  the 
original  value  of  the  word  "yad  "in  tJie  combina- 
tion "yad  wa-shem  "  (hand  and  name;  Isa.  Ivi.  5). 
The  jiassage  from  Isaiah  just  quoted  plainly  shows 
that  such  a  yad  wa-shem  was  effective  against  that 
the  Semite  dreaded  most  —  oblivion  after  death. 
The  words  "ot,"  "shem,"  and  "zeker"  are  often 
used  interchangeably  (e.g.,  Isa.  Iv.  13  and  Ex.  iii. 
15),  and  it  is  probable  that  originally  they  desig- 
nated visible  tokens  cut  into  the  flesh  for  purposes- 
of  marking  one's  connection  with  a  deity  or  a  clan 
(see  Circumcision;  Covexaxt;  Totemis.m).  The 
common  meanings  of  these  words,  "sign,"  "name," 
and  "  memorial,"  are  secondary.  The  phrase  "  to  lift 
up  the  name"  in  the  Decalogue  indicates  fully  that 
"shem  "  must  have  been  originally  a  totemisticsign, 
affixed  to  a  person  or  an  object. 

The  etymology  of  "totafot,"  wliicli,  probably, 
should  be  considered  singular  and  be  pointed  "tote- 
fet,"  is  not  plain.  The  consensus  of  modern  opin- 
ion is  that  it  designates  a  round  jewel,  like  the 
"netifot"  (Judges  viii.  26;  Isa.  iii.  19),  therefore  a 
charm,  though  others  believe  its  original  meaning  to 
have  been  "  a  mark  "  tattooed  into  the  flesh  (Siegfried- 
Stade,  "Lexicon").  It  is  to  the  habit  of  wearing 
amulets  or  making  incisions  that  the  law  of  Deute- 
ronomy refers,  as  does  Ex.  xiii.,  advising  that  only 
God's  Torah,  as  it  were,  shall  constitute  the  pro- 
tecting "charm"  of  the  faithful. 

Bibliography  :  7>r(.s  A'ai'»U(:i(?i((i,inStade"sZfif,'*c;iri/M894; 
(i.  Klein,  Totajilidt  >i(H)t  liihcl  u)id  Traditinn,  in  Jdlirlmch 
fl'tr  l'rota<ta)iti)ichc  Thcologic,  1881 ;  Hastings,  Diet.  Bible. 

E.  G.  H. 
PHYSICIAN.      See  Medicine. 
PIATELLI.     See  Anaw. 

PICART,  BERNARD  :  French  designer  and 
engraver;  Ijorn  at  Paris  June  11,  1678;  died  at  Am- 
sterdam ^lay  8,  1733.  He  was  descended  from  a 
Protestant  family  and  received  his  earliest  instruc- 
tion from  his  father,  Ktienne  Picart,  and  from  Le 
Brun  and  Jouvenet.  At  an  early  age  Picart  showed 
a  marked  facility  in  the  imitation  of  the  great  mas- 
ters. In  1710  he  settled  at  Amsterdam,  where  he 
supplied  plates  and  engravings  to  printers  and  book- 
sellers. Picart  designed  and  executed  avast  num- 
ber of  plates,  about  1,300  of  which  are  still  extant.  represent  a  variety  of  subjects,  a  number  of 
them  dejiicting  Biblical  topics.  That  part  of  his 
work  which  is  of  Jewish  interest  is  contained  in  the 
"Ceremonies  des  Juifs,"  the  first  volume  of  the 
"Ceremonies  et  Coutumes  Reliirieuses  de  Tons  les 


/9./\.:r'r  y.:'    /.•■•< 


(From  ihe  Sulzberger  collection  in  the  Jewish  Theological  Semlosry  of  America,  New  York.) 




Peuplcs  du  Monde"  (11  vols.,  Amsterdam,  1723- 
1743).  These  plates,  all  of  wliicli  are  faithfully  and 
carefully  prepared,  are  among  the  earliest  engra- 
vings on  Jewish  ecclesiastical  and  ceremonial  sub- 
jects. Tlie  following  is  a  list  of  iheni,  given  in  the 
order  in  which  they  appear  in  the  original  edition: 
(1)  Interior  of  the  Portuguese  Synagogue  at  Amster- 
dam ;  (2)  Jew  with  Phylacteries  and  Praying-Scarf; 
(3)  Arba'  Kanfot,  Sabbath  Lamp,  Mazzot,  Lulab, 
Etrog,  Mezuzah,  and  Shofar;  (4)  Benediction  of  the 
Priests  in  a  Portuguese  Synagogue  at  Tiie  Hague ; 
(5)  Elevation  of  the  Law;  (6)  Sounding  the  Shofar 
on  New-Year's  Day ;  (7)  The  Day  of  Atonement  (in 
the  Synagogue);  (8)  Search  for  Leaven;  ('J)  Pass- 
over Meal;  (10)  Feast  of  Tabernacles  (in  the  Syna- 
gogue); (1')  Feast  of  Tabernacles  (at  Home);  (12) 
Rejoicing  of  the  Law  (in  the  Synagogue);  (18)  Es- 
corting Home  the  Bridegroom  of  the  Law;  (14)  Im- 
plements of  Circumcision;  Scroll  of  the  Law,  with 
Mantle,  Crowns,  etc. ;  (15)  Circumcision;  (Ki)  Re- 
demption of  tlie  First-Born ;  (17)  Marriage  Among  the 
Portuguese  Jews ;  (18)  Marriage  Among  the  German 
Jews;  (19)  Circuit  Round  the  Coffin  ;  (20)  Interment. 
An  English  translation  of  the  work  cited  was 
printed  by  William  Jackson  (London,  1733).  It 
contains,  in  addition  to  Picart's  drawings,  which  in 
this  translation  are  engraved  by  Du  Bosc,  several 
good  engravings  of  similar  Jewish  subjects  by  F. 
Morellon  la  Cave. 

Bibliooraphy:  Brj/nnN  Dictionary  nf  Painters  and   En- 
(iraverK,  iv.  112.  London,  1904;  Jacobs  and  Wolf,  liibl.  Aii- 
l/lo-Jud.  p.  76,  London.  1888;  Thomas,  Dk^  of  BUHjrapJqi 
and  Muthiiloou^  Philadelphia,  19()1. 
J.  I.    G.    D. 

worker;  borual  Aleppo  1806;  died  at  London,  Eng- 
land, Oct.  19,  1879.  He  was  a  member  of  an  ancient 
Eastern  family;  his  immediate  ancestors  were  en- 
gaged in  the  Russian  consular  service.  He  went  to 
England  about  1843,  and  soon  after  his  arrival  there 
became  active  in  communal  affairs.  He  advocated 
the  founding  of  Jews'  College,  and  was  a  member 
of  its  council  until  his  death.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Society  for  the  Diffusion  of  Relig- 
ious Knowledge,  and  wrote  many  of  its  tracts.  A 
good  Hebrew  scholar,  he  wrote  several  odes  for  reci- 
tation on  public  and  festive  occasions. 

Picciotto  was  for  a  considerable  period  a  member 
of  the  Board  of  Deputies,  and  was  conspicuous  in 
the  deliberations  of  that  body  for  his  indefatigable 
Zealand  his  experience  in  Eastern  affairs.  He  acted 
as  commissioner  for  the  board  at  the  time  of  the  war 
between  ^Morocco  and  Spain  in  l8.')9-60.  He  visited 
Gibraltar  and  Morocco  to  distribute  relief  and  wrote 
a  report,  as  a  result  of  which  the  Jewish  schools  at 
Tetuiin,  Tangier,  and  Mogador  were  founded. 

His  son  James  Picciotto  (born  in  1830;  died  in 
London  Nov.  13,  1897)  was  for  man}'  j^ears  secretary 
to  the  council  of  administration  of  the  Morocco  Re- 
lief Fund.  He  retired  in  189G,  failing  health  com- 
pelling liis  resignation.  He  is  known  as  the  author 
of  "Sketches  of  Anglo-Jewish  History,"  London, 
1877,  a  reprint  of  articles  which  originally  appeared 
in  the  "Jewish  Chronicle." 

BiBi.mfjRAPiiv:  Jnr.  H'orW,  Oct.  24.  1879;  Jew.  Chrnn.  Oct. 
;J4,  1879,  and  Nov.  19,  1897. 

J.  G.    L. 

PICHLEB,    ADOLF:  Austrian    painter;  born 

ill  1834  at  Czilfer,  in  tlie  county  of  Presburg,  Hun- 
gary. At  the  age  of  thirteen  he  went  to  Budapest, 
where  he  supported  himself  by  tutoring  while  pre- 
paring himself  to  teach.  After  receiving  his  teach- 
er's diploma  he  entered  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts, 
where  lie  soon  won  the  first  prize  for  a  study  of  a 
head.  Before  long  he  was  one  of  the  most  popular 
drawing-teachers  in  Budapest.  He  then  went  to 
Munich  to  study  under  Wilhelm  von  Kaulbach  and 
Volz.  One  of  his  works  dating  from  that  time  is 
the  "Jew  at  Prayer."  His  best-known  picture  is 
his  first  work,  "Moses,  on  His  Descent  from  Sinai, 
Finds  the  People  Worshiping  the  Golden  Calf. "  His 
other  works  include:  "The  Death  of  Jacob,"  "The 
]Maiden  of  Judah,"  "Spinoza  as  Glass-Polisher,"  "Ju- 
dah  ha-Levi,"  and  many  historical  paintings  and 

s.  R.  P. 

PICHON  (PICHO),  JOSEPH:  " Almo.xarife " 
and  "conlador  mayor"  {i.e.,  tax-collector-in-chief) 
of  the  city  and  the  archbishopric  of  Seville;  ap- 
pointed in  1369  by  Henry  II.  of  Castile,  who  es- 
teemed him  highly  on  account  of  his  honesty  and  clev- 
erness. But  on  charges  brought  by  some  rich  core- 
ligionists who  also  had  been  admitted  at  court, 
Pichon  was  imprisoned  by  command  of  the  king  and 
.sentenced  to  pay  40,000  doubloons.  On  paying  this, 
large  sum  within  twenty  days  he  was  released  and 
restored  to  office;  in  turn,  he  brought  a  serious  ac- 
cusation against  his  enemies,  either  in  revenge  or  in 
self- justification. 

Henry  had  died  in  the  meantime,  and  his  .son, 
John  I.,  was  his  successor.  Many  rich  and  influen- 
tial Jews  had  gathered  from  different  parts  of  the 
country  for  the  auction  of  the  royal  taxes  at  Burgos, 
Avhere  the  coronation  of  John  took  place.  These  Jews 
plotted  against  the  life  of  Pichon,  who  was  very 
popular  among  the  Christians  and  who  had  received 
marked  attentions  from  the  courtiers.  It  is  not 
known  whether  he  is  in  any  degree  to  be  blamed  for 
the  extraordinary  tax  of  20,000  doubloons  which 
Henry  had  imposed  upon  the  Jews  of  Toledo;  but, 
however  this  may  have  been,  some  prominent  Jews, 
representing  various  communities,  went  to  the  king- 
on  the  day  of  the  coronation,  and,  explaining  to  him 
that  there  was  among  them  a  "malsin,"  i.e.,  an  in- 
former and  traitor  who  deserved  death  according  to 
the  laws  of  their  religion,  requested  him  to  em- 
power the  royal  ofliccrs  to  execute  the  offender.  It 
is  said  that  some  minions  of  the  king,  bribed  by  the 
Jews,  induced  John  to  give  the  order.  The  dele- 
gation then  took  this  order,  together  with  a  letter 
from  several  Jews  who  were  the  leaders  of  the  com- 
munity, to  Fernan  Martin,  the  king's  executioner. 
The  latter  did  not  hesitate  to  fulfil  the  royal  com- 
mand. At  an  early  hour  on  Aug.  21,  1379,  he  went 
with  Don  Zuleina  (Solomon)  and  Don  Zag  (Isaac)  to 
the  residence  of  Pic'lioii,  who  was  still  sleeping. 
Pichon  was  awakened  on  the  pretext  that  some  of 
his  mules  were  to  be  seized  ;  and  as  soon  as  he  ap- 
]ieare(l  at  the  door  Fernan  laid  hold  of  him  and,  with- 
out saying  a  word,  beheaded  him. 

The  execution  of  Pichon,  whose  name  had  been 
concealed  from  the  king,  created  an  uni)leasant  sen- 
.sation.     The  monarch  was  exceedingly  angry  that 




he  had  been  inveigled  into  signing  tlie  death-war- 
rant of  a  respected  and  popuhir  man  who  liad  fiiitli- 
fully  served  his  father  for  many  years.  He  liad  Zu- 
lenia,  Zag,  and  tlie  chief  rabbi  of  Burgos,  who  was 
in  tlie  i)l()t,  beheaded;  and  Martin  was  to  have 
shared  tlie  same  fate,  but  was  spared  at  the  interces- 
sion of  some  knights.  He,  liowever,  paid  for  his 
hastiness  in  tlie  affair  by  tlie  loss  of  his  right  hand. 
As  a  consequence  of  Pichon's  execution,  the  Cortes 
deprived  the  rabbis  and  the  Jewish  courts  of  the 
country  of  the  right  to  decide  criminal  cases.  The 
affair  had  the  most  disastrous  consequences  for  the 
Jews  of  Spain,  stimulating  the  hatred  of  the  popu- 
lation against  them,  and  contributing  to  the  great 
massjicre  of  the  year  1391. 

BiBMOGRAPHY  :  Ayala,  Cronica  dc  D.  Junii  I.  li.  126  et  scq.\ 
ZiinlKa,  Analeii  dc  Sevilla,  il.  136,  211  et  sea.;  Hlos.  HM.  11. 
3;!;!  ct  se(/.;  Griitz,  Gesch.  vlll.  45  et  scq.;  R.  E.  J.  xxxviil.  258 
et  aecj. 
6.  M.  K. 

PICHON  (PITCHON),  JOSEPH  :  Kabbinical 
author;  liveil  in  Turkey  at  the  end  of  the  seven- 
teenth century.  He  was  the  author  of  '•  Minhage 
ha-Bedikah  be-'Ir  Saloniki,"  a  work  relating  to  the 
method  which  was  follow-ed  of  making  meat  kasher 
in  the  slaughter-house  at  Salon ica. 

BiBi.iOGRAPiiv  :  .Azulai.  Shem  ha-OeAnlim.s.v.:  Franco,  Hi's- 
toire  dcs  Israelites  de  VEmpirc  Ottoman,  p.  125,  Paris,  1897. 
B.  M.  Fr. 

PICK,  AARON:  Biblical  scholar;  born  at 
Prague,  where  he  was  converted  to  Christianity  and 
lectured  on  Hebrew  at  the  university ;  lived  in  Eng- 
land during  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century. 
He  was  the  author  of  translations  and  commentaries 
of  various  books  of  the  Bible,  his  works  comprising: 
a  literal  translation  from  the  Hebrew  of  the  twelve 
Minor  Prophets  (1833);  of  Obadiah  (1884);  and  of 
the  seventh  chapter  of  Amos  with  commentary.  In 
1837  he  produced  a  treatise  on  the  Hebrew  accents; 
and  in  1845  he  published  "The  Bible  Student's  Con- 
cordance." He  was,  besides,  the  author  of  a  work 
entitled  "The  Gathering  of  Israel,  or  the  Patriarchal 
Blessing  as  Contained  in  the  Forty-ninth  Chapter  of 
Genesis:  Being  the  Revelation  of  God  Concerning 
the  Twelve  Tribes  of  Israel,  and  Their  Ultimate 

s.  I.  Co. 

PICK,  ALOIS  :  Austrian  physician,  medical  au- 
thor, and  dramatist;  born  at  Karolinenthal,  near 
Prague,  Bohemia,  Oct.  lo,  1859.  lie  studied  medi- 
cine at  the  universities  of  Prague  and  Vienna  (M.D., 
Prague,  1883).  The  same  year  he  joined  the  hospi- 
tal corps  of  the  Austrian  army  ;  and  at  present  (1905) 
he  holds  the  position  of  regimental  surgeon  ("  Regi- 
mentsarzt,").  He  is  also  chief  physician  at  the  first 
Army  Hospital,  Vienna.  In  1890  he  became  privat- 
docent  and  in  1904  assistant  professor  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Vienna. 

Pick  has  contributed  many  essays  to  the  medical 
journals,  among  which  may  be  mentioned:  "Zur 
Lehre  von  den  Atembewegungen  der  Emphyse- 
matiker,"in  "Prager  Medizinische  Wochciischrift." 
1883,  No.  17;  "Beitrage  zur  Pathologic  und  Thera- 
pie  der  Herzneurosen,"  ih.  1884,  No.  44:  "Der  Re- 
spiratorische  Gaswechsel  Gesunder  und  Erkranktcn 
Luniren,"  in  "Zeitschrift  fiir  Klinische  Medizin," 

Berlin,  xvi. ;  "  Ueber  das  Bewegliche  Herz,"  in 
"Wiener  Klinische  Wochenschrift,"  1889;  "Zur 
Frage  der  Ilepatcjgeuen  Dyspepsie,"  ib.  1903.  He  is 
also  the  author  of  "  Vorlesungen  tlber  Magen-  und 
Darmkraiiklieiten,"  Vienna,  1895.  Aside  from  these 
medical  works,  Pick  is  the  author  of  two  small 
farces,  "  Briefsteller  f  l\r  Liebende  "  and  "  Lonl  Beef- 

Bini.iofiKAPiiv  :  Elsenl)er(r,  DaA  Gewtige  Wicn,  I.  409,  il.  372- 
:i7:3,  Vienna,  189:3;  I'aKel,  Bio(j.  Lex. 
R.  F.   T.   H. 

PICK,  ARNOLD  :  Austrian  psychiatrist ;  born 
at  Gross-Meseritsch,  Moravia,  July  20,  1851;  edu- 
cated at  Berlin  and  Vienna  (M.D.  1875).  He  became 
assistant  physician  at  the  lunatic  asylum  at  Wehnen, 
Oldenburg  (1875),  and  at  the  state  asylum  at  Prague 
(1877);  privat-docent  at  Prague  University  (1878); 
and  was  appointed  in  1880  chief  physician  at  the 
asylum  in  Dobrzan,  which  position  he  held  till  1886, 
when  he  was  elected  professor  of  psychiatry  at 

Among  his  many  works  may  be  mentioned :  "  Bei- 
triige  zur  Pathologic  und  zur  Pathologischen  Ana- 
tomic dcs  Centralnervens3'stems "  (with  Kahler), 
Leipsic,  1880;  and  "Beitrage  zur  Pathologic  und 
Pathologischen  Anatomic  des  Centralnervensystems 
mit  einem  Excurse  zur  Normalen  Anatomic  Dessel- 
ben,"  Berlin,  1898. 

Bibliography:  Papel,  Bing.  Lex. 

s.  F.  T.  II. 

PICK,  BEHRENDT:  German  numismatist  and 
archeologist ;  born  Dec.  21,  1861,  at  Posen.  After 
passing  through  the  Friedrich-Wilhclms  Gymna- 
sium of  his  native  city,  he  went  in  1880  to  the  Uni- 
versity of  Berlin  (Ph.D.  1884),  -where  he  studied 
classical  philology.  On  the  advice  of  Theodor 
Mommsen,  of  whose  favorite  pupils  be  was  one,  he 
took  upas  his  specialty  epigraphy  and  numismatics. 
After  a  short  term  of  service  as  librarian  at  the  Royal 
Library,  Berlin,  Pick  in  1889  became  privat-docent 
in  archeology  at  the  University  of  Zurich,  and  in 
1891  was  appointed  assistant  professor  there.  In 
1893  he  accepted  a  position  at  the  ducal  library  and 
in  connection  with  the  ducal  coin-collection  of  Gotha, 
being  made  director  of  the  latter  in  1899.  He  was, 
besides,  appointed  in  1896  lecturer  on  numismatics 
at  the  University  of  Jena,  which  position  he  still 
(1905)  holds. 

Pick's  chief  work  is  volume  i.  ("Dacia  und  Moe- 
sia")  of  "Die  Antiken  ]\riinzen  Nordgriechenlands" 
(Berlin,  1898),  a  publication  issued  by  the  Berlin 
Academy  of  Sciences.  S. 

PICK,  ISAIAH.     See  Berlin,  Is.uati  b.  Loeb. 

PICK,  PHILIPP  JOSEPH:  Austrian  deima- 
tologist;  born  at  Neustadt,  Bohemia,  Oct.  14,  1834. 
He  studied  natural  sciences  and  medicine  at  Vienna 
(M.D.  1860)  and  acted  as  assistant  in  several  uni- 
versity hosjiitals.  In  1868  he  removed  to  Prague 
and  became  privat-docent  in  the  German  university 
there.  In  1873  he  was  appointed  assistant  professor, 
and  in  1896  professor,  of  dermatology  in  the  same 

In  1869  Pick  founded  in  conjunction  with  Hein- 
rich  Auspitz  the  "Archivflir  Dermatologie."  etc., 
of  which,  since  the  death  of  his  colleague  in  1886, 

Pico  de  ISirandola 



he  has  been  sole  editor.  Muuy  essays  of  his  have 
appeared  in  this  journal  and  in  the  medical  papeis 
of  Vienna  and  Prague.  In  1889  he  helped  to  found 
the  Deutsche  Dermatologische  Gesellschaf  t,  of  which 
he  was  the  first  president. 

At  the  celebration,  in  1898,  of  the  twenty-fifth  an- 
niversary of  his  appointment  as  assistant  professor 
his  pupils  ami  colleagues  prepared  a  jubilee  volume, 
edited  by  Xeis.ser. 

BiBLiOGR.vPUY  :  Papel,  Biog.  Lex. 

s.  F.   T.   II. 

VANNI FREDERIC©  (Prince  of  Concordia): 
Italian  itliilusopher,  theologian,  and  cabalist;  born 
Feb.  '24.  1463.  at  Mirandola;  died  at  Florence  Nov. 
17,  1494.  Gifted  with  high  intellectual  powers,  he 
commeuced  tiie  study  of  theology  at  an  early  age, 
graduated  from  the  University  of  Bologna,  and  at 
the  age  of  twenty-three  published  900  theses  against 
the  views  of  the  philosophers  and  theologians  of  his 
time  (••  Couclusiones  Philosophica;  Cabalisticse  et 
Theologicjc,"  Rome,  1486).  These  theses  included 
one  which  postulated  that  tiie  Cabala  best  proves 
the  divinity  of  Jesus.  Pico  received  his  cabalistic 
training  from  Johanan  Aleman,  from  whom  he  also 
obtained  three  cabalistic  works  wiiirh  he  translated 
into  Latin :  the  commentary  of  ]Menahem  Recanati 
on  the  Pentateuch,  the  "Hokmat  ha-Nefesh"(= 
"Scientia  Animtc  ")  of  Eleazar  of  "Worms  (printed  at 
Lemberg.  1875),  and  the  "Sefer  ha-Ma'alot"  of 
Shem-Tob  Falaquera.  He  tried  to  harmonize  the 
philo-sopiiy  of  Piato  and  Aristotle  with  the  (Jabala 
ami  Neo-Platouism,  but  his  excessive  devotion  to 
the  Cabala  resulted  in  an  ascetic  and  mystical 
tendency,  which  brought  him  into  conflict  with 
the  Church.  He  was  accu.sed  of  heresy,  but  was 
acquitted,  and  retired  to  Florence,  where  he  spent 
the  rest  of  his  life  with  a  friend. 

Pico  was  one  of  tlie  first  to  collect  Hebrew  manu- 
scripts. Of  his  books,  which  were  widely  read,  two 
may  liere  be  mentioned:  (1)  "Cabalistarum  Sclec- 
tiones,"  Venice,  1569:  (2)  "Opera,"  Bologna,  1496; 
Venice,  1498;  Basel,  1557. 

Bibmography:  DrnyflorlT,  Dnx  f^uxtem  rlfx  J.  Picn,  Marlnirg, 
1858:  Di  (ilovanni.  Pico  deUn  Mirnndola,  FUosofo  PUitu- 
71ICO.  Florence,  18.S2:  itlein,  Picn  Xella  Storia  del  JJoiaxci- 
ynfutn,  etc..  Palermo,  18!t4;  (iriitz, 245-247  ;  Geda- 
Ifah  ibn  Yahya,  ShtiMielet  ha-Kahbalah,  p.  50a,  Amsterdam, 
1697 :  Zunz,  Z.  O.  pp.  8,  522. 

I'  S.    O. 

PICTORIAL  ART :  There  are  no  ancient  re- 
mains showing  in  what  way,  if  any,  the  Jews  of 
Bible  times  made  use  of  painting  for  decorative  or 
other  purposes.  For  the  references  in  the  Bible 
see  Painting.  During  the  Middle  Ages  painting 
was  a  craft  which  was  monopolized  Ijv  the  gilds, 
and  Jews  were  thereby  prevented  from  sliowingany 
proficiency  in  the  art.  The  only  direction  in  which 
the  latter  eviflenced  any  skill  was  in  the  illumina- 
tion of  manuscripts  (see  Manusckii'Ts). 

In  modern  times  painting  Avas  at  first  mainly 
directed  to  sacerdotal,  decorative  purposes,  but 
Jews  were  i)recluded  from  thus  employing  it,  even 
in  their  own  synagogues,  by  the  rabbinical  inter- 
pretation of  the  second  commandment.  It  is  not, 
therefore,  surprising  that  it  is  only  with  enianri- 
pation  that  any  JewLsh  names  are  found  in  the  an- 

nals of  painting.  During  the  last  150  years  a  cer- 
tain number  of  Jews  have  displayed  considerable 
skill  as  artists,  chief  among  them  being  Joseph  Is- 
raels in  Holland.  A  few  Jewish  painters,  prominent 
among  whom  are  S.  J.  Solomon  in  England  and  E. 
yi.  Lilien  in  Germany,  have  in  recent  years  devoted 
their  talent  to  specifically  Jewish  subjects.  The 
following  is  a  partial  list  of  Jewish  painters  who 
have  distinguished  themselves  in  modern  times: 

America:  Max  Rosenthal  (b.  1833),  historical 
portraits;  ]\Ia.x  Weyl  (b.  1837),  landscapes;  Henry 
Mosler  (b.  1841),  genre  and  portraits;  Toby  Edward 
Rosenthal (b.  1848),  genre;  Herman  Naphtali  Hyne- 
man  (b.  1849),  genre;  Katherine  M.  Cohen  (b.  1859). 
portraits;  George  da  Maduro  Peixotto  (b.  1859), 
portraits  and  mural  decorations;  Albert  Rosenthal 
(b.  1863),  portrait-etching;  Albert  Edward  Sterner 
(b.  1863),  genre  and  water-colors;  Louis  Loeb  (b. 
1866),  landscapes  and  portraits;  Augustus  Koopman 
(b.  1869),  genre  and  portraits;  Leo  ]\[ielziner  (b. 
1869),  portraits;  Louis  Kn)ul)erg(b.  1872),  portraits; 
Edmoud  Weill  (b.  1872),  genre;  J.  Campbell  Phillips 
(b.  1873),  negro  life,  and  portraits;  J.  Mortimer 
Lichtenauer  (b.  1876),  mural  decorations. 

Austria-Hungary  :  Anton  Rafael  ]\Iengs  (1728- 
1779),  historical,  genre,  and  portraits;  Friedrich 
Friedlan(ler(b.  1825),  military  subjects  and  portraits; 
Adolf  Pichler  (b.  1834),  historical :  Leopold  Horo- 
witz (b.  1837),  portraits  and  subjects  from  Jewish 
life;  Lajos  Bruck  (b.  1846),  subjects  from  Him- 
gariau  folk-life  and  portraits;  Karl  Karger  (b. 
1848),  genre;  Joseph  Kovcs  (b.  1853),  portraits  and 
genre;  Isidor  Kaufmann  (b.  1853),  subjects  front 
Jewish  life  and  genre;  Gustav  Mannheiiner  (b. 
1854),  landscapes;  Camilla  Friedliinder  (b.  1856; 
daughter  of  Friedrich  Friedliinder),  still  life;  Ernst 
Berger  (b.  1857),  Biblical  subjects;  Gyula  Basch  (1). 
1859),  genre  and  portraits;  Adolf  Hirschl  (b.  1860), 
historical;  Alexander  Nyari  (b.  1861);  Max  Bruck 
(b.  1863),  genre;  Adolf  Fenyes  (b.  1867),  genre; 
Philip  Luszlo  (1).  1869),  portraits;  Karl  Reinhard 
(b.  1872),  genre;  Arpad Basch (b.  1873),  water-colors; 
Leopold  Pollak  (1806-80),  gein-e  and  portraits. 

Denmark:  Israael  Israel  INIengs  (1690-1765), 
miniature  and  enamel;  Karl  Ileinrich  Bloch  (b. 
1834),  scenic  and  genre:  Ernst  Meyer  (1797-1861), 
genre;  David  ^Monies  (1812-94),  historical,  genre, 
and  portraits;  Geskel  Saloman  (1821-1902),  genre. 

England  :  B.  S.  Marks  (I).  1827),  portraits;  Felix 
3roscheles  (b.  1833);  Carl  Schloesser  (b.  1836); 
Simeon  Solomon  (c.  1850),  Preraffaelite;  Solomon 
J.  Solomon,  A.R.A.  (b.  1860),  geiu-e  and  portraits; 
Alfred  Praga  (b.  1860),  genre  and  miniature;  Abra- 
ham Solomon  (1824-63);  Isaac  Snowman  (b.  1874); 
Ellen  Gertrude  Coiien  (1).  1876),  portraits  and  genre; 
Solomon  Alexander  Hart,  R.A.  (1806-81),  scenic, 
genre,  and  portraits;  Lionel  Cowen  (1846-95). 

France:  Felix  Dias  (1794-1817);  Emile  Levy 
(b.  1826),  subjects  from  Jewish  religious  history; 
Jacob  Emile  Edouard  Brandon  (b.  1831),  genre; 
Constant  Mayer  (b.  1832),  genre  and  jiortraits;  Jules 
Worms  (b.  1832),  liumoristic  genre;  Zachaiie  Astruc 
(b.  1839),  genre  and  panels  in  Avater-color;  Henri 
Leopold  Levy  (b.  1840),  Jiistorieal  and  genre:  Al- 
plionse  Levy  (b.  1843),  Jewish  life;  Leo  Herrmann 
(b.    1853),    genre;     Ferdinand   Heilbuth  (1826-79), 



Pico  de  Mirandola 

genre  and  portraits;  Alphonse  Hirsch  (1843-84), 
genre  and  portraits  ;  Henry  Baron  (1816-85),  his- 
torical and  genre;  Auguste  lladainard  (1823-86), 
genre;  Benjamin  Eugene  Fichel (1826-95),  historical 
and  genre;  Eugene  Alcan  (1811-98),  genre. 

Germany:  Philipp  Arous  (b.  1831),  portraits; 
liiuiolf  Jonas  (b.  1822),  landscapes;  Louis  Katzen- 
stein  (1).  1824),  portraits;  Karl  Daniel  Friedrich 
Bach  (1756-1829),  historical,  genre,  animals,  and 
portraits;  Moses  Samuel  LOwe  (1756-1831),  minia- 
ture and  pastels;  Felix  Possjirt  (b.  1837),  landscapes 
and  genre;  Hermann  Junker  (b.  1838),  subjects  from 
Jewish  life;  Julius  Bodenstein  (b.  1847),  land- 
scapes; Jeremiah  David  Alexander  Fiorino  (1796- 
1847),  miniature;  Max  Liebcrmann  (b.  1849),  scenic 
and  genre;  Rudolf  Christian  Eugen  Bendemann (b. 
1851),  historical,  genre,  and  mural  decorations;  Karl 
Jacoby  (b.  1853),  historical  and  genre;  Felix  Bor- 
chardt  (b.  1857),  scenic  and  portraits;  Max  Kahn 
(b.  1857),  genre;  Wilhelm  Feldmann  (b.  1859),  land- 
scapes; Karl  Blosz 
(b.  1860),  genre; 
Julius  Muhr  (1819- 
1865),  genre;  Her- 
mann Goldschmidt 
(1802-66),  historic- 
al; Eduard  Magnus 
(1799-1872),  por- 
traits and  genre; 
Johannes  Veit 
(1790-1854)  and 
Philipp  Veit  (1793- 
1877),  religious,  his- 
torical, and  genre; 
Julius  Jacob  (1811- 
1882),  landscapes 
and  portraits  ; 
Moritz  Daniel  Op- 
penheim  (1801-82), 
subjects  from  Jew- 
ish life,  portraits, 
and  genre;  Benja- 
min Ulmann  (1829-84),  historical ;  Eduard  Julius 
Friedrich  Bendemann  (1811-89),  Biblical  subjects, 
portraits,  and  genre ;  Max  Michael  (1823-91),  genre ; 
Alfred  Kethel  (1816-59)  and  Otto  Rethel  (1822-93), 
frescos,  historical,  and  genre;  Karl  Morgenstern 
(1812-93),  landscapes;  Friedrich  Kraus  (1826-94), 
portraits  and  genre;  Louis  Neustiittcr  (1829-99), 
genre  and  portraits;  Solomon  Hirschfeldcr  (1832- 
1903),  genre. 

Holland  :  Joseph  Israels  (b.  1834),  genre ;  David 
Bles  (1821-99),  genre. 

Italy  :  Raphael  Bachi  (c.  1750),  miniature;  Tullo 
Massarani  (b.  1826),  genre;  Giuseppe  Coen  (1811- 
1856),  landscapes  and  architectural ;  Leopold  Pollak 
(1806-80),  genre  and  portraits. 

Rumania  :  Barbu  Iscovescu  (1816-54) ;  Julius 
Feld  (1).  1871),  portraits  and  genre. 

Ilussia  and  Poland  :  Isaac  Lvovich  Asknazi 
(b.  1856),  religious  subjects,  genre,  and  portraits; 
Jacob  Semenovich  Goldblatt  (b.  1860),  historical ; 
Moisei  Leibovich  Maimon  (b.  1860).  genre  and  por- 
traits; Peter  Isaacovich  Geller  (b.  1862),  Jewish  his- 
torical subjects;  Samuel  Ilirszenberg  (b.  1866), 
genre  and  scenic;  Maurice  Grun  (b.  1870),  genre 
X.— 3 

Tomb  of  Pierleoni  In  the 

(From  LauciaDi,  *'  New 

and  portraits;  Jacques  Kaplan  (b.  1872),  portraits 
and  genre;  Alexancier  Lesser  (1814-84),  historical; 
Leonid  Osipovich  Pasternak  (b.  1862),  genre  and 

Biiii.iocKAPHY :  JUdiitche  KUnstler,  Berlin,  1903;  S.  J.  Solo- 
inoii.  lu  J.  Q.  It.  190a. 

J.  F.  C. 

PIDYON  HA-BEN.     See  Primogenituue. 

PIERLEONI :  Noble  Roman  family  of  Jewish 
origin.  A  Jewish  banker  of  Rome  who  had  acquired 
a  princely  fortune  was  baptized  in  the  first  half  of 
the  eleventh  century,  took  the  name  of  Benedictua 
Christianus,  and  married  the  daughter  of  a  Roman 
nobleman.  Leo,  the  offspring  of  this  union,  and 
one  of  the  most  powerful  magnates  of  the  city,  had 
a  castle  in  Trastevere  and  afflliated  himself  with 
the  papal  party,  and  his  son  Petrus  Leonis,  from 
whom  the  family  derives  its  name,  continued  his 
father's  policy,  controlling  the  Isola  Tiberina  in  ad- 
dition to  the  castle 
in  Trastevere,  and 
having  another 
castle  opposite  the 
Tiber  bridge  near 
the  old  theater  of 
Marcellus,  which 
was  included  in  the 
fortitications.  He 
was  the  leader  of 
the  papal  party  and 
the  most  faithful 
and  powerful  pro- 
tector of  the  popes. 
Urban  II.  died  in 
Petrus'  castle,  and 
the  latter  defended 
the  cause  of  Paschal 
II.  against  the  anti- 
popes  and  the  em- 
peror.  When 
Henry  V.  came  to 
Rome  Petrus  Leonis  was  at  the  head  of  the  papal 
legation  which  eiTected  a  reconciliation  between  the 
pope  and  the  emperor,  but  Paschal's  attempt  to  make 
the  son  of  Petrus  i)refect  of  the  city  caused  a  riot. 
Petrus  was  prominent  in  the  liberation  of  Pope 
Gelasius  II.,  and  when  Petrus  died  in  1128  his  son  of 
the  same  name  was  cardinal,  and  had  on  several 
occasions  rendered  service  to  the  Church.  In  1130 
Cardinal  Pierleoni  was  elected  pope  under  the  name 
of  An.\cletus  II.,  while  the  counter  party  chose 
Innocent  II.  The  lasted  for  eight  years,  until 
the  death  of  Anacletus,  after  which  the  family  of 
Pierleoni  made  peace  with  the  pope,  retaining  its 
power  and  influence,  and  being  distinguished  by 
various  honors.  Leo  and  Petrus,  the  brother  and 
nephew  of  Anacletus,  were  papal  delegates  at  Sutri 
in  1143,  and  another  brother,  Jordan,  with  whom  the 
era  of  senators  begins,  became  the  head  of  the  Roman 
lepublic  as  Patricius  in  1144,  while  a  sister  is  said 
to  have  been  the  wife  of  Roger  I.  of  Sicily.  In  tlic 
twelfth  century  Cencius  Pierleoni  was  "scriniarius" 
of  the  Church,  and  in  1304  John  Pierleoni,  who  had 
been  appointed  elector  by  Pope  Innocent  III.,  chose 
Gregory  Petri  Leonis  Rainerii  as  senator.     The  leg- 

Cloisters  of  St.  Paul,  Rome. 

Tales  of  Ancient  Rome.") 




end  vfhich  traces  the  lineage  of  the  family  of  Pier- 
leoni  to  the  ancient  Roman  noble  family  of  the  Anicii 
is  as  apocryphal  as  the  story  of  the  descent  of  the 
Hap^burgs  from  the  counts  of  Aventin,  who  be- 
longed to  the  F*ierleoni. 

BiBLiOGRAPHT:  BaTODius. -4 nnaJ<v  EcfU*^i<istici,  years  1111, 
1115:  QKgoTovius,  GcMch.  tit'f  Stiuit  Hum  im  Mittelalter,iv. 
349  ct  «:q.,  3yi  et  seq.;  vols.  iv.  and  v.,  passim  ;  Liber  Pntitift- 
calin,  ed.  Duchesne,  li.  aU,  3(i7,318.  3ii.  X*i,  344,  347  ;  Monu- 
menta  (jennaukr  HinOirka,  v.  47-  «-(  *€</.,  xi.  614,  xli.  711 ; 
Ducbesoe,  Hiit(«ntr  fVn/iconmi  :Stri><orM,  iv.  376;  Ollvleri, 
n  Seiiato  di  Roma.  p.  185;  Vogelsiein  and  Riejrer,  Gesch. 
der  Judtn  in  Rmn.  1.  214  ft  seq.,  218,  221  et  seq.;  Kehr,  in 
Archiviit  lUlla  R.  S'JcUtd  Romana  di  Sturia  Patria,  xxiv. 
(1901).  pp.  :Jo3  et  se4i. 
8  H.   V. 

PIGEON.     See  Dove. 

PIGO  :  Italian  family  of  rabbis.  Formerly  the 
name  was  as  a  rule  transcribed  Figo  ;  in  an  Ital- 
ian document  of  1643  it  appears  in  the  form  "  Pichio  " ; 
and  in  Hebrew  it  is  sometimes  written  Vp'D.  To 
this  family  belong  Ephraim  Pigo,  a  learned  man 
who  died  in  Venice  in  UiUo  or  1606,  and  the  rabbis 
Judah  Pigo  and  Solomon  Pigo  ;  the  latter  appear 
in  the  responsa  "Mayim  Habbim  "  of  Rabbi  Raphael 

Another  branch  of  the  family  lived  in  Turkey. 
Moses  Pigo  (d.  in  Adrianople  1576)  wrote  "Zik- 
ron  Torat  Mosheh,"  a  dictionary  of  the  haggadic 
themes  (Constantinople,  1554;  Prague,  1623).  His 
son  Joseph  Pigo  of  Salonica  was  the  author  of 
"Teslmbol"  and  "Dine  Bedikat  ha-Re'ah  "  (Salo- 
nica, 1652). 

Bibliography:  Mortara,  Indice,  pp.  49,  50;  Berliner,  Luhot 
Ahanim,  Nos.  130,  131;  Winter  and  WQnsche,  Die  JVUUsche 
Literatur.  ii.  652  et  Keg.;  Sttiinschneider,  Cat.  Bodl.  ool.  746; 
Benjacob,  Ozar  ha-Sefarim,  p.  232;  Furst,  Bihl.  Jud.  1.  240. 

G.  I.  E. 

PI-HAHIROTH:  A  place  in  the  wilderness 
where  the  Israelites  encamped  when  they  turned 
back  from  Etham.  It  lay  between  Migdol  and  the 
sea  "before  Baal-zephon "  (Ex.  xiv.  2,  9;  Num. 
xxxiii.  7,  8).  The  etymology  of  the  name,  which  is 
apparently  Egyptian,  was  the  subject  of  much  spec- 
ulation by  the  ancient  commentators.  The  Septua- 
gint,  while  treating  the  word  as  a  proper  name  in 
Numbers  (E(/3£jr>;  translating,  however,  ^Q  by  crrd/za), 
translates  it  in  Exodus  by  rfjg  kna'vT^ug  (=  "sheep- 
fold  "  or  "farm-building"),  thus  reading  in  the  He- 
brew text  n-njn  ■•a.  The  Mekilta  (Beshallah,  Wa- 
yehi,  1)  identifies  the  place  with  Pithom,  which  was 
called  Pi-hahiroth  (=  "  the  mouth  of  freedom  ")  after 
the  Israelites  had  been  freed  from  bondage,  the  place 
itself  being  specified  as  a  valley  between  two  high 
rocks.  The  Targum  of  pseudo-Jonathan  {ad  loc), 
while  following  the  Mekilta  in  the  interpretation  of 
"Pi-hahiroth,"  identifies  the  place  with  Tanis. 

The  theory  of  an  Egyptian  etymology  was  ad- 
vanced by  Jablonsky,  who  compared  it  to  the  Cop- 
tic "pi-akl)irot"  =  "the  place  where  sedge  grows," 
and  by  Naville,  who  explained  the  name  as  "the 
house  of  the  goddess  Kerliet."  On  the  basis  of  tliis 
latter  explanation,  Fulgence  Fresnel  identified  Pi- 
haliiroth  with  the  modern  Ghu\vaibatal-Bus(=  "the 
bed  of  reeds"),  near  Has  Atakah. 

Bibliography:  Selble,  in  HastlnRs.  Diet.  Bible. 

E.  G.  ii:  M.  Sel. 

KOHZN  :  Genuau  rabbi;  meulioued  in  "Likku^e 
Maharil,"  hilkots  "Shabbat"  and  "Yom  Kippur." 
He  addressed  two  letters  to  the  community  of  Hal- 
berstadt,  in  which  he  discussed  the  commandments 
and  prohibitions.  He  requested  that  his  epistles 
might  be  copied  and  read  to  others.  These  letters 
were  printed  at  Basel  in  1599. 

Bibliography  :  Michael,  Or  hon^am/im.  No.  42. 
E.  c.  S.  O. 

PILATE,  PONTIUS  :  Fifth  Roman  procurator 
of  Judea,  Samaria,  and  Idumaea.  from  26  to  36  of  the 
common  era;  successor  of  Valerius  Gratus.  Accord- 
ing toPhilo("De  Legationead  Caium,"ed.  Maugey, 
ii.  590),  his  administration  was  characterized  by  cor- 
ruption, violence,  robberies,  ill  treatment  of  the  peo- 
ple, and  continuous  executions  without  even  the 
form  of  a  trial.  His  very  first  act  nearly  caused  a 
general  insurrection.  While  his  predecessors,  re- 
specting the  religious  feelings  of  tlie  Jews,  removed 
from  their  standards  all  the  effigies  and  images  when 
entering  Jerusalem,  Pilate  allowed  his  soldiers  to 
bring  them  into  the  city  by  night.  As  soon  as  this 
became  known  crowds  of  Jews  hastened  to  Caesarea, 
where  the  procurator  was  residing,  and  besought 
him  to  remove  the  images.  After  five  days  of  dis- 
cussion he  ordered  his  soldiers  to  surround  the  peti- 
tioners and  to  put  them  to  death  unless  they  ceased 
to  trouble  him.  He  yielded  only  when  he  saw  that 
the  Jews  would  rather  die  than  bear  this  affront. 
At  a  later  date  Pilate  appropriated  funds  from  the 
sacred  treasury  in  order  to  provide  for  the  construc- 
tion of  an  aqueduct  for  supplying  the  city  of  Jeru- 
salem with  water  from  the  Pools  of  Solomon;  and 
he  suppressed  the  riots  provoked  by  this  spoliation 
of  the  Temple  by  sending  among  the  crowds  dis- 
guised soldiers  carrying  concealed  daggers,  who 
massacred  a  great  number,  not  only  of  the  rioters, 
but  of  casual  spectators. 

In  spite  of  his  former  experience  of  the  sensitive- 
ness of  the  Jews  with  regard  to  images  and  emblems, 
Pilate  hung  up  in  Herod's  palace  gilt  shields  dedi- 
cated to  Tiberius,  and  again  nearly  provoked  an  in- 
surrection. The  shields  were  removed  by  a  special 
order  of  Tiberius,  to  whom  the  Jews  had  protested. 
Pilate's  last  deed  of  cruelty,  and  the  one  which 
brought  about  his  downfall,  was  the  massacre  of  a 
number  of  Samaritans  who  had  assembled  on  Mount 
Gerizim  to  dig  for  some  sacred  vessels  which  an 
impostor  had  led  them  to  believe  Moses  had  buried 
there.  Concerning  this  mas.sacre  the  Samaritans 
lodged  a  complaint  with  Vitellius,  legate  of  Syria, 
who  ordered  Pilate  to  repair  to  Rome  to  defend  him- 
self. On  the  participation  by  Pilate  in  the  trial  and 
crucifixion  of  Jesus  see  Cuucikixion;  Jesus  of 

The  end  of  Pilate  is  enveloped  in  mystery.  Ac- 
cording to  I>usebius  ("Hist.  Eccl."  ii.  7),  he  was 
banished  to  Vienna  (Vienne)  in  Gaul,  where  various 
misfortunes  caused  him  at  last  to  commit  suicide; 
while  the  chronicle  of  Malalas  alleges,  with  less 
probability,  that  he  was  beheaded  under  Nero.  A 
later  legend  says  that  his  suicide  was  anticipatory  of 
Caligula's  sentence;  that  the  body  was  thrown  into 
the  Tiber,  causing  disastrous  tempests  and  floods; 




that  it  afterward  produced  similar  effects  in  tlie 
Rlione  at  Vienue;  and  that,  finally,  it  had  to  be  con- 
signed to  a  deep  pool  among  the  Alps. 

Bibliography:  Josephus.  Ant.  xvlll.  3,  §  12;  idem.  B.J.  11.  9 
6§  2A ;  Ewald,  Gtach.  iv.  594  ;  v.  4»-9.') ;  vl.  319.  322-;{;£J  343  • 
Gratz,  Gesch.  111.  253-271 ;  Schurer,  Gesch.  1.  4«8  -492;  Bniiini 
Die  S6hiu  dee  Herodes,  1873,  pp.  1-16;  Mommsen,  HOininche 
Geschichte,  v.  508  ct  acq. 

6-  I.  Br. 

PILEGESH  (Hebrew,  {J^J^^D;  comp.  Greek,  TraA- 
Aa«/f).— Biblical  Data:    A  concubine  recognized 
among  the  ancient  Hebrews.     She  enjoyed  the  same 
rights  in  the  house  as  the  legitimate  wife.     Since  it 
was  regarded  as  the  highest  blessing  to  have  many 
children,   while   the  greatest  curse   was  childless- 
ness, legitimate  wives  themselves  gave  their  maids 
to  their  husbands  to  atone,  at  least  in  part,  for  their 
own  barrenness,  as  in  the  cases  of  Sarah  and  Hagar, 
Leah  and  Zilpah,  Rachel  and  Bilhah.     The  concu- 
bine commanded  the  same  respect  and  inviolability 
as  the  wife ;  and  it  was  regarded  as  the  deepest  dis- 
honor for  the  man  to  whom  she  belonged  if  hands 
were  laid  upon  her.     Thus  Jacob  never  forgave  his 
eldest  son  for  violating  Bilhah  (Gen.  xxxv.  22,  xlix. 
4).     According  to  the  story  of  Gibeah,  related  in 
Judges  xix.,  25,000  warriors  of  the  tribe  of  Benja- 
min lost  their  lives  on  account  of  the  maltreatment 
and  death  of  a  concubine.     Abner,  Saul's  first  gen- 
eral, deserted  Ish-bosheth,  Saul's  son,  who  had  re- 
proached  his  leader  with  having  had  intercourse 
with  Rizpah,  the  daughter  of  his  royal  father's  con- 
cubine, Aiah  (H  Sam.  iii.  7);  and  Absalom  brought 
the  greatest  dishonor  upon  David  by  open  inter- 
course with  his  father's  concubines  (zJ.  xvi.  21  etseg.). 
The  children  of  the  concubine  had  equal  rights 
with  those  of  the  legitimate  wife.     Abraham  dis- 
missed his  natural  sons  with  gifts  (Gen.  xxv.  6),  and 
Jacob's  sons  by  Bilhah  and  Zilpah  were  equal  with 
his  sons  by  Leah  and  Rachel ;  while  Abimelech,  who 
subsequently  became  king  over  a  part  of  Israel,  was 
the  son  of  Gideon- jerubbaal  and  his  Shechemite  con- 
cubine (Judges  viii.  31).     In  the  time  of  the  Kings 
the  practise  of  taking  concubines  was  no  longer  due 
to  childlessness  but  to  luxury.     David  had  ten  con- 
cubines (II  Sam.  XV.   16),  who,  however,  also  did 
housework;  Solomon  had  300  (I  Kings  xi.  30);  and 
his  son  Rehoboam  had  sixty  (II  Chron.  xi.  21). 

Bibliography  :  Hastings,  Diet.  Bible,  s.v.  Marriage ;  Stade 
Gesch.  lar.  1.  385,  636 ;  Hamburger,  R.  B.  T.  s.v.  Kch»weib. 
I'--  G.  II.  S.   O. 

In  Rabbinical  Literature  :  According  to  the 

Babylonian  Talmud  (Sanh.  21a),  the  difference  be- 
tween a  concubine  and  a  legitimate  wife  was  that 
the  latter  received  a  Ketubah  and  her  marriage 
was  preceded  by  a  formal  betrothal  ("kiddusliin  "), 
which  was  not  the  case  with  the  former  (comp.  Rashi 
on  Gen.  xxv.  6,  and  Nahmanides  ad  loc).  Accord- 
ing to  R.  Judah  (Yer.  Ket.  v.  29d),  however,  the 
concubine  also  received  a  ketubah,  but  without  the 
aliment  pertaining  to  it. 
E.  c.  S.  O. 

PILGRIMAGE  :  A  journey  which  is  made  to 
a  shrine  or  sacred  place  in  performance  of  a  vo«  or 
for  the  sake  of  obtaining  some  form  of  divine  bless- 
ing. Every  male  Israelite  was  required  to  \  isit  the 
Temple  three  times  a  year  (Ex.  xxiii.  17;  Deut.  xvi. 

16).     The  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem  on  one  of  the 
three  festivals  of  Passover,  Shabu'ot,  and  Sukkot 
was  called  "re'iyah"  (="the  appearance").     The 
Mishnah  says,  "All  are  under  obligation  to  appear, 
except  minors,  women,  the  blind,  the  lame,  theagedi 
and  one  who  is  ill  physically  or  mentally."     A  minor 
in  this  case  is  defined  as  one  who  is  too  young  to  be 
taken  by  his  fatlier  to  Jerusalem.     According  to  the 
Mosaic  law  every  one  should  take  an 
Pilgrimage  offering,  though  the  value  thereof  is 
to  First      not  fixed  (comp.  Ex.  xxxiii.  14;  Deut. 
Temple.      xvi.  17);  the  Mishnah,  however,  fixed 
the  minimum  at  three  silver  pieces, 
each  of  thirty-two  grains  of  fine  silver  (Hag.  i.  1,  2). 
While  the  appearance  of  women  and  infant  males 
was  not  obligatory,  they  usually  accompanied  their 
husbands  and  fathers,  as  in  all   public  gatherings 
(Deut.  xxxi.  12).     The  Talmud  plainly  infers  that 
both  daughters  and  sons  joined  the  pilgrims  at  the 
Passover  festival  in  Jerusalem  (Pes.  89a;  Git.  25a). 
According  to  the  Biblical  accounts,  Jeroboam, 
who  caused  the  secession  of  Ephraim  from  Judah[ 
made  two  calves  of  gold,  placing  one  in  Dan  and  the 
other  in  Beth-el,  to  divert  the  pilgrims  from  Jerusa- 
lem (I  Kings  xii.  26-33).     He  stationed  guards  on 
the  boundary-lines  of  his  dominions  to  prevent  the 
festival  pilgrimages  to  the  Temple  (Ta'an.  28a).     So 
great  a  menace  to  the  Ephraimite  government  were 
the  Temple  pilgrimages  that  even  King  Jehu,  who 
destroyed  the  Ba'al,  feared  to  remove  the  golden 
calves  of  Jeroboam  (II  Kings  x.  28,  29).     In  Judea 
the  pilgrimages  to  Jerusalem  were  kept  up  regu- 
larly, but  the  principal  gathering  of  the  people  was 
on    the  Sukkot  festival,  called  "Hag  ha-Asif"  = 
"Festival  of  Gathering"  (I  Kings  viii.  65;  II  Chron. 
vii.  8,  9).     King  Josiah  revived  the  Passover  pil- 
grimage to  Jerusalem  (II  Kings  xxiii.  23).     King 
Hoshea,  son  of  Elah,  dismissed  the  guards  and  per- 
mitted the  people  to  go  undisturbed  to  Jerusalem 
for  the  festivals  (Yer.  Ta'an.  iv.  7;  Git.  88a). 

During  the  time  of  the  Second  Temple,  the  Ju- 
deans  ruled  Palestine  and  as  a  united  people  cele- 
brated the  Feast  of  Sukkot  in  Jerusalem  (Neh.  viii. 
17).     From  beyond  Palestine,  especially  from  the 
River  Euphrates,  they  journeyed  to 
Pilgrimage  Jerusalem    for    the    festivals.     Some 
to  Second    even  endangered  their  lives   passing 
Temple,      the  guards  posted  to  stop  the  pilgrim- 
ages (Ta'an.  28a:  Gratz,  "Gesch."  3d 
ed.,  iii.  157,  668).     The  number  of  Jewish  pilgrims 
to   the  Temple   was   computed    by   the    governor 
Gesius  Flouus  (64-66),  who  counted  256,500  pas- 
chal lambs  atone  Passover  festival;   allowing  ten 
persons  to  one  lamb,  this  would  make  2,565,000  pil- 
grims (Josephus,  "B.  J."  vi.  9).     The   Tosefta  re- 
cords the  census  of  Agrippa,  who  ordered  the  priests 
to  take  one  hind  leg  of  every  paschal  lamb,  and 
counted  1,200,000  legs,  which  would  make  the  total 
12,000,000  (Tosef.,  Pes.  iv.  64b).     These  figures  are 
evidently  exaggerated,  and  are  based  on  the  desire 
to  double  the   600,000  of  the  Exodus,  a  tendency 
frequently  noticed  in  the  Haggadah.    It  is  calculated 
that  ancient  Jerusalem  comprised  an  area  of  2,400,- 
000  square  yards,  and,  allowing  10  yards  for  each 
person,  would  contain  240.000  persons  (see  Luncz, 
"Jerusalem,"  i.,  English  part,  pp.  83-102). 





The  facilities  provided  for  the  convenience  of  the 
pilgrims  were  such  as  to  encourage  pilgrimages. 
Special  measures  were  taken  to  repair  the  roads 
leading  to  Jerusalem  and  to  dig  wells  along  the 
route  (Shek.  i.  1,  v.  1).  Thirty  days  before  the  fes- 
tival it  was  forbidden  to  engage  professional  mourn- 
ers to  bewail  the  dead  lest  they  get  their  compensa- 
tion from  the  money  intended  to  be  spent  in  Je- 
rusalem (M.  K.  viii.  1).  The  hides  of  the  sacrifices 
•were  left  to  compensate  the  innkeepers  for  lodging 
the  pilgrims,  and  no  other  fee  was  allowed  (Yoma 
12a).  The  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem  received  the 
pilgrims  hospitably ;  the  priests  permitted  them  to 
see  the  show  bread  and  told  them  of  the  miracle 
connected  with  it  (Yoma  21b).  Public  speakers 
praised  and  thanked  the  pilgrims  (Suk.  49b;  Pes. 
5b).  The  ceremony  attending  the  offering  of  the 
first-fruits  (see  Bikkcrim)  in  Jerusalem  (Deut.  xxvi. 
a-4),  which  commenced  on  Shabu'ot  (the  Feast  of 
Harvest;  comp.  E.\.  xxiii.  16),  is  supposed  to  give 
a  general  idea  of  the  reception  accorded  to  the 

The  pilgrimages  to  Jerusalem  did  not  cease  with 
the  destruction  of  the  Temple  (Cant.  R.  iv.  2).     The 
■women  often  joined  their  husbands,  sometimes  in 
spite  of  the  protests  of  the  latter  (Ned. 
Post-Exilic  23a).     But  the  joy  that  attended  the 
Pil-  former  pilgrimages,  when  the  Temple 

grimages.  was  still  in  existence,  changed  to 
lamentations  for  the  loss  of  national 
and  political  independence.  The  pilgrims  mourned 
the  destruction  of  the  Temple  and  cried :  "  Thy  holy 
cities  are  now  in  ruins;  Zion  is  a  wilderness;  Jeru- 
salem is  a  desolation.  Our  Sanctuary,  the  pride  of 
our  ancestors,  is  burned  down,  and  all  our  precious 
things  are  destroyed  "  (M.  K.  26a). 

The     Karaites,    in    the  ninth    century,    likewise 
showed  great  devotiowto  Jerusalem.     Their hakam, 
Sahl  ibn  Mazliah,  wrote  to  Jacob  b.  Samuel  that 
Karaite  pilgrims  of  various  towns  gathered  to  pray 
for  the  restoration  of  Zion;   these  pilgrims  he  de- 
scribed as  Nazarites  who  abstained  from  wine  and 
meat  (Pinsker,  "  Likkute  Kadmouiyyot,"  Appendix, 
p.  31).     A  company  of  Karaites,  headed  by  Moses 
ha-Yerushalmi,  journeyed  from  Chufut-Kale  ("The 
Jewish  Rock  "),  from  tlie  Crimea,  and  from  the  Cau- 
casus.    The  inscription  on  Moses'  tombstone,  dated 
4762  (1002),  reads:  "  Good  luck  followed  him  and  his 
companions  to  the  tomb  of  King  David 
Karaite       and    of   his  son  Solomon,  which  no 
Pil-  other  persons  heretofore  had  been  per- 

grimages.  mittcd  to  enter."  All  pilgrims  to  Pal- 
estine were  sent  out  with  music  and 
song  in  honor  and  praise  of  the  Holy  Land.  The 
pilgrims  on  their  return  were  known  as  "  Jerusalem- 
ites"  (see  tlie  Karaite  Siddur,  part  iv.  ;  "  Luah  Ere/ 
Yisrael."  v.  22). 

The  Turkish  conquest  under  Saladin  (1187)  secured 
to  the  Oriental  Jews  the  privilege  of  visiting  Jeru- 
salem and  the  sacred  places.  Numerous  pilgrims 
went  from  Damascus,  Babylonia,  and  Egypt,  and 
they  remained  in  Jerusalem  over  Passover  and  Sha- 
bu'ot. Na^mani,  in  a  letter  dated  1268,  writes: 
"Many  men  and  women  from  Damascus,  Babylon, 
and  their  vicinities  come  to  Jerusalem  to  see  the  site 
of  the  Holy  Temple  and  to  lament  its  destruction." 

About  fifty  years  later  Estori  Farhi  notes  the  custom 
of  the  brethren  of  Damascus,  Aleppo,  Tripoli,  and 
Alexandria  to  go  to  Jerusalem  for  the  holy  days  "  in 
order  to  express  their  grief"  ("Kaftor  wa-Ferah," 
ed.  Edelmann,  vi.  19).  Among  the  Eastern  Jews, 
especially  those  of  Babylonia  and  Kurdistan,  it  has 
been  the  custom  from  the  fourteenth  century  onward 
to  go  on  a  pilgrimage  at  least  once  a  year,  many  of 
them  actually  walking  the  whole  distance.  The 
era  of  the  Crusades  evidently  encouraged  pilgrim- 
ages of  Jews  from  Europe;  a  most  noteworthy  ex- 
ample is  that  of  JcDAU  ii.\-Levi  (1140).  Mei'r  of 
Rothenburg  was  made  a  prisoner  on  his  way  to  Pal- 
estine. Samuel  b.  Simsou  (13th  cent.)  received  per- 
mission from  the  governor  of  Jerusalem  to  visit  the 
cave  of  Machpelah  at  Hebron.  It  was  on  his  invi- 
tation that  300  rabbis  journeyed  from  France  and 
England  into  Palestine  in  1210.  These  pilgrimages 
became  so  frequent  that  Hayyim  benHananeel  ha- 
Kohen  felt  compelled  to  issue  a  warning  against 
them  (Tos.  Ket.  110b,  s.v.  IDIS  Nim). 

The  expulsion  of  the  Jews  from  Spain  in  1492,  and 
the  consequent  settlement  of  manj'  exiles  in  Turkish 
territory,  largely  increased  the  number  of  pilgrims. 
The  goal  of  their  journeys  was  chiefly 
European    the  tomb  of  Samuel  the  Prophet  at 
Pil-  Ramah,  where  they  held  annual  com- 

grimages.  munions  and  celebrations,  similar  in 
character  to  the  celebrations  instituted 
on  Lag  be-'OMER,  a  century  later,  at  the  tombs  of 
R.  Simeon  b.  Yohai  and  his  son  Eleazar  in  Mcron. 
In  1700  Judah  he-Hasid  of  Siedlce  and  Gedaliah  of 
Siemjatiszcz  started  upon  a  pilgrimage  from  Poland 
(Griitz,  "Gesch."  x.  340);  they  were  accompanied 
by  R.  Nathan  Note,  rabbi  at  The  Hague  and  author 
of  "Me'orot  Natan."  In  1765  a  company  of  four- 
teen families  from  Poland  and  Lithuania,  mostly 
Hasidim,  went  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Palestine.  Among 
them  was  Simhah  b.  Samuel,  author  of  "Binyan 
shel  Simhah."  He  writes  that  he  stayed  at  Con- 
stantinople, where  the  Jewish  community  provided 
passage  for  the  pilgrims  to  Palestine.  There  were 
110  Sephardim  in  the  vessel  that  took  him  to  Jaffa 
(Luncz,  "Jerusalem,"  iv.  137-152). 

In  modern  times  the  term  "pilgrimage,"  with  Its 
ancient  and  medieval  meaning,  has  ceased  to  be  ap- 
plicable. Sir  Moses  Montefiore  and  his  wife  Judith 
made  a  visit  of  piety  to  the  Holy  Land  in  1828;  in 
a  later  one  they  were  accompanied  by  L.  L5we, 
and  many  other  individuals  made  similar  visits. 
The  Zionist  movement  led  to  the  formation  of  a 
number  of  parties  for  the  purpose  of  making  visits 
of  piety  to  Palestine  and  the  holy  places.  While 
on  such  a  visit,  in  1890,  R.  Samuel  Mohilewer  and 
Dr.  Joseph  Chazanowicz  founded  a  Jewish  library 
in  Jeru.salem.  The  Jews  of  Palestine  complain  of 
the  lack  of  interest  on  the  part  of  their  coreligionists 
elsewhere  as  compared  with  the  thousands  of  Chris- 
tians who  avail  themselves  of  modern  opportunities 
to  visit  the  Holy  Land. 

The  following  is  a  partial  list  of  noted  Jewish 
pilgrims  and  visitors  to  Palestine  from  the  twelfth 
century  up  to  the  present  time: 

114(1.  Judah  ha- Levi. 
116.5.  Malmonldes. 
1171.  Benjamin  of  Tudela. 




1178.  Petliahlnh  of  Rppensburg. 
1^10.  Abruhain  Muirnonldes. 

1210.  Samuel  b.  Siiiison  with  R.  Jonathan  ba-Koben  of  Lunei 
("Itint-raires,"  pp.  115,  122). 

1216.  Judah  al-Harizi. 
1257.  Jehicl  of  Paris. 

12.58.  Jacob  of  Paris  ("Slmane  ha-Kebarim  "). 

1207.  Moses  Nahiiiani. 

i:?18.  Kstori  Far'hl. 

1334.  Isaac  b.  Joseph  Chelo  of  Spain  (author  of  "Sblbhe  dl-Ye- 
ruslialayim  "). 

1438.  Elijah  of  Ferrara  (author  of  "  Ahabat  ZIyyon  "). 

1440.  Isaac  b.  Alpera  of  Malaga  (wlio  corresponded  with  Rabbi 
Duran  ;  "  Sefer  Yuhasin,"  ed.  Filipowski,  p.  228). 

1450.  Jose|>li  1).  Nahniau  ha-Levl  (sent  list  of  sacred  tombs  to 
Rat)ln  Durau;  "  Sefer  Yuhasin,"  i.e.). 

1481.  MeshuUain  b.  Menahem  of  Volaterra  (see  bis  letters  in 
Luncz's  "Jerusalem,"  i.  166-227). 

1488.  Obadiah  da  Bertinoro. 

15(K).  Jacol)  Silkili  of  Sicily  ("Sefer  Yuhasin,"  I.e.). 

1523.  Israel  of  i'crugia  ("Jerusalem,"  iii.  DT). 

1523.  David  Ucubeni. 

15;}5.  Isaac  Meir  Latif. 

1540.  Gershon  b.  Asher  Scarmelo  (author  of  "Yihus  ha-Zaddl- 

1564.  I'ri  b.  Simeon  of  Biel  (author  of  "  Yiljus  ha-Alxit"). 

1582.  Simeon  Hack  (letters  in  "Jerusalem,"  ii.  141-157). 

1600.  Solomon  Shlomel  b.  Havyim  of  Lattenburg. 

1614.  Mordecai  b.  Isaiah  Litz  of  Raussnitz,  Austria. 

1624.  Gershon  b.  Eliezer  ha-Levi  (author  of  "  Gelilot  Ere?  Yis- 

IMl.  Samuel  b.  David  Yemsbel  i^Z'r:"^),  a  Karaite.  (The  name 
"  Yemshel"  is  the  abbreviation  of  di^'^'  13D1I'0  '"'H  nij\) 
He  was  accompanied  by  Moses  b.  Elijah  ha-Levi  of 
Kafla,  Feodosia  (Gurland,  "Ginze  Yisrael,"  pp.  31-43). 

1650.  Moses  b.  Naphtali  Hirsch  Priiger  (author  of  "  Darke  ?iy- 
yon  "). 

16R5.  Benjamin  b.  Elijah,  a  Karaite  ("  Ginze  Ylsrael,"  pp.  44-64). 

1701.  Judah  he-Hasid  of  Siedlce. 

1740.  Hayyim  Abulafla  of  Smyrna. 

1747.  Abraham  Gershon  Kutewer  (of  Kuty),  brother-in-law  of 
Israel  BeSHT. 

1753.  Aryeh  Judah  Meisel  of  Opatow. 

17.58.  Joseph  Sofer  of  Brody  (author  of  "  Iggeret  Yosef,"  a  jour- 
nal of  his  travels,  Frankfort-on-the-Oder,  1761). 

176.').  Siuihah  b.  Joshua  (author  of  "Sippure  Erez  lia-Galil  "). 

1765.  Moses  lia-Yerushalml  (author  of  "  Yede  Mosheh,"  de- 
scription of  sacred  graves). 

1768.  Perez  b.  Moses  (author  of  "Shebah  u-Tehillah  le-Erez 
Yisrael,"  Amsterdam,  1769). 

1777.  Israel  Politzkl,  Menahem  Mendel  of  Vitebsk,  and  Abraham 
Kallsker  (Luncz,  "Jerusalem."  v.  164-174). 

1799.  Nahman  Bratzlavof  Horodok,  a  Hasid  (author  of  "  Maggid 
Slhot,"  a  description  of  his  journey  to  Palestine). 

1805.  Menahem  Mendel  and  Israel  of  Shklov  (disciples  of  Elijah 
of  Wilna). 

1828.  Moses  Monteflore. 

]83;5.  Joseph  Schwarz  (author  of  "  Tebu'ot  ha-Arez  "). 

1837.  Menahem  Mendel  b.  Aaron  of  Kamenec  (author  of  "  'Aliy- 
yat  ha-Arez,"  Wilna,  1839). 

1854.  Albert  Colin  of  Paris. 

18i56.  L.  A.  Frankl  (authorof  "  Nach  Jerusalem  "). 

1867.  Charles  Netter  of  Paris. 

1872.  Heinncli  Graetz. 

1890.  R.  Samuel  Mohilewer. 

1897.  Israel  Zangwill. 

1898.  Theodor  Herzl. 

For  a  list  of  sacred  tombs  see  Tombs;  see  also 
TuAVEi.ERs  IN  Palestine. 

Bini.iOGRAPiiY:    Carmoly,  Ttinfraires  de   la    Terre  Sainte, 

Brussels,  1847;  Gurland,  Ginze  Yisrael,  vol.  1.,  Lyck,  1865; 
Luncz,  Luah,  v.  5-59. 
D.  J.  D.  E. 

Pilgrimages  are  made  usually  on  fixed  days  in  the 

year,  called  by  the  Oriental  and  North-African  Jews 

"days  of  zi'arah  "  ;  on  such  days  it  is  customary  to 

visit  the  tombs  or  relics  of  certain  per- 

Customs.     sonagos  wlin  in  earl}'  or  medieval  times 

were  famous  as  kings  or  prophets  or 

for  their  holy  lives.     There  are  other  lioly  places 

which  the  people    honor  as  thcj'  Avill  and  at  any 

time.     Tiie  days  of  pilgrimage  are  celebrated  by 

prayers,  rejoicings,  and  popular  festivals. 

In  Jerusalem  a  crowd  of  Jews  gathers  before  the 
western  wail  of  tlie  Temple  of  Solomon  ("Kotel 
Ma'arabi")  every  Friday  evening  and  on  the  eves  of 
feast-days,  as  well  as  on  twenty-three  successive 
days  from  the  eve  of  the  17th  of  Tammuz  to  tlie 
9tii  of  Ab  inclusive.  On  the  latter  date  this  re- 
ligious service  occurs  at  midnight.  On  the  6th  of 
Siwan,  the  Day  of  Pentecost,  the  Sephardic  Jews 
go  to  pray  at  the  tombs  of  the  kings  of  Judah  at  the 
foot  of  JMount  Zion.  On  the  following  day  they 
pray  at  tlie  tomb  of  the  high  priest  Simon  the  Just, 
and  at  the  tombs  of  other  holy  men  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, while  the  Ashkenazim  gather  at  the  tombs  of 
the  kings  of  Judah.  On  the  18th  of  lyyar,  called 
"  Lag  be-'Omer,"  all  the  Jews  of  Jerusalem,  Sephar- 
dlm  and  Ashkenazim,  pray  at  the  tomb  of  Simon 
the  Just. 

At  liurak,  between  Jerusalem  and  Bethlehem,  is 
tlie  tomb  of  Rachel,  wife  of  the  patriarch  Jacob,  to 
which  the  Jews  of  Jerusalem  go  by  turns  during 
the  thirty  days  of  the  month  of  Elul.  But  the  15th 
of  Heshwan  is  especially  consecrated  to  this  pilgrim- 
age (Benjamin  II.,  "Mas'e  Yisrael,"  pp.  3-6,  Lyck, 
1859).  At  Kama,  near  Jerusalem,  known  in  Arabic 
as  "Nabi  Samwil,"  all  the  Jews  of  the  latter  city 
gather  on  the  28th  of  lyyar  at  the 
In  tomb  of   the   prophet  Samuel.     The 

Palestine,  pious  even  pass  the  night  there.  At 
Khaifa,  a  port  of  Palestine,  on  the  eve- 
ning of  the  Sabbath  which  foUoAvs  the  anniversary 
of  the  destruction  of  the  Temple,  the  Jews  hold  a 
popular  festival, with  illuminations,  in  a  grotto,  .sit- 
uated on  the  summit  of  Mount  Carmel,  in  which  the 
prophet  Elijah  is  said  to  have  taken  refuge  from 
tlie  persecution  of  King  Ahab.  At  Tiberias  on  the 
night  of  the  14th  of  lyyar,  known  as  "  Pesah  Sheni " 
(Num.  ix.  9-14),  Jews  gather  from  all  parts  of  Pal- 
estine, and  there  are  brilliant  illuminations  and  a 
popular  festival  at  the  tomb  of  Rabbi  Meiu  ("Ba'al 
ha-Nes"  =  "the  miracle-worker"). 

At  Safed,  from  the  morning  after  Passover  (22d 
of  Nisan)  till  the  18th  of  lyyar,  every  week  the 
Jewish  population  ceases  to  work,  and  makes  pil- 
grimages to  the  suburbs  in  the  following  order; 
namely,  to  (1)  Biria,  where  is  the  tomb  of  Beuaiah 
ben  Jehoiada,  David's  general;  (2)  the  tomb  of 
the  prophet  Hosea  in  the  cemetery;  and  (3)  'Ain 
Zaitun,  to  the  tomb  of  Joseph  Saragossi,  a  Spanish 
immigrant  who  reorganized  the  commimity  of  Sa- 
fed in  1492.  On  tlie  night  of  Lag  be-'Omer  all  tlie 
able-bodied  Jews  of  Safed  and  several  thousands 
of  pilgrims  from  Palestine,  Turkey,  northern  Africa, 
the  Caucasus,  and  Persia  celebrate  a  great  popular 
festival  witli  illuminations  at  Meron,  near  Safed,  at 
the  mausoleum  of  Si.meon  ben  Yotiai.  At  each 
new  moon  it  is  considered  essential  among  the  Ash- 
kenazim of  Safed — men,  women,  and  children — to 
make  a  pilgrimage  to  the  tomb  of  Isaac  Lvuia,  the 
famous  cabalist.  At  Sidon,  toward  the  end  of  ly- 
yar, people  from  the  most  distant  parts  of  Palestine 
make  a  pilgrimage  to  tiie  tomb  of  Zebulun,  one  of 
the  sons  of  the  patriarch  Jacob. 

Places  of  pilgrimage  exist  not  only  in  Palestine, 
but  also  in  Mesopotamia,  Kurdistan,  Egypt,  Algeria, 




and  Morocco.    In  Mesopotamia  the  places  of  pilgrim- 
age are  Bagdad,  KiffL-l,  and  Bassora.     At  Bagdad, 
at  the  very  gates  of  the  towu,  is  the  mausoleum  of  the 
high  priest  Joshua,  known  under  the  popular  name 
of  the  "  Kohen  Mausoleum. "    At  each  new  moon  it  is 
visited  by  thousands  of  Jews  and  cs- 
In  Meso-     pecially  by   barren   women.     In   the 
potamia.     local  cemetery  the  tomb  of  the  sheik 
Isjiac,  a  revered  Jew,  is  also  an  object 
of  frequent  pilgrimages.     At  Ketil,  a  locality  in  Irak 
near  the  ruins  of  Babylon,  is  the  tomb  of  the  prophet 
Ezekiel,  to  which  the  Jews  of  Mesopotamia  go  on 
pilgrimage  on  the  (ith  of  Siwan  (Pentecost).    At  Bas- 
sora the  tomb  of  Ezra  is  visited  on  the  same  date. 

In  Kurdistan  the  Jews  have  three  places  of  pil- 
grimatre:   (1)  In  the  district  of  Elkosh,  near  Mosul, 
the  tomb  of  the  prophet  Nahum  is  a  place  of  pil- 
grimage for  fourteen  days,  the  eight  days  preceding 
and  the  six  following  Pentecost.     Readings  are  given 
from  the  prophecy  of  Nahum  from  a  manuscript 
supposed  to  have  been  written  by  the  prophet  him- 
self.    (2)  At  Kerkuk,  between  the  upper  and  lower 
parts  of  the  town,  are  four  tombs,  said 
In   Kurdis-  to  be  those  of  Daniel,  Hananiah,  Misli- 
tan  and      ael,  and  Azariah,  to  which  the  Jews  of 
Persia.       the  district  make  pilgrimages  at  Pen- 
tecost.    (3)  In  the  locality  of  Bar-Ta- 
nura,  thirty  hours  distant  from  Mosul,  is  a  grotto  in 
which  the  prophet  Elijah  is  said  to  have  taken  ref- 
uge.    Several  times  a  year  the  Jews  of  this  region 
go  thither  on  pilgrimage  and  contribute  to  the  main- 
tenance of  the  grotto. 

In  Persia  there  are  two  places  to  which  Jews 
make  pilgrimages.  (1)  At  Ramadan,  near  the  for- 
tress, is  an  ancient  mausoleum  containing  the  tombs 
of  Mordecai  and  Esther.  On  the  14th  of  Adar,  the 
festival  of  Purim,  the  Jews  of  the  region  read  the 
Book  of  Esther  at  these  tombs;  pilgrimages  to  them 
are  made  also  at  each  new  moon  and  in  times  of 
danger.  (2)  Twelve  and  one-half  miles  from  Ispa- 
han, in  the  middle  of  the  fields,  is  a  little  synagogue 
which,  according  to  local  tradition,  contains  the 
tomb  of  Sarah,  daughter  of  Aslier  (Num.  xxvi.  46). 
The  Jews  of  the  neighborhood  go  thither  on  jiil- 
grimage  on  the  1st  of  Elul. 

At  Fostator  Old  Cairo,  in  Egypt,  three  miles  from 
Cairo,  is  a   synagogue  built   in  the   year  1051  (29 
Sha'han,  A.n.  429)  by  Abu  Sa'ad,  a  favorite  of  the 
calif  Al  Mustansir  Ma'ad  (Griltz,  "Gescli."  vi.  152). 
This  synagogue  contains  a  tomb  in 
In  Eg-ypt,    which,   according  to   local    tradition, 
Algeria,      the  prophet  Jeremiah  rests,  and  two 
and  little  rooms  built  over  the  |)laces  where 

Morocco,     the  prophets  Elijah  and  Ezra  prayed. 
On    the   1st  of  Elul  all  the  Jews   of 
Cairo  go  on  pilgrimage  to  Fostat  and  hold  a  mag- 
nificent festival  there. 

Thereexistin  Algeria  traditional  tombs  of  revered 
Jews  which  are  venerated  e(|ually  by  Jews  and  Mo- 
hammedans. Prayers  are  said  at  them  in  times  of 
stress,  but  not  at  regular  dates.  In  the  district  of 
southern  Oran.  in  the  region  of  Nedrona,  inliabited 
by  the  Traras,  are  the  tombs  of  Sidi  Usha  (Joshua) 
and  his  father,  Sidi  Nun.  In  the  department  of 
Oran  on  the  Ilif  frontier  is  the  tomb  of  a  certain 
R.  Jacob  Roshdi,  which  is  frequently  visited. 

In  Morocco,  as  in  Algeria,  certain  tombs  are 
equally  venerated  by  Jews  and  Mohammedans,  but 
there  are  no  fixed  days  for  prayer ;  e.g.  :  at  Al-Kasar, 
that  of  H.  Judah  Jabali;  atTarudaut,  that  of  H.  Da- 
vid ben  Baruch ;  and  at  Wazan,  that  of  R.  Amram 
ben  Diwan.  Amram  was  one  of  the  rabbis  sent  out 
periodically  by  the  rabbinate  of  Palestine  to  collect 
money,  lie  traveled  in  company  with  his  son;  and 
when  the  latter  fell  sick,  Amram  prayed  to  God  to 
accept  the  sacrifice  of  his  own  life  and  to  save  that  of 
his  child.  The  son  recovered,  but  the  father  died,  and 
was  buried  at  Jabal  Assen.  His  tomb  is  said  to  be 
surrounded  b}'  a  halo,  and  miracles  are  said  to  have 
taken  jilace  there.  The  7th  of  lyyar  is  the  principal 
dav  of  the  local  pilgrimages  (see  "Journal  des  De- 
bats,"  Paris,  Oct.  27,  1903). 

In  Podolia  and  Galicia  and  even  in  the  northern 
parts  of  Hungary  the  tombs  of  Hasidic  rabbis  and 
niiraclc-workers  are  visited  on  the  anniversaries  of 
their  deaths,  and  on  other  occasions  by  people  in  dis- 
tress. Lamps  are  burned  and  prayers  are  recited; 
and  often  letter-boxes  are  found  at  the  tombs,  in 
which  the  pilgrims  deposit  slips  on  which  their 
wishes  are  written. 

Biiii.ior.RAPHY  :  Luncz,  Lvah  Erez  Ym-aeU  IntrfxiuPtlon,  Jeru- 
salem, 189.^;  Benjamin  11.,  3/a.s'e  I'israc/,  Lyck,  1K59;  Bui' 
Jetiii  Amiuel  de  VAUiaJice  IsraHite  Uiiivenelle,  1888, 
1898;  Revue  des  Ecolen  de  VAUiance  Israelite  Univeiselle, 
Paris,  1901,  1902. 

D.  M.  Fr. 

PILLAR:  The  word  "pillar"  is  used  in  the 
English  versions  of  the  Bible  as  an  equivalent  for 
the  following  Hebrew  words: 

(1)  "Omenol,"  feminine  plural  of  the  active  par- 
ticiple of  |0X  =  "support,"  "confirm."  This  word 
occurs  only  in  II  Kings  xviii.  16.  In  the  Revised 
Version  (margin)  the  rendering  is  "door-posts." 

(2)  "  Mazzebah  "  (R.  V. ,  margin,  "  obelisk  ").  This 
denotes  a  monolith  erected  as  a  monument  or  me- 
morial stone  (as  the  "  pillar  of  Rachel's  grave,"  Gen, 
XXXV.  20,  and  "Absalom's  monument,"  II  Sam. 
xviii.  18;  comp.  I  Mace.  xiii.  27-30),  or  as  a  bound- 
ary-mark and  witness  of  a  treaty  (Gen.  xxxi.  44-54; 
comp.  Isa.  xix.  19),  or  as  a  memorial  of  a  divine  ap- 
peaiance  or  intervention.  Such  stones  often  ac- 
quired a  sacred  character,  and  were  regarded  as 
dwelling-places  of  the  Deity  or  were  made  to  serve 
as  rude  altars  upon  which   libations  were  poured 

(Gen.  XXXV.  14,  xxxviii.  18-22;  I  Sam. 
Memorial     vii.  12;  possibly  also  Gen.  xxxiii.  20, 
Stones.       where  the  verb  used  indicates  the  orig- 
inal  reading   to  have   been    n3VD  = 
"pillar,"  instead  of  n3TD  =  "altar"). 

In  the  earlier  periods  of  Hebrew  history  and  as 
late  as  the  reign  of  Jo.siah  one  or  more  of  these  stone 
pillars  stood  in  every  sanctuary  or  "high  place." 
Thus  Moses  built  an  altar  at  Sinai,  and  "twelve  pil- 
lars according  to  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel"  (Ex. 
xxiv.  4;  comp.  Josli.  xxiv.  26;  IIos.  iii.  4,  x.  1-2;  xix.  19).  Similar  pillars  stood  at  the  Canaan- 
itish  altars  of  Baal  (Ex.  xxiii.  24,  xxxiv.  13;  Deut. 
vii.  5,  xii.  3;  II  Kings  iii.  2,  x.  26-27)  and  in  the 
sanctuaries  of  Tyre  (Ezek.  xxvi.  11)  and  of  Ileliop- 
olis,  in  Egypt  (.Jer.  xliii.  13).  The  recent  excava- 
tions of  the  Palestine  Exploration  Fund  at  Gezer 
have  revealed  a  row  of  eight  monoliths  on  the  .site 
of  the  ancient  high  place.     These  are  hewed  to  a 




roughly  square  or  round  section  and  one  to  a  sliarp 
point  ("Pal.  Explor.  Fund  Quarterly  Statement," 
Jan.,  1903). 

By  the  Deuteronomic  and  Levitical  codes  the  use 
of   the  mazzebah  as  well  as  of  the  asherim  at  the 
altars  of  Jehovah  was  forbidden  as  savoring  of  idol- 
atry (Deut.  .\vi.  21-32;   Lev.  .xxvi.  1).     It  is  proba- 
ble that  these  had  become  objects  of 

Deutero-      worship  and  as  such  were  denounced 
nomic  and   by  the  Prophets  (Mic.  v.  13-14;  comp. 

Levitical     I   Kings  xiv.   23;    11  Kings  xvii.  10, 
Pro-         xviii.  4,  xxiii.  14).     Some  such  stone 

hibitions.  idols  seem  to  be  referred  to  in  Judges 
iii.  19,  26  (comp.  the  Arabic  "nusb"). 
The  term  "hammanim,"  rendered  "images"  and 
"sun-images,"  is  probably  used  of  later  and  more 
artistically  shaped  or  carved  pillars  of  the  same 
character  as  the  mazzebah  (Lev.  xxvi.  30;  Isa.  xvii. 
8,  xxvii.  9;  Ezek.  vi.  4,  6;  II  Chron.  xiv.  3,  5; 
xxxiv.  4,  7). 

(3)  "Nezib  "  (from  the  same  root  as  "  mazzebah  "), 
while  rendered  "pillar"  in  Gen.  xix.  26,  is  eLsewhere 
translated  "garrison"  (I  Sam.  x.  5)  and  "officer" 
(I  Kings  iv.  19).  In  the  second  passage,  however, 
the  JSeptuagint  renders  it  by  avcicTTjfia,  ''■i.e.,  prob- 
ably a  pillar  erected  as  a  symbol  or  trophy  of  Phi- 
listine domination  "  (Driver,  "  Hebrew  Text  of  Sam- 
uel," p.  61;  so,  also,  H.  P.  Smith,  Wellhausen,  and 

(4)  "Mis'ad  "  (I  Kings  x.  12;  R.  V.,  margin,  "rail- 
ing," "prop  ").     The  precise  meaning  is  unknowm. 

(5)  "'Ammud,"  the  word  which  occurs  most  fre- 
quently in  this  sense,  is  used  of  the  pillars  or  col- 
umns which  support  a  house  or  the  roof  of  a  house 
(Judges  xvi.  25-29),  of  the  posts  which  supported 
the  curtains  of  the  Tabernacle  (Ex.  xxvii.  10,  17; 
xxxvi.  36-38;  Num.  iii.  36-37),  and  of  the  pillars  in 
the  Temple  (I  Kings  vii.  2,  3,  6;  comp.  Ezek.  xlii. 
6;  Prov.  ;■  1).  They  were  made  of  acacia-wood 
(Ex.  xxvi.  32,  37;  xxxvi.  36),  of  cedar  (I  Kings  vii. 
2),  or  of  marble  (Esth.  i.  6;  comp.  Cant.  v.  15).  A 
detailed  description  is  given  in  I  Kings  vii.  of  two  or  bronze  pillars  which  were  fashioned  by  Hi- 
ram for  King  Solomon  and  set  up  in  the 

Pillars  of  porchof  the  Temple,  and  to  which  were 
the  given  the  names  "Jachin"  ("He  [or 

Temple,  "It"]  shall  establish")  and  "Boaz" 
("  In  him  [or  "  it  "]  is  strength  ").  The 
word  is  used  also  of  the  columns  or  supports  of  a 
litter  (Cant.  iii.  10).  It  denotes,  too,  the  column  of 
smoke  rising  from  a  conflagration  (Judges  xx.  40), and 
particularly  the  column  of  smoke  and  of  flame  which 
attended  the  Israelites  in  the  wilderness  (Ex.  xiii. 
21-22,  xiv.  24;  Num.  xiv.  14).  An  iron  pillar  isa 
symbol  of  strength  (Jer.  i.  18);  and  in  poetry  the 
earth  and  the  heavens  are  represented  as  resting  on 
pillars  (Job  ix.  5,  xxvi.  11;  Ps.  Ixxv.  4). 

(6;  "Mazuk,"  probably  a  molten  support;  hence 
a  "pillar"  (I  Sam.  ii.  8). 

(7)  "  Timarah  "  ;  in  the  plural,  "  pillars  "  of  smoke 
(Cant.  iii.  6;  Joel  iii.  3).  Compare  "tomer"  (Jer.  x. 
5,  H.  v.,  margin;  Baruch  vi.  70),  which  probably 
means  a  "scarecrow." 

Bibliography  :  W.  R.  Smith.  Rel.  nf  Sem.  2d  ed.,  pp.  201-212, 
456-457;  Nowack,  Hehriiische  Arc)i{lnU>fjie;  Wellhausen, 
Reste  Arnbu<chen  Heidentumes,  2d  ed..  pp.  101, 141 :  Conder, 
Syrian  Stone  Lore,  new  ed.,  p.  86 ;  Driver,  Commentary  on 

Oen.  TTviU.  2S,  and  on  Dexit.  xvi.  Si ;  Dlllmann.  Commentary 
on  the  same  passagea  ;  Whitehouse,  PiUais,  in  Hastlnirs,  Diet. 
E.  C.  J.   F.   McL. 

PILLAR  OF  FIRE:  The  Israelites  during  their 
wanderings  liirough  the  desert  were  guided  in  the 
night-time  by  a  pillar  of  fire  to  give  them  light  (Ex. 
xiii.  21 ;  Num.  xiv.  14;  Neh.  ix.  12,  19).  The  pillar 
of  fire  never  departed  from  them  during  the  night 
(Ex.  xiii.  22);  according  to  Shab.  33b,  it  appeared 
in  the  evening  before  the  pillar  of  cloud  had  disap- 
peared, so  that  the  Lsraelites  were  never  without  a 
guide.  God  troubled  the  Egyptian  hosts  through 
a  pillar  of  fire  and  of  cloud  (Ex.  xiv.  24).  Tliere  is  a 
legend  that  Onkelos,  by  narrating  to  the  messen- 
gers sent  by  the  emperor  to  seize  him  that  God 
Himself  was  the  torch-bearer  of  the  Israelites,  con- 
verted them  to  Judaism  ('Ab.  Zarah  11a). 

E.  G.  H.  M.  Sel. 

PILLITZ,  DANIEL.     See  Burger,  Theodor. 

PILPUL  :  A  method  of  Talmudic  study.  The 
word  is  derived  from  the  verb  "pilpel"  (lit.  "to 
spice,"  "to  season, "and  in  a  metaphorical  sense,  "to 
dispute  violently"  [Tosef.,  B.  B.  vii.  5]  or  "clev- 
erly" [Shab.  31a;  B.  M.  85b]).  Since  by  such  dis- 
putation the  subject  is  in  a  way  spiced  and  seasoned, 
the  word  has  come  to  mean  penetrating  investiga- 
tion, disputation,  and  drawing  of  conclusions,  and 
is  used  especially  to  designate  a  method  of  studying 
the  Law  (Ab.  vi.  5;  Baraita,  B.  B.  145b;  Tem.  16a; 
Ket.  103b;  Yer.  Ter.  iv.  42d).  For  another  explana- 
tion of  the  word,  as  derived  from  the  Hebrew  "pil- 
lel,"  .see  J.  B.  Lewinsohn,  "Bet  Yehudah,"  ii.  47, 
Warsaw,  1878. 

The  essential  characteristic  of  pilpul  is  that  it 
leads  to  a  clear  comprehension  of  the  subject  under 
discussion  by  penetrating  into  its  essence  and  by 
adopting  clear  distinctions  and  a  strict  difl"erentiation 
of  the  concepts.  By  this  method  a  sentence  or  maxim 
is  carefully  studied,  the  various  concepts  which  it 
includes  are  exactly  determined,  and  all  the  possible 
consequences  to  be  deduced  from  it  arc  carefully 
investigated.  The  sentence  is  tiien  examined  in  its 
relation  to  some  other  sentence  harmonizing  with  it, 
the  investigation  being  directed  toward  determining 
whether  the  agreement  appearing  on  a  superficial 
contemplation  of  them  continues  to  be  manifest  when 
all  the  possible  consequences  and  deductions  are 
drawn  from  each  one  of  them;  for  if  contradictory 
deductions  follow  from  the  two  apparently  agreeing 
sentences,  then   this  apparent  agree- 

Descrip-  ment  is  not  an  agreement  in  fact, 
tion  of       Again,   if  two  sentences  apparently 

Method.  contradict  each  other,  the  pilpulistic 
method  seeks  to  ascertain  whether  this 
seeming  contradiction  may  not  be  removed  by  a  more 
careful  definition  and  a  more  exact  limitation  of  the 
concepts  connected  with  the  respective  sentences. 
If  two  contiguous  sentences  or  maxims  apparentlj' 
imply  the  same  thing,  this  method  endeavors  to 
decide  whether  the  second  sentence  is  really  a  repe- 
tition of  the  first  and  could  have  been  omitted,  or 
whether  by  a  more  subtle  differentiation  of  the  con- 
cepts a  different  shade  of  meaning  may  be  discovered 
between  them.  Similarly  if  a  regulation  is  mentioned 
in  connection  with  two  parallel  cases,  this  method 




determines  whether  it  might  not  have  Ijeen  concluded 
from  the  similarity  of  the  cases  itself  that  the  regu- 
lation appl.ving  to  the  one  applied  to  the  other  also, 
and  why  it  was  necessary  to  repeat  explicitly  the 
same  regulation. 

The  pilpulistic  method,  however,  is  not  satisfied 
wiih  merely  attaining  the  object  of  its  investiga- 
tion. After  having  reached  the  desired  result  in  one 
way,  it  inquires  whether  the  same  result  might  not 
have  been  attained  in  another,  so  that,  if  the  first 
method  of  procedure  should  be  eventually  refuted, 
another  method  and  another  proof  for  the  result  at- 
tained may  be  forthcoming.  This  method  is  fol- 
lowed in  most  of  the  Talmudic  discussions  on  regu- 
lations referring  to  the  Law,  and  in  the  explanations 
of  sentences  of  tlie  Mishnah,  of  which  an  example 
may  be  given  here. 

The  Mishnah  says  (B.  M.  i.  1):  "If  two  persons 
together  hold  a  garment  in  their  hands,  aind  one  of 
them  asserts  "I  have  found  it,'  and  the  other  like- 
wise says  '  I  have  found  it, '  and  the  first  one  says  '  It 
belongs  entirely  to  me,'  and  the  second  likewise 
says  ■  It  belongs  entirely  to  me,'  then  each  one  shall 
swear  that  not  less  than  one-half  of  the  garment  is 
rightfully  his,  and  they  shall  divide  the  garment 
between  them."  The  Gemara  explains  this  mishnah 
as  follows:  "The  reason  for  the  two  expressions, 
'  the  one  says  "I  have  found  it,"  '  and  '  the  one  says 
"It  belongs  entirely  to  me,"  '  is  sought  because  it  is 
obvious  that,  if  the  person  insists  that  he  found  it, 
he  lays  claim  to  its  possession."  After  some  futile 
attempts  to  prove  by  means  of  quibbling  interpre- 
tations that  one  of  these  sentences  alone  would  have 
been  insufficient,  the  Gemara  comes  to  the  conclusion 
that  two  different  cases  are  discussed  in  the  Mish- 
nah. In  the  first  case  a  garment  has  been  found, 
and  each  of  the  two  persons  insists 
An  that  he  has  found  it;   in  the  second 

Example,  case  a  garment  has  been  acquired  by 
purchase,  each  person  insisting  that  it 
belongs  to  him,  since  he  has  purchased  it.  Then  the 
Gemara  inquires  why  decisions  had  to  be  rendered 
in  both  cases,  and  if  it  would  not  have  been  suffi- 
cient to  give  a  decision  in  the  one  case  only,  either 
that  of  acquisition  by  purchase  or  that  of  finding. 
The  Gemara  then  proves  that  the  two  ways  of  ac- 
quisition, by  and  by  finding,  differ  in  cer- 
tain respects,  and  that  if  a  decision  had  been  given 
for  the  one  case,  it  could  not  have  been  concluded 
therefrom  that  it  applied  to  the  other  case  also. 

After  this  Mishnah  sentence  itself  has  been  ex- 
plained, its  relation  to  other  sentences  is  inquired 
into.  Does  this  Mishnah  .sentence,  according  to 
which  both  parties  swear,  agree  with  the  principle 
of  Ben  Nanos,  who  says,  in  a  case  in  which  two 
parties  contradict  each  other  (Shebu.  vii.  5),  that 
both  parties  sliould  not  be  allowed  to  swear?  It  is 
then  shown  that,  according  to  Ben  Nanos,  too,  both 
parties  might  be  allowed  to  take  the  oath,  since  both 
might  swear  truthfully;  for  it  might  be  possible 
that  the  garment  in  dispute  belonged  to  both  of 
them  together,  since  both  together  might  have 
found  or  purchased  it,  each  one  swearing  merely 
that  not  less  than  one-half  belongs  to  liim.  Then  it 
is  sought  to  ascertain  whether  the  Mishnah  contra- 
dicts the  decision  of  Symmachus  (B.  K.  35b ;  B.  M. 

102),  according  to  whom  the  two  parties  should  di- 
vide the  object  in  dispute  between  them  without 
swearing.  After  a  few  other  attempts  at  a  solution, 
which  are,  however,  futile,  the  Gemara  comes  to  the 
conclusion  that  the  mishnah  in  question  agrees  in 
principle  with  Symmachus,  and  that  the  oath  which 
the  Mishnah  prescribes  for  both  parties  is  merely 
an  institution  of  the  sages;  otherwise  any  one 
might  take  hold  of  another  person's  garment  and 
insist  that  it  belonged  to  him,  in  order  to  obtaij> 
possession  of  at  least  one-half  of  it  (B.  M.  2a-3a). 

This  example,  although  presented  here  in  a  very 
abbreviated  form,  will  suffice  to  give  an  idea  of  the 
pilpulistic  method  of  Talmudic  discussion.  As  a 
method  of  studying  the  Law,  there  was,  even  in 
the  Talmudic  period,  side  by  side  and  in  contrast 
with  it,  anotlier  method,  which  consisted  rather  in 
collecting,  arranging,  and  preserving- 
Tradition    the  halakic  sentences.    The  represent- 

Versus       ative  of   the  last-named  method  was 

PilpuL  called  "  ba'al  shemu'ot "  =  "  possessor 
of  the  tradition,"  while  the  represent- 
ative of  the  former  was  called  "ba'al  pilpul  "  = 
"master  of  ingenious  disputation  and  deduction" 
(B.  B.  145b).  In  Yer.  Hor.  iii.  48c  the  one  is  called 
"  sadran  "  (arranger),  while  the  other  is  termed  "  pal- 
pelan  "  (disputator). 

Both  methods  were  necessary  for  Talmudism, 
which  rested,  on  the  one  hand,  on  the  solid  ground 
of  tradition,  and,  on  the  other,  on  the  independent 
development  of  what  had  been  handed  down.  The 
one  method  furnished  the  technical  knowledge  of 
the  traditions,  while  the  other  furnished  the  means 
of  creating  by  ingenious  deductions  something  new 
out  of  that  which  existed  anil  had  been  transmitted. 
The  method  of  arranging  and  collecting  was  pre- 
ferred to  the  method  of  ingenious  disputation  and 
deduction  (Yer.  Hor.  iii.  48c);  and  the  learned  man, 
called  "sinai,"  was  considered  to  be  greater  than 
the  clever  pilpulist,  who  was  termed  "uprooter  of 
mountains"  (Ber.  G4a;  Ilor.  14a).  Although  the  pil- 
pulist had  the  advantage  of  being  able  to  arrive  at 
new  conclu.sions  and  new  doctrines  and  to  render 
new  decisions  in  cases  Avliich  had  not  been  provided 
for  in  the  works  of  tradition,  and  before  which  the 
student  of  tradition  stood  helpless,  he  had  neverthe- 
less to  contend  with  certain  disadvantages.  The 
clever  person  is  often  careless  ('Er.  90a);  and  the 
more  acute  and  hair-splitting  Jus  arguments  are,  the 
more  likely  they  are  to  result  in  false  deductions,  as 
Kaba  pointed  out  (B.  M.  96b ;  Niddah  33b).  Many 
of  the  amoraim  were  opposed  to  the  method  of 
the  jiiipul,  which  was  cultivated  especially  at 
Pumbedita  from  the  time  of  R.  Judah  b.  Ezekiel. 
Some  even  went  so  far  as  to  designate  this  method, 
on  which  the  Babylonian  Talmud  is  based,  although 
in  a  more  rational  and  logical  form,  as  "ambiguous 
obscurity"  (Sanh.  24a;  comp.  Samuel  Edels  in  his 
"Hi(l(hislie  Ilaggadot,"  ad  loc). 

in  the  period  the  Geonim  and  the 
first  commentators  on  the  Talmud  confined  them- 
selves more  to  arranging  and  explaining  the  text, 
some  even  despising  the  ingenious  method  of  the 
pilpul  (comp.  Kashi  on  Hul.  81a  and  on  Sanh.  42a). 
But  the  tosafists  again  introduced  the  method  of 
the  pilpul,  which  then  became  predominant.     Dur- 




ing  the  fourteenth  century  and  tlie  first  decades  of 

the  fifteenth,  however,  the  study  of  the  Talmud  was 

pursued  along  different  lines,  probably 

Develop-     in  consequence  of  the  pitiful  condition 
ment         of  the  Jews  in   most  countries.     It 

of  Pilpul.  became  shallow  and  weak  and  entirely 
lacking  in  independence.  Memo- 
rizing and  technical  knowledge  ("  beki'ut ")  took  the 
place  of  minute  analysis.  A  rabbi  was  considered 
great  in  proportion  to  his  knowledge  of  the  te.xtof 
the  different  codes  necessary  for  practical  decisions. 
But  about  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  century 
new  life  was  infused  into  the  study  of  the  Talmud 
by  the  reintroduction  of  the  pilpulistic  method, 
which  laid  greater  stress  on  the  clever  interpreta- 
tion of  the  text  than  on  the  study  of  its  lialakic  re- 
sults. This  method,  which,  in  its  hair-splitting  dia- 
lectics and  its  detailed  analysis  as  well  as  in  its  sur- 
prising deductions,  surpasses  the  clever  tosafistic 
method  of  teaching,  originated  in  Poland  and  Ger- 
many, and  spread  thence  to  other  countries.  It  was 
cultivated  by  the  most  prominent  rabbis;  and  the 
real  importance  of  a  rabbi  was  thought  by  some  to 
lie  in  liis  ability  to  analyze  cleverly  and  treat  crit- 
ically the  subject  in  question  (Israel  Bruna,  in 
Joseph  Colon's  Responsa,  No.  170).  Nor  does  Jo- 
seph Cohm  deny  {ib.)  that  the  method  of  the  pil- 
pul is  an  excellent  one,  saying  merely  that  the 
knowledge  of  the  Talmud  and  of  the  codes  is  more 
val  liable  and  more  useful  for  the  rabbi. 

The  pilpulistic  method  of  study  soon  degenerated 
into  sophistry.  It  was  no  longer  regarded  as  a 
means  of  arriving  at  the  correct  sense  of  a  Talmudic 
passage  and  of  critically  examining  a  decision  as  to 
its  soundness.  It  was  regarded  as  an  end  in  itself; 
and  more  stress  was  laid  on  a  display 
Tendency    of  cleverness  than  on  the  investigation 

Toward  of  truth.  This  new  development  of 
Casuistry,  the  pilpul  is  ascribed  to  Jacob  Pol- 
LAK,  who  lived  at  the  end  of  the  fif- 
teenth century  and  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth. 
Tills  pilpul  par  excellence  was  pursued  especially 
under  two  forms.  In  the  one,  two  apparently  widely 
divergent  halakic  themes  were  placed  in  juxtaposi- 
tion, and  a  logical  connection  between  them  was 
sought  by  means  of  ingeniousand  artificial  interpreta- 
tionsand  explanations,  but  in  such  a  way  that  the  con- 
nective thread  between  them  appeared  only  at  the  end 
of  the  treatise :  this  was  the  "  derashali. "  In  the  other 
form  an  apparently  homogeneous  theme  was  dis- 
sected into  several  parts,  which  were  then  again  com- 
bined into  an  artistic  whole:  this  was  the  so-called 
"  hilluk  "  (analysis,  dissection).  The  treatises  follow- 
ing this  method  of  the  pilpul  in  both  of  these  forms 
were  called  "hiddushim"  or  "novellie"  (original 
products)  because  thereby  the  most  familiar  objects 
were  made  to  appear  in  a  new  light.  Various  meth- 
ods of  dialectics  were  originated  by 
The  means  of  which    these  hillukim  and 

Hillukim.    derashot  were  built  up  and  developed. 
Every  school  had  its  own  way  of  find- 
ing and  disclosing  the  hiddushim;  as  examples  the 
method  of  Nuremberg  and  that  of  Ratisbon  may  be 

General  rules  were  laid  down  even  for  the  applica- 
tion of  this  sophistic  treatment  to  the  Talmud,  the 

codes,  and  the  commentaries.  The  following  rule, 
for  instance,  was  formulated :  "  If  any  person  raises 
an  objection  at  the  end  of  a  sentence,  he  must  at 
once  be  asked  why  he  reserved  his  objection  until 
the  end  of  the  argument,  instead  of  speaking  at  the 
beginning  of  it.  Then  it  must  be  proved  by  the  ob- 
jector that  if  the  objection  liad  been  raised  at  the 
beginning  of  the  sentence  a  refutation  of  it  might 
have  been  found,  and  that  only  if  the  objection  is 
raised  at  the  end  of  the  discussion,  can  it  be  claimed 
that  all  possible  refutations  of  the  main  argument 
have  been  removed  and  that  .such  an  argument  be- 
comes valid  "  (comp.  on  this  rule  Jellinek  in  "Bikku- 
riin,"  pp.  3  et  seq.). 

The  adherents  of  this  pilpulistic  method  did  not, 
however,  intend,  by  their  ingenious  disputations,  to 
draw  deductions  for  practical  purposes.  Its  chief 
representatives,  in  order  that  they  might  not 
inlluence  any  one  in  practical  matters,  did  not 
commit  the  results  of  their  disputations  or  their 
hiddu.shim  to  writing.  They  intended  merely  to 
sharpen  the  minds  of  their  pupils  and  to  lead 
them  to  think  independently;  for  this  course  prece- 
dent was  to  be  found  in  the  Talmud  (Ber.  33b;  'Er. 
13a).  To  this  end  riddles  were  often  given  to  the 
pupils;  also  questions  that  were  manifestly  absurd, 
but  for  which  a  clever  pupil  might  find  an  answer. 
The  earliest  collection  of  such  riddles  is  found  in  a 

work  by  Jacob  b.  Judah  Landau,  who 

Riddles  of  lived  at  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  cen- 

Pilpul.       tury,  hence  about  the  time  when  this 

new  method  of  the  pilpul  was  devel- 
oped; this  collection  is  appended  to  his  work 
"Agur"  (ed.  Piotrkow,  1884,  pp.  72a  et  seq.).  The 
following  example  may  be  quoted:  "How  was  it 
that  of  two  boys  who  were  born  on  two  successive 
days  of  the  same  year  the  one  who  was  born  a  day 
later  than  the  other  attained  first  to  the  legal  age  of 
thirteen  years  required  for  becoming  a  bar  miz  wah  ? " 
Answer :  "  The  bo3's  were  born  in  a  leap-year,  which 
has  two  months  of  Adar.  One  boy  was  born  on  the 
29th  of  the  first  Adar;  the  other,  on  the  first  of  the 
second  Adar.  The  thirteenth  year  following,  in 
which  the  boys  became  bar  mizwah,  was  an  ordi- 
nary year,  with  only  one  month  of  Adar.  The 
younger  boy,  who  was  born  on  the  1st  of  Adar 
(Sheni),  reached  his  legal  age  on  the  1st  of  Adar  in 
that  year,  while  the  elder  boy,  who  was  born  on  the 
29th  of  the  first  month  of  Adar,  reached  his  legal  age 
only  on  the  29th  of  Adar  in  the  thirteenth  j'ear." 

Many  prominent  rabbinical  authorities  protested 
against  this  degenerated  method  of  the  pilpul  (e.g., 
R.  Liwa  b.  Bezaleel,  MaHaRaL  of  Prague,  Isaiah 
Horowitz  [author  of  "Shene  Luhot  ha-Berit"J,  Jair 
Hayj'im  Bacharach  in  his  responsa  "Hawwot  Yair" 
[No.  123J,  and  other  Polish  and  German  rabbis; 
comp.  Jellinek  in  "Bikkurim,"  i.  4,  ii.  5);  but  their 
attacks  upon  it  were  futile.  The  method  predomi- 
nated down  to  the  nineteenth  century,  being  culti- 
vated by  the  most  gifted  rabbis  in  all  countries,  al- 
though in  a  more  or  less  modified  form,  according 
to  the  individuality  of  the  rabbis  in  question  and 
the  dominant  movements  in  the  countries  them- 
selves. It  applies  the  same  treatment  to  the  Talmud 
as  to  the  codes  and  the  commentaries,  and  attempts 
to  confirm  or  refute  the  view  expressed  in  one  com- 




mentary,  or  the  rule  laid  down  in  one  code,  by 
means  of  ingenious  and  at  times  hair-splitting  de- 
ductions drawn  from  an  earlier  commentary  or  code, 
or  especially  a  remote  Talmudic  passage.  Two  ex- 
amples may  be  cited  here: 

Maimonides  ("Yad,"  'Edut,  xviii.  2)  lays  down 
the  principle  that  a  witness  can  be  convicted  of  hav- 
ing given  false  testimony  and  becomes  amenable  to 
punishment  by  proof  of  an  alibi  only  when  such 
proof  does  not  disprove  the  facts  set  forth  in  his  tes- 
timony. When  the  testimony  of  those  who  bring 
proof  of  the  alibi  refutes  at  the  same  time  the  testi- 
mony of  the  witness  for  the  prosecution,  then  this  is 
regarded  merely  as  a  contradiction  between  the  two 
groups  of  witnesses,  and  the  one  group  is  not  con- 
sidered to  be  refuted  by  the  other.  This  principle 
is  attacked  by  R.  Hayyim  Jonah  (quoted  by  U.  Jona- 
than Eybeschntz  in  his  "  Urim  we-Tummim,"  section 
"Tummim,"  38)  through  the  combination  of  two  Tal- 
mudic passages  and  a  clever  deduction  therefrom. 
There  is  a  Talmudic  principle  to  the  effect  that  the 
testimony  of  a  witness  in  which  he  can  not  possibly  be 
refuted  by  proof  of  an  alibi  is  in  itself  invalid  (Sanh. 
41a ;  B.  K.  75b).  This  principle  is  perhaps  based  on 
the  supposition  that  the  witness,  if  not  restrained  by 
the  fear  of  being  convicted  and  punished,  will  more 
readily  make  false  statements.  Another  Talmudic 
sentence  says:  ''A  appears  as  witness  against  B 
and  testifies  that  the  latter  committed  an  assault 
upon  him  (A)  against  his  will.  If  another  witness, 
C,  can  be  found  to  corroborate  this  statement,  then 
B  is  liable  to  be  executed  on  the  testimony  of  the 
two  witnesses  A  and  C"  (Sanh.  9b).  Now,  if  the 
statement  of  A  should  be  refuted  by  a  proof  of 
alibi,  then  this  proof  would  at  the  same  time  dis- 
prove the  alleged  commission  of  the  crime;  for,  in 
the  absence  of  A,  B  could  not  have  committed  the 
assault  in  question  upon  him.  According  to  the 
principle  laid  down  by  Maimonides,  the  refutation 
of  A's  statement  by  proof  of  an  alibi  would  be  con- 
sidered merelj^  as  a  contradiction  and  not  as  a  refu- 
tation, and  A  would  not  be  punished  as  a  person 
who  had  been  convicted.  Hence  A  would  not  be 
in  danger  of  being  refuted  and  punished,  and  his 
testimony  would,  according  to  the  principle  (Sanh. 
41a),  be  invalid  in  itself.  It  therefore  necessarily 
follows  from  the  Talmudic  sentence  in  question 
that  the  testimony  of  A  is  valid,  and  that  the  prin- 
ciple of  Maimonides  in  regard  to  the  nature  of  the 
proof  of  alibi  is  erroneous.  Eybcschlitz  attempts  to 
uphold  the  jirincipleof  Maimonides  by  quoting  even 
more  ingenious  combinations. 

Another  example,  by  Aryeh  Lob  b.  Asher.  one  of 
the  keenest  casuists  of  the  eighteenth  century,  may 
be  given.     He  proves  the  correctness 
Examples    of   one  view,  and  "eo  ipso"  the   in- 
of  Method,    correctness   of  another,  from   a   Tal- 
mudic   passage.      The  Talmud    says 
(Pes.  4b):    "The  search  for  and  removal  of  leav- 
ened matter  on  the  eve  of  the  Passover  is  merely  a 
rabbinical  prescription ;  for  it  is  sufficient,  according 
to  the  command  of  the  Torah,  if  merely  in  words  or 
in  thought  the  owner  declares  it  to  be  destroyed  and 
equal  to  the  dust."     Rashi  says  that  the  fact  that 
such  a  declaration  of  the  owner  is  sufficient  is  do- 
rived  from  an  expression  in  Scripture.     The  tosafot. 

however,  claim  that  this  can  not  be  derived  from  the 
particular  expression  in  Scripture,  since  the  word 
there  means  "to  remove"  and  not  "to  declare  des- 
troyed." The  mere  declaration  that  it  is  destroyed 
("bittul ")  is  sufficient  for  the  reason  that  thereby 
the  owner  gives  up  his  rights  of  ownership,  and 
the  leavened  matter  is  regarded  as  having  no  owner 
("  hefker  "),  and  as  food  for  which  no  one  is  responsi- 
ble, since  at  Passover  only  one's  own  leavened  food 
may  not  be  kept,  while  that  of  strangers  may  be 
kept.  Although  the  formula  which  is  sufficient 
to  declare  the  leavened  matter  as  destroyed  is  not 
sufficient  to  declare  one's  property  as  having  no 
owner,  yet,  as  R.  Nissim  Gerondi,  adopting  the 
view  of  the  tosafot,  explains,  the  right  of  owner- 
ship which  one  has  in  leavened  matter  on  the  eve 
of  the  Passover,  even  in  the  forenoon,  is  a  very 
slight  one;  for,  beginning  with  noon,  such  food  may 
not  be  enjoyed  ;  hence  all  rights  of  ownership  be- 
come illusory,  and,  in  view  of  such  slight  right  of 
ownership,  a  mere  mental  renunciation  of  this  right 
suffices  in  order  that  the  leavened  matter  be  consid- 
ered as  without  an  owner.  R.  Aryeh  L5b  (in  his 
"Sha'agat  Aryeh,  Dine  Hamez,"  §  77)  attempts  to 
prove  the  correctness  of  this  tosafistic  opinion  as 
elaborated  by  R.  Nissim,  and  to  prove  at  the  same 
time  the  incorrectness  of  Rashi's  view,  from  the  fol- 
lowing Talmudic  passage:  "Pes.  6b  says  that  from 
the  hour  of  noon  of  the  eve  [of  Passover]  to  the  con- 
clusion of  the  feast  the  mere  declaration  of  destruc- 
tion does  not  free  a  person  from  the  responsibility 
of  having  leavened  matter  in  his  house;  for  since  he 
is  absolutely  forbidden  to  enjoy  it,  he  has  no  claim 
to  the  ownership,  which  he  renounces  by  such  a 
declaration."  The  Gemara  (7a)  endeavors  to  refute 
this  assertion  by  the  following  baraita :  "  If  a  person, 
sitting  in  the  schoolhouse,  remembers  that  he  has 
leavened  matter  in  his  house,  he  shall  mentally  de- 
clare it  to  be  destroyed,  whether  the  day  is  a  Sab- 
bath or  the  feast-day."  Although  the  tasting  of 
leavened  matter  is  forbidden  on  the  feast-day,  yet 
the  baraita  says  that  the  owner  shall  mentally  de- 
clare it  to  be  destroyed;  hence  it  follows  from  the 
baraita  that  a  declaration  of  destruction  is  effective 
even  at  a  time  when  one  may  not  enjoy  the  leavened 
food  at  all.  R.  Aha  b.  Jacob  declares  thereupon 
that  the  baraita  deals  with  a  case  in  which  a  person 
remembers  that  he  has  left  some  freshly  kneaded 
dough  at  home  which  is  not  yet  leavened,  but  may 
become    leavened    before   the    owner 

Further  returns  home  in  order  to  bake  it.  At 
Examples,  the  moment  of  his  remembering  it, 
liowe ver,  the  dough  is  not  yet  leavened , 
and  hence  may  be  used  for  all  purposes;  it  is  there- 
fore the  property  of  the  owner,  who  can  mentally 
declare  it  to  be  destroj'ed,  i.e.,  he  may  renounce  his 
right  of  ownership. 

Thus  far  the  Talmudic  passage.  The  "Sha'agat 
Aryeh"  then  asks  how  the  Gemara  can  conclude 
from  the  baraita,  which  says  that  during  the  feast 
even  leavened  matter  may  be  mentally  destroyed, 
that  such  a  declaration  of  destruction  is  valid  if  one 
may  not  partake  at  all  of  such  leavened  food.  This 
baraita  perhaps  agrees  with  the  view  of  Jose  the 
G.\i,ii,E.\N,  who  says  that  leavened  matter  may  be 
enjoyed  during  the  feast  in  any  way  excepting  by 




eating  it.  If  the  baraita  adopts  the  point  of  view  of 
Jose  the  Galilean,  then  it  may  declare  correctly  that 
leavened  matter  may  be  mentally  destroyed  on  the 
feast-day  also,  since  the  owner  may  enjoy  it  in  every 
way  except  as  food  and  hence  has  the  right  of  own- 
ership. When,  however,  the  leavened  matter  may 
not  be  enjoyed,  as  is  the  ruling  of  the  accepted  hala- 
kah,  no  one  has  the  right  of  ownership  and,  there- 
fore, of  declaring  the  leavened  matter  in  question  des- 
troyed. But  if  one  assumes  with  K.  Nissim  and  the 
tosafot  that  a  mental  declaration  of  destruction  is  ef- 
ficacious because  it  is  a  form,  though  a  weakened 
cue,  of  the  hefker  declaration,  then  this  weakened 
form  of  the  hefker  declaration  is  sutticient  in  the 
case  of  leavened  matter  only  because  the  right  of 
ownership  in  it  is  a  weakened  one.  The  right  of 
ownership  in  the  leavened  matter  is  a  weakened  one 
only  because  through  the  interdiction  against  par- 
taking of  such  food  this  right  becomes  of  itself  illu- 
sory from  a  certain  period,  namel}',  from  the  hour 
of  noon  of  the  eve  of  the  feast.  If  this  view  is  as- 
sumed to  be  correct,  then  the  baraita  can  not  ex- 
press the  view  of  Jose  the  Galilean;  for,  according 
to  him,  the  right  of  ownership  in  the  leavened  mat- 
ter is  a  strong  and  inalienable  one,  since  one  may 
fully  enjoy  it  even  during  the  feast,  with  tlie  excep- 
tion that  one  may  not  use  it  as  food.  But  if  the 
right  of  ownership  is  not  a  weakened  one,  then,  ac- 
cording to  the  foregoing  statements,  a  weakened 
form  of  the  hefker  declaration  is  not  sufficient;  hence 
the  bittul  declaration  is  insufficient  for  the  purpose 
of  declaring  the  leavened  matter  to  be  property  be- 
longing to  no  one.  The  baraita,  which  refers  to  a 
mental  declaration  of  destruction,  can  not  therefore 
express  H.  Jose's  view. 

The  attempt  of  the  Gemara  to  conclude  from  the 
baraita  that  a  bittul  declaration  would  be  valid  also 
in  case  a  person  might  have  noenjoy- 
Complica-  ment  whatever  from  leavened  matter 
tions.  is  therefore  a  correct  one.  According 
to  Rashi's  view,  however,  that  the 
view  of  the  bittul  declaration  being  sufficient  is  de- 
rived from  a  certain  expression  in  Scripture,  this 
bittul  declaration  is  valid  according  to  R.  Jose  too; 
since  it  does  not  depend  on  the  kind  of  riglit  of 
ownership,  the  baraita  passage  quoted  might  ex- 
press the  view  of  R.  Jose,  although  it  speaks  of 
bittul.  Hence  the  attempt  of  the  Gemara  to  con- 
clude from  the  baraita  that  bittul  would  be  valid 
even  if  one  might  not  in  any  way  enjoy  the  leavened 
matter,  is  erroneous;  for  the  baraita,  which  refers 
to  bittul  during  the  feast,  expresses  R.  Jose's 
view,  that  during  the  feast  also  leavened  matter 
may  be  enjoyed  in  any  way  except  by  eating  it. 
The  method  of  the  Gemara,  therefore,  proves  the 
correctness  of  the  tosafistic  opinion,  represented  by 
R.  Nissim,  and  the  incorrectness  of  Rashi's  opinion. 

This  latter  example  is  especially  interesting  be- 
cause it  shows  the  weak  foundation  on  which  such  a 
pilpulistic  structure  is  reared.  It  rests  on  the  highly 
improbable,  if  not  false,  assumption  that  the  Gemara 
has  carefully  weighed  and  considered  all  points,  and 
still  can  find  no  other  refutation  of  its  attempt  to 
draw  the  desired  conclusion  from  the  baraita  than 
that  advanced  by  R.  Aha  b.  Jacob.  And  the  whole 
fabric  falls  to  pieces  with  the  assumption  that  the 

Gemara  could  have  refuted  its  attempt  by  assuming 
that  the  baraita  expressed  the  view  of  ]{.  Jose,  but 
that  R.  Aha  b.  Jacob  thought  to  find  a  better  refu- 
tation by  assuming  that  the  baraita  expressed  the 
view  generally  accepted,  and  not  the  single  view  of 
R.  Jose,  which  was  rejected  by  the  majoiity  of 

The  method  of  the  pilpul  was  not  confined  to  the 
study  of  the  Talmud  and  the  codes;  it  was  applied 
also  in  the  field  of  Homilktics  and  in  that  of  the 
Haggadah.  A  short  haggadic  sentence  of  the  Tal- 
mud or  Midrash  was  cleverly  interpreted  so  as  to  af- 
ford material  for  an  entire  treatise  on  some  halakic 
theme.     Sometimes  such  a  so-called 

Applied  "  curious  midrash  sentence  "  ("  midrash 
Outside  the  peli")  was  invented  as  a  starting-point 

Talmud,  for  some  ingenious  explanation.  The 
Biblical  personages  were  made  the 
mouthpieces  of  the  principles  of  Maimonides  accord- 
ing to  Joseph  Caro's  interpretation,  or  of  decisions 
by  Isaac  Alfasi  according  to  R.  Nissim  Gerondi's 
interpretation.  Abimelech  is  said  to  have  been 
guided  by  a  Talmudic  principle  in  his  behavior  to- 
ward Abraham  and  Sarah.  The  antagonism  between 
Joseph  and  his  brothers  is  ascribed  to  differences  of 
opinion  regarding  a  halakic  regulation.  Pharaoh  is 
said  to  have  based  his  refusal  to  liberate  Israel  on 
certain  Talmudic-rabbinic  principles;  and  Haman's 
wife,  Zeresh,  is  said  to  have  deduced  from  certain 
Talmudic  teachings  that  her  husband  would  not 
be  able  to  maintain  his  position  against  the  Jew 

Many  homiletic  works  and  commentaries  on  the 
books  of  the  Bible,  from  the  beginning  of  the  six- 
teenth century  down  to  the  nineteenth,  follow 
this  method.  Among  these  R.  Judah  Rosanes' 
"Parashat  Derakim"  and  R.  Jonathan  EybeschiUz's 
"  Ya'arat  Debash "  are  especially  noteworthy  for 
their  acuteness  and  their  clever  combinations.  On 
the  special  forms  of  pilpulistic  methods  in  different 
countries  and  at  different  times,  see  Talmud. 

Bibliography:  Gudemann.  Die  Neuoei>taUuna  des  Rahbi- 
nerwei^eivf  im  Mittelalter.  In  Monntsxchrift,  1864.  pp.  425- 
433;  Idem,  Gesch.  Hi.  79-83  ;  Jelllnek,  Le-Korot    Seder  ha- 
Limmtui,  In  Keller's  Bikkuiim,  1.  1-26,  11.  1-19. 
E.  C.  J.   Z.   L. 

PILSEN  :  City  in  Bohemia.  According  to  doc- 
uments of  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  centuries, 
Jews  were  then  living  in  Pilsen,  and  they  had  a  syn- 
agogue and  a  cemetery.  In  the  sixteenth  century 
they  were  expelled,  as  were  the  Jews  of  most  of  the 
other  cities  of  Bohemia.  It  was  not  until  after  1848 
that  Jews  were  allowed  to  resettle  in  Pilsen.  An 
increasing  number  of  Jewish  families  from  several 
villages  in  the  neighborhood,  where  they  formed 
large  communities,  then  removed  to  the  city ;  serv- 
ices were  at  first  held  in  a  rented  chapel ;  and  soon 
afterward  the  district  rabbi  of  Pilsen,  Anschel  Kaf- 
ka, took  up  his  residence  in  the  city.  In  1859  the 
community,  which  then  numbered  seventy  families, 
received  its  constitution,  being  one  of  the  few  newlj' 
formed  congregations  in  Bohemia  whose  statutes 
were  confirmed.  In  the  same  year  a  synagogue  was 
dedicated,  and  a  four-grade  school  was  organized. 
In  1875  another  .synagogue  was  annexed  to  the 
older  one ;  and  in  1893  a  handsome  new  building  was 
erected  at  a  cost  of  nearly  1,000, 000  crowns.     Heine- 




mann  Vogelstein  was  called  to  the  rabbinate  in  1867, 
afid  oflQciated  until  1880,  his  successors  being  Nathan 
Porges  (1880-82),  Jecheskel  Caro  (1882-91),  and 
Adolf  Posnanski  (since  1891). 

In  1904  the  community  numbered  3,170  persons, 
including  724  taxpayers,  in  a  total  population  of 
68,079;  and  the  annual  budget  amounted  to  73,756 

BiBUOGRAPHT :  JohrbucJi  fUr  die  Israflitischen  Oemeinden 
in  BOhmen,  18&4  ;  Union  Kcdender,  1905. 
D.  A.   Kl. 


T:  Poetess  of  Spanish  descent;  lived  in  England 
in  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth  century,  as  did  also 
Abraham  Henriques  Pimentel.  She  wrote  "  Es- 
pejoFielde  Vidas"  (London,  1720),  laudator}'  Span- 
ish verses  on  the  Spanish  metrical  translation  of  the 
Psalms  by  the  Marano  poet  Daniel  Israel  Lopez 

BiBLioGRAPHT :  Kayserlin?.  Sephardim  Romanische  Poesien 
der  Juden  in  Spanien,  pp.  251,  299. 

J.  I.   Co. 

PIN.     See  Tent. 

PINA,  DE  :  Portuguese  jVIarano  family  some 
members  of  which  were  able  to  escape  the  Inquisi- 
tion and  to  confess  Judaism  openlj'  in  Amsterdam. 

Jacob  (Manuel)  de  Pina :  Spanish  and  Portu- 
guese poet;  born  of  Marano  parents  in  Lisbon  in 
1616;  went  to  Holland  about  1660.  In  Amsterdam 
he  openly  accepted  Judaism  and  took  the  name 
Jacob.  In  Lisbon  he  had  published  a  "comedia 
burlesca "  entitled  "  La  Mayor  Hazana  de  Carlos 
VI."  and  a  volume  of  humorous  poems  entitled 
"Juguetes  de  la  Niiiez  y  Travesuras  del  Ingeuio" 
(1656),  which  are  the  same  as  the  "  Chansas  del  lu- 
genio  y  Dislatas  de  la  Musa  "  mentioned  in  Wolf  (see 
bibliography  below).  Jacob  mourned  in  elegies  the 
deaths  of  Saul  Levi  Morteira  and  the  martyrs  Bernal 
and  Lope  de  Vera;  and  in  1673  he  celebrated  in  a 
Portuguese  poem  the  verses  of  Joseph  Penso,  and 
in  a  Spanish  one  the  translation  of  the  psalms  of  Ja- 
cob Judah  Leon. 

Bibliography  :  Barrios,  Relacion  de  Ids  Poetas,  p.  54 ;  idem, 
Coro  de  las  Mxtsan,  p.  .505;  Idem,  Goviei-no  Popular  Ju- 
dayco,  p.  45;  Barbosa  Machado,  Bihliotheca  Litsitana,  111. 
341 ;  Wolf.  Bibl.  Hehr.  111.  .521,  Iv.  870;  Kayserllng,  Sephar- 
dim, pp.  253  et  seq.;  idem,  Bi?jl.  Esp.-Port.-Jud.  p.  89. 

8.  M.  K. 

Paul  de  Pina  :  Born  after  1580  in  Lisbon.  Poet- 
ically gifted  and  inclined  to  religious  fanaticism,  he 
was  about  to  become  a  monk,  and  for  this  purpose 
made  a  journey  to  Rome.  One  of  his  relatives  rec- 
ommended him  to  the  physician  Filotheo  Eliau  (Eli- 
jah) MoxTALTO  in  Leghorn,  and  the  latter  won  the 
young  man  for  the  religion  of  his  ancestors.  Paul 
went  to  Brazil,  and  thence  returned  to  Lisbon,  where 
ne  still  continued  to  appear  as  a  Christian.  He  did 
not  fully  embrace  Judaism  until  after  the  Franciscan 
monk  Diego  de  la  Axum(;ao  had  courageously  suf- 
fered the  death  of  a  martyr  for  the  Jewish  faith.  In 
1604  Paul  hastened  to  Amsterdam,  where  as  a  Jew  he 
was  called  Bohel  Jeahurunand  became  prominent 
in  the  community.  In  honor  of  the  synagogue  Bet- 
Ya'akob  he  in  1624  composed  in  Portuguese  poet- 
ical dialogues  between  the  seven  principal  moun- 
tains of  Palestine  in  praise  of  the  faith  of  Israel. 

These  dialogues  were  printed  in  Amsterdam  in  1767, 
and  they  are  reprinted  in  Kayserling,  "Sephardim," 
p.  340. 

Bibliography  :  Grfttz,  Geach.  3d  ed.,  ix.484,  x.  4 ;  Kayserllng, 
Sephardim,  p.  175. 
G.  I.    E. 

rabbi;  flourished  at  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury ;  grandson  of  R.  Zebi  Hirsch,  rabbi  of  Lublin. 
He  was  rabbi  of  Pinczow  and  other  places,  and 
parnas  at  Cracow.  Pinczow  was  the  author  of 
"Dammeselj:  Eli'ezer"  (Jesnitz,  1723),  notes  on  the 
Masoretic  text  of  the  Bible,  and  "Mishnat  Rabbi 
Eli'ezer"  (Amsterdam,  1725),  expositions  of  Tal- 
mudic  haggadot. 

Bibliography:  Fuenn.  Keneset  Yi^Tachp.  131,  Warsaw,  1886; 
Furst,  Bibl.  Jud.  1.  2:i3;  Roest,  Cat.  lioseuthal.  Bibl.  1.  347, 
11.  Supplement,  No.  396;  Stelnschnelder,  Cat.  Bodl.  No.  4993. 
n.  n.  A.  S.  W. 

SHON :  Polish  physician  and  Talmudist  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  He  was  the  author  of :  "  Meleket 
Mahashebet,"  parti.,  "Ir  Heshbon  "  (Frankfort-on- 
the-Main,  1765),  on  arithmetic  and  algebra;  part  ii., 
"Berure  ha-Middot "  (Berlin,  1765),  on  geometry; 
"Ma'aneh  Eliyahu  "  (Zolkiev,  1758),  discussions  on 
the  Talmudic  treatises  Bezah  and  Baba  Mezi'a,  to- 
gether with  some  rabbinical  decisions  and  responsa; 
"Nibhar  me-Haruz  "  (1772),  extracts  from  the  book 
"Ha-'Ikkarim,"  reproduced  in  an  easy  style  and  in 
the  form  of  a  dialogue  between  teacher  and  pujiil; 
"Hadrat  Eliyahu  "(parti.,  Prague,  1786),  homiletics; 
"She'elot  u-Teshubot  Ge'one  Batra'e "  (Sudilkov, 
1795),  collected  from  the  responsa  of  the  later  rabbis. 

Bibliography  :  Fuenn,  Keneset  Yisrael,  p.  118,  Warsaw,  1886 ; 
Furst,  Bihl.  Jnd.  i.  237 ;  Benjacob,  Ozar  ha-Sefarim,  pp.  134, 
330,  Wilna,  1880. 
H.   R.  A.    S.    W. 

PINCZOW,  JOSEPH  B.  JACOB  :  Polish  rabbi 
and  author;  flourished  in  Poland  in  the  seventeenth 
and  eighteenth  centuries;  descendant  of  R.  Jacob 
Pollak,  son-in-law  of  R.  Moses  Krjimer,  chief  rabbi 
of  Wilna,  and  pupil  of  Zebi  Hirsch,  rabbi  of  Lublin. 
Pinczow  was  at  first  head  of  a  yeshibah  at  Wilna; 
he  then  became  rabbi  of  Kosovi  (1688),  and  afterward 
of  Seltz3^  where  he  maintained  a  yeshibah.  On  ac- 
count of  persecutions  he  in  1698  fled  to  Hamburg, 
where  he  remained  till  1702,  returning  then  to  Seltzy. 
Here  the  plague  broke  out  in  1706;  and  Pinczow, 
whose  life  had  often  been  threatened  on  account  of 
accusations  made  against  the  Jews,  fled  to  Berlin. 
In  this  city  he  printed  his  book  "  Rosh  Yosef  "  (1717), 
on  Talmudic  halakot  and  haggadot,  and  arranged 
according  to  the  order  of  the  treatises.  The  rabbis 
who  wrote  the  haskamot  for  this  work,  among  whom 
was  R.  Jeliiel  Michael  of  Berlin,  praise  efiusively 
Joseph's  learning  and  piety. 

One  of  Pinczow 's  sons,  Moses,  was  rabbi  of 

Bibliography  :  Fuenn,  Keneset,  YinraeJ.  p.  493,  Warsaw,  1886; 
idem.  Kirmh  Ne"t'ma7mh.  p.  96,  Wllna,  im);  F'iirst,  BUiL 
Jnd.  II.  114;  Walden,  Shem  ha-Gcdolim  he-Hadash,  1.  55, 
Warsaw,  1882. 
H.  n.  A.  S.  W. 

PINE  (PNIE),  SAMSON  :  German  translator 
of  the  fourteenth  century.  He  was  probably  born 
at  Peine,  a  city  in  the  province  of  Hanover,  whence 




his  name  is  derived  and  where  a  Jewish  community 
had  existed  from  very  early  times.  Later  he  lived 
at  Strasburg.  Fine  is  chiefly  remembered  for  the 
assistance  he  rendered  iu  1336  to  two  German  poets, 
Claus  Wysse  and  Philipp  Kolin  of  Strasburg,  who 
prepared  a  continuation  of  Wolfram  vou  Eschen- 
bach's  Middle  High  German  poem  "Parzival,"  after 
the  French  poem  in  the  liuediger  von  Mauesse  man- 
uscript. In  the  parchment  manuscript  on  which 
they  wrote,  these  poets  thank  Pine  for  liis  services  in 
translating  the  poem  into  German  and  in  inventing 
rimes  for  it.  Incidentally,  Pine  is  thanked  as  a  Jew 
by  faith;  the  note  is  couched  in  metrical  terms; 
and  Pine  is  referred  to  twice  in  ten  lines  as  a  Jew. 

Bibliography:  Gudeinann,  Gesch.  lii.  159  et  seq.i   Karpeles, 
Uesch.  ilerjildischen  Literatur.  p.  7()9,  Berlin,  1886;  idem, 
Jewish  Literature,  pp.  35,  87,  Philadelphia,  189.5. 
D.  A.  M.  F. 

scholar;  born  at  Tysmenitz,  Galiciu,  Dec.  21,  1805; 
died  at  Galatz,  Rumania,  Aug.  6, 1870.  After  hav- 
ing studied  Talmud  and  rabbinics  in  his  native 
town,  Pineles  at  the  age  of  fifteen  removed  to  Brody, 
where  he  married.  In  his  new  home  he  began  to 
study  German  and  the  secular  sciences,  particularly 
astronomy.  As  most  of  the  Jews  of  Brody  at  that  time 
were  of  the  Hasidic  type,  Pineles  was,  on  account 
of  his  scientific  studies,  accused  of  heresy,  and  was 
obliged  to  justify  liimself  before  his  fatherin-law. 
About  1853  Pineles  went  to  Odessa,  where  he  lived 
till  the  Crimean  war  (1855),  and  then  hesettled  perma- 
nently at  Galatz. 

Pineles  wrote  articles  on  various  scientific  sub- 
jects, particularly  on  astronomy  and  calendar-ma- 
king, in  most  of  the  Hebrew  periodicals,  and  carried 
on  in  "Kerem  Hemed  "  (vol.  ix.,  letters  4,  5,  16,  17, 
18)  and  in  "  Ha-Maggid  "  a  polemical  correspondence 
on  astronomical  subjects  with  Hayyim  Selig  Slo- 
nimski.  He  acquired  particular  renown  on  account 
of  his  work  "Darkah  shel  Torah  "  (Vienna,  1861), 
a  critical  interpretation,  divided  into  178  paragraphs, 
of  several  passages  of  the  Talmud,  particularly  of 
the  Mishnah,  followed  by  a  treatise  on  calendar- 
making,  including  tables.  Pineles  says  in  the 
preface  that  the  objects  of  the  book  are:  (1)  to  jus- 
tify tiie  oral  law;  (2)  to  defend  the  Mishnah  against 
both  its  admirers  and  its  detractors;  and  (3)  to  ex- 
plain several  sayings  of  the  earlier  amoraim  as  well 
as  difficult  passages  in  the  Jerusalem  Talmud  and 
some  in  Babli.  The  most  noteworthy  feature  of  this 
work  is  its  defense  of  the  Mishnah.  Pineles  explains 
several  mishnayot  differently  fi-om  the  Amoraim, 
who,  as  he  declares,  "  very  often  distorted  the  Mish- 
nah." It  is  true  that  Rapoport,  Hirsch  Chajes, 
Nachman  Krochmal,  and  other  critics  had  similarly 
differed  from  the  Amoraim ;  but  besides  extending 
his  criticism  to  the  whole  Mishnah,  his  predeces- 
sors having  dealt  with  only  a  small  portion  of  it, 
he  also  deviated  from  the  amoraic  interpretation 
even  where  it  concerned  the  Halakali.  This  and 
his  interpretation  of  the  sayings  of  the  earlier  amo- 
raim, which  differed  from  that  of  the  later  amoraim, 
called  forth  protests  from  some  of  his  contempora- 
ries. Waldberg,  a  Rumanian  sciiolar,  published  a 
polemical  work  entitled  "Kakh  Hi  Darkah  slid 
Torah"  (Jassy,  1864-68),  in  refutation  of  Pineles' 

criticisms.  It  is  evident,  however,  that  Pineles  did 
not  act  in  an  autireligious  spirit;  for,  as  stated 
above,  he  defended  the  Mishnah  against  its  detract- 
ors like  Schorr  and  Geiger,  attacking  the  latter'a 
"Urschrift  und  Uebersetzung  der  Bibel "  (^i^  144- 
167),  to  which  Geiger  replied  in  his  "  jQd.  Zeit."  (v. 
146  et  8eq.). 

Bibliography:  Fuenn,  Keneset  YinrarU  pp.  286  et  seq.;  Zelt- 
lin,  BilA.  Post-MeiuhUi.  pp.  288,  367,  402. 
S.  M.  Sel. 


English  dramatist;  born  in  London  May  24,  1855; 
eldest  son  of  John  Daniel  Pinero.  He  is  descended 
from  a  Sephardic  family.  As  a  boy  Pinero  was 
articled  to  a  firm  of  solicitors;  and  while  in  their 
ofiice  he  absorbed  much  of  that  knowledge  of  human 
nature  and  human  emotions  which  has  made  his 
productions  famou.s. 

The  law,  however,  had  few  attractions  for  him, 
and  in  1874  he  joined  the  company  of  the  Theatre 
Royal,  Edinburgh,  being  engaged  as  "general  util- 
ity man."  Two  years  later  he  went  to  the  Lyceum, 
London,  where  he  gained  invaluable  experience  in 
stageciaft  under  (Sir)  Henry  Irving.  As  an  actor 
Pinero  was  not  successful,  and  he  soon  turned  his 
thoughts  to  play-writing.  In  1877  he  wrote  in  a  sin- 
gle afternoon  "Two  Hundred  a  Year,"  which  was 
produced  at  the  Globe  Theatre  with  some  measure 
of  success.  Soon  afterward  "  The  Money  Spinners," 
written  with  almost  equal  rapidity,  was  produced  at 
the  St.  James's  by  John  Hare  and  the  Kendalls  and 
made  a  great  hit  (1880).  He  then  produced  in  ten 
days  "  Lords  and  Commons, "  following  it  with  "  The 
Magistrate,"  which  made  Pinero  famous  and  estab- 
lished his  reputation  on  a  firm  foundation. 

His  literary  activity  has  been  remarkable  and  un- 
flagging; and  "The  Schoolmistress,"  "The  Squire," 
"Dandy  Dick"  (written  in  three  weeks),  "The 
Rocket,"  and  "The  Hobby  Horse"  appeared  succes- 
sively at  short  intervals.  Then  came  his  first  real 
success,  "Sweet  Lavender,"  a  play  redolent  with 
pathos  and  sweetness.  Subsequently  the  influence 
of  Ibsen  began  to  make  itself  felt  in  Pinero's  work, 
after  he  had  written  "  The  Profligate,"  "  The  Weaker 
Sex,"  "The  Cabinet  Minister,"  "The  Times," 
"The  Amazons,"  and  "Lady  Bountiful."  "The 
Second  Mrs.  Tanqueray"  was  distinctly  in  Ibsen's 
manner ;  it  was  succeeded  by  "  The  Notorious  Mrs. 
Ebbsmith,"  followed,  in  the  same  style,  by  "The 
Benefit  of  the  Doubt"  aud  "The  Princess  and  the 

In  1898  Pinero,  reverting  to  his  earlier  models, 

produced  "Trelawny  of  the  Wells."     He  returned 

to   the  problem   play  in   "The   Gay  Lord   Quex " 

(1899),  followed  by  "  Iris  "  (1901)  and  "  Letty  "  (1903). 

of  the  same  class. 

Bibliography:  Thr  Critic.  xxxyiLUT:  CasxcU's  Magnzine, 
x.wiii.  3.54  ;  Pall  Mall  Mauaziue,  July,  1900,  p.  331 ;  H'/io"* 
ir/io,  1904.  „     ,, 

J.  E.  Ms. 

PINES,  ELIJAH  B.  AARON:  Rabbi  at 
Shklov,  government  of  Moghilef,  Russia,  in  the 
eighteenth  century ;  descendant  of  the  families  of 
Jacob  Polak  and  Jiulah  L5b  Puchowitzer.  He  was 
the  author  of  "  Tanna  debe  Eliyahu  "  (Zolkiev,  1753), 
on  religion  and  ethics,  divided  into  seven  parts  ac- 




cording  to  the  seven  days  of  the  week,  with  an  ap- 
pendix containing  discussions  on  Berakot,  extracted 
from  his  unpublished  book,  "Tosafot  Me'ore  ha- 

Bibliography:  Fuenn.  Keneset  TiJtrael.  p.  118;  Benjacob, 
Ozar  ha-Sefarim,  p.  657 ;  Kalian,  Atiaf  'Ez  Ahot,  p.  xix., 
tlHicow.  190^.  A     S    W 

H.  R.  A.  b.    W. 

PINES,  JEHIEL  MICHAEL:  Russian  Tal- 
mudist  and  Hebraist;  burn  at  liozhany,  govern- 
ment of  Grodno,  Sept.  26,  1842.  He  was  the  son  of 
Noah  Pines  and  the  son-in-law  of  Shemariah  Luria, 
rabbi  of  Moghilef.  After  being  educated  in  the  local 
Hebrew  school  and  in  theyeshibah,  where  he  distin- 
guished himself  in  Talmudic  study,  he  became  a 
merchant,  giving  lectures  at  the  same  time  in  the 
yeshibah  of  his  native  town.  He  was  elected  dele- 
gate to  a  conference  held  in  London  by  the  associa- 
tion Mazkereth  Mosheh,  for  the  establishment  of 
charitable  institutions  in  Palestine  in  commemora- 
tion of  the  name  of  Sir  Moses  Montefiore ;  in  1878 
he  was  sent  to  Jerusalem  to  establish  and  organize 
such  institutions.  He  has  lived  since  then  in  Pales- 
tine, working  for  the  welfare  of  the  Jewish  commu- 
nity and  interesting  himself  in  the  organization  of 
Jewish  colonies  in  Palestine.  He  was  excommuni- 
cated by  the  Palestinian  rabbis  for  interfering  in 
communal  affairs,  but  was  sustained  by  the  Euro- 
pean rabbinates.  He  is  now  (1905)  director  of  the 
Ashkenazic  hospital  at  Jerusalem  and  lecturer  at 
several  of  the  yeshibot.  He  has  written:  "Yalde 
Ruhi"(part  i.,  "Rib  'Ammi,"  Mayence,  1872,  on  the 
position  of  Israel  among  the  nations;  part  ii.,  "Ha- 
Hayim  weha-Yahadut,"  ib.,  1873.  on  the  relation  of 
Judaism  to  the  times);  "Torat  Mishpete  Togarraa" 
(in  collaboration  with  his  son-in-law  David  Yellin; 
Jerusalem,  1887);  " 'Abodat  ha-Adamah,"  on  agri- 
culture in  Palestine  (Warsaw,  1891).  He  was  one  of 
the  founders  of  the  Orthodox  biweekly  journal 
"Ha-Lebanon"  (1864),  has  edited  and  annotated 
Shershevsky's  "'01am  Katan,"  on  anatomy  and 
chemistry  (Jerusalem,  1886),  and  has  contributed 
to  numerous  journals  and  magazines  published  in 

BiBLiOORAPHr:  Elsenstadt,  Dor  Rabbanaw  we-Soferaw,  Hi. 
a5.  Wllna,  1901 :  Zeltlin,  Bibl.  PoHt.-yiendels.  p.  267,  I^lpsic, 
1891-ft5 ;  Llppe,  Amf  ha-Mazkir,  I.  367,  Vienna,  1881 ;  Ha- 
Zefirah.  1880,  No.  34. 
H.  R.  A.    S.    W. 

PINHAS,  JACOB:  German  journalist  and  com- 
munal worker;  born  Aug.,  1788;  died  in  Cassel  Dec. 
8.  1861.  He  was  the  son  of  Salomon  (1757-1837),  a 
miniature-painter  who  had  received  special  privi- 
leges exempting  him  from  some  of  the  Jewish  dis- 
abilities (comp.  "Sulamith,"  viii.  406),  and  had  been 
granted  the  title  of  court  painter  to  the  Elector  of 
Hesse-Cassel.  Jacob  Pinhas  prepared  to  follow  his 
father's  calling;  but  the  events  of  tlie  Napoleonic 
era  caused  him  to  abandon  the  vocation  of  an  artist 
for  that  of  a  journalist.  When  Cassel  became  the 
seat  of  the  kingdom  of  Westphalia,  the  "Moniteur," 
its  official  organ,  was  published  there,  and  Pinhas, 
being  conversant  witli  both  German  and  French, 
was  appointed  a  member  of  its  editorial  staff.  After 
the  battle  of  Waterloo  he  obtained  from  tiie  elector 
license  to  publish  the  "Kassel'sche  Allgemeine  Zei- 
lung, "  which  he  continued  to  edit  till  his  death.     He 

advocated  a  constitutional  form  of  government,  and 
although  this  was  considered  revolutionary,  hia 
moderation  and  his  honesty  gained  for  him  the  con- 
fidence of  the  government,  which  always  sought  his 
advice  on  Jewish  matters.  For  his  literary  merits 
the  University  of  Marburg  in  1817  bestowed  on  him 
the  degree  of  Ph.D. 

When,  in  1821,  the  Jewish  congregations  of  Hesse- 
Cassel  received  a  new  organization,  being  divided 
into  four  territories,  P*inhas  was  appointed  head  of 
the  "  Vorsteheramt"  of  Niederhessen.  As  such  he 
was  instrumental  in  drawing  up  the  law  of  Dec. 
23,  1823,  on  the  organization  of  the  Jews,  and  in 
establishing  the  normal  school  of  Cassel.  When, 
later  on,  the  "  Landesrabbinat "  was  organized, 
Pinhas  was  made  its  "secular  member."  He  was 
iustriimental  also  in  the  drafting  of  the  law  of  Oct. 
31, 1833,  which  gave  full  citizenship  to  such  Jews  as 
were  willing  to  abandon  petty  trading.  This  law 
was  the  first  of  its  kind  in  Germany ;  but  it  remained 
to  a  great  extent  a  dead  letter  owing  to  the  reaction- 
ary policy  of  the  government  authorities. 

The  year  1848  brought  upon  Pinhas  all  the  unpopu- 
larity which  was  the  lot  of  those  known  to  be  sympa- 
thizers with  the  government,  even  when,  like  Pinhas, 
they  had  always  defended  moderately  liberal  prin- 
ciples. During  the  period  of  reaction  following  the 
abrogation  of  the  constitution  in  1852,  even  Pinhas' 
enemies  acknowledged  the  far-sightedness  of  the 
man  whom  they  had  bitterly  opposed ;  and  it  was 
due  to  his  influence  that  the  reaction  did  not  go  as 
far  as  had  been  demanded. 

Of  Pinhas'  literary  works,  two  volumes  of  the 
"Archives  Diplomatiques  Geuerales  des  Annees 
1848  ct  Suivantes  "  (Gottingen,  1854-55),  which  he 
published  conjointly  with  Carl  Murhard,  deserve 

Bibliography  :  Allq.  Zeit.  des  Jud.  1862,  No.  2. 


PINHEIRO,  MOSES  :  One  of  the  most  influ- 
ential pupils  and  followers  of  Shabbethai  Zebi ;  lived 
at  Leghorn  in  the  seventeenth  century.  He  was 
held  in  high  esteem  on  account  of  his  acquirements; 
and,  as  the  brother-in-law  of  Joseph  Ergas,  the  well- 
known  anti-Shabbethaian,  he  had  great  influence 
over  the  Jews  of  Leghorn,  urging  them  to  believe 
in  Shabbethai.  Even  later  (1667),  when  Shabbcthai's 
apostasy  was  rumored,  Pinheiro,  in  common  with 
other  adherents  of  the  false  Messiah,  still  clung  to 
him  tlirough  fear  of  being  ridiculed  as  his  dupes. 
Pinheiro  was  the  teacher  of  Abraham  Michael  Car- 
doso, whom  he  initiated  into  the  Cabala  and  into  the 
mysteries  of  Shabbethaianism. 

Bibliography  :  Gratz,  Gesch.  3d  ed.,  x.  190.  204,  225.  229.  312. 
J.  M.  Sel. 

PINKES  (Dp3D.  from  viva^="&  board,"  "a 
writiiig-tiil)let ") :  Term  generally  denoting  the  regis- 
ter of  any  Jewish  community,  in  which  the  proceed- 
ings of  and  events  relating  to  the  community  are 
recorded.  The  word  originally  denoted  a  writing- 
tablet,  of  which,  according  to  the  Mislinah  (Kelim 
xxiv.  7),  there  were  three  kinds:  (1)  a  tablet  covered 
with  dust,  used  chiefly  for  marking  thereon  arith- 
metical calculations,  and  large  enough  to  serve  as  a 
seat ;  (2)  one  covered  with  a  layer  of  wax,  the  wri- 




ting  upon  •which  was  executed  with  a  stylet;  and 
(3)  a  smooth  tablet  written  upon  with  ink.  Later 
the  term  was  applied  to  a  book  composed  of  such 
tablets  (comp.  Shab.  xii.  4-5),  and  afterward  to  any 
book.  The  term  "pinkes"  as  denoting  a  register 
occurs  in  the  Mishnah  :  "  The  pinkes  is  open,  and  the 
hand  writes"  (Ab.  iii.  16).  See  Council  op  Four 
Lands;  Takkanah. 
E.  c.  M.  Sel. 

PINKHOF,  HERMAN:  Dutch  physician; 
born  at  Rotterdam  May  10,  1863;  educated  at  the 
University  of  Leyden  (M.D.  1886).  He  established 
himself  as  a  physician  in  Amsterdam.  Since  1893 
he  has  been  collaborator  on  the  "  Nederlandsch  Tijd- 
schrift  van  Geueeskunde,"  for  medical  ethics  and 
professional  interests.  In  1895  he  founded  the  Soci- 
ety for  the  Promotion  of  the  Interests  of  Judaism  in 
Holland,  and  since  1898  he  has  been  president  of  the 
society  formed  for  the  purpose  of  combating  the 
Neo-Malthusian  principles,  of  which  he  is  one  of  the 
most  vigorous  opponents.  He  has  written  many 
articles  on  this  subject. 

In  1890  he  publislied  "Abraliam  Kashlari:  over 
Pestachtige  Koortsen(Werkeu  van  het  Genootschap 
voor  Natuur  Genees  en  Heelkunde)." 

Pinkliof  is  a  member  of  the  curatorium  of  Dr. 
DQnner's  Theological  Seminary  of  Amsterdam. 

s.  E.  Sl. 

PINNE  :  City  in  the  province  of  Posen,  Ger- 
many. Jews  are  first  mentioned  there  in  1553,  in 
connection  with  a  "  privilegium  "  issued  by  the  lord 
of  the  manor  restricting  them  in  the  purchase  of 
leather.  In  1624  Juspa  Pinner,  and  from  1631  to 
1652  his  son  in-law  Leiser  Pinner,  are  mentioned  as 
holding  various  honorary  offices  in  Posen.  The 
community  of  Pinne,  owing  to  the  practise  of  the 
Polish  kings  and  nobles  of  endowing  churches  with 
sums  exacted  from  the  Jews,  became  heavily  in- 
debted to  Catholic  churches  and  hospitals.  A  di- 
vorce case  in  Pinne  in  1764  created  a  sensation. 
After  the  decree  had  been  granted,  the  man  con- 
cerned asserted  that  he  had  not  been  the  woman's 
husband,  but  was  another  person  from  Przemysl. 
This  statement  led  to  lengthy  discussions,  which  are 
given  in  two  contemporarj'  collections  of  responsa, 
the  controversy  continuing  until  two  authorities 
finally  declared  the  divorce  to  be  illegal.  The  Jew- 
ish tailors  of  Pinne  originally  belonged  to  the  Chris- 
tian tailors'  gild,  which  had  received  its  charter 
from  the  lord  of  the  manor;  but  subsequently  they 
formed  a  gild  of  their  own,  which  still  existed  in 

A  "  privilegium  "  was  given  to  the  community  by 
the  lord  of  the  manor  under  date  of  June  10,  1789; 
but  the  document  refers  to  rights  which  had  been 
granted  before  that  time.  Its  thirty-four  articles 
may  be  summarized  as  follows:  The  rabbi,  hazzan, 
teachers,  and  the  cemetery  are  exempt  from  taxation 
by  the  lord;  there  shall  be  unrestricted  riglits  of 
trade ;  butchers  may  sell  only  in  the  Jews'  .street,  and 
shall  pay  two  stone  of  tallow  to  the  castle;  admis- 
sion of  foreign  Jews  may  be  granted  only  by  the 
elders  of  the  community,  who  shall  be  elected  annu- 
ally at  the  Passover ;  the  rabbi  shall  officiate  as  lower 
judge,  while  the  lord  of  the  manor  shall  be  the  su- 

perior judge;  if  one  party  to  a  case  is  a  Christian, 
the  elders  of  the  Jews  shall  act  as  lower  judges; 
criminal  cases  may  be  brought  only  before  the  court 
of  the  castle;  Jews  may  not  acquire  real  estate  out- 
side of  the  glietto;  a  tax  of  600  gulden  a  year  shall 
be  paid  to  the  castle;  Jews  may  not  leave  their 
houses  during  Catholic  processions ;  assaults  on  Jews 
by  Christians  shall  be  severely  punished. 

When  the  city  came  under  Prussian  rule  in  1793 
it  contained  39  Jewish  houses  in  a  total  of  129,  and 
219  Jews  in  a  population  of  789.  There  were  86 
Jewish  families  in  the  town  in  1795;  more  than  350 
Jews  in  1827;  847  in  1857;  672  in  1871;  and  376  in 
1895.  The  reader's  prayer-book  contains  a  prayer  for 
Napoleon  I.  dating  from  the  time  when  Pinne  be- 
longed to  the  duchy  of  Warsaw  (1807-15). 

Since  the  second  half  of  the  eighteenth  century 
the  following  rabbis  have  officiated: 

Isaac  b.  Moses  ;  Solomon  b.  Isaac  ;  Napbtali  b. 
Aaron;  Mordecai  b.  Michael  Moses  (d.  182;j  or  1824); 
Dob  Bar  b.  Schragrera  Philippsthal  (until  18^2),  auttior 
of  "Nahale  Debash "' ;  Isaac  b.  Jacob  Lewy  (until  1834); 
Aryeh  liubush  Landsbergr  (WM  39):  Joseph  Hayyim 
Caro  ;  Jacob  Mattithiah  Munk  (ia')2-5.5),  author  of 
•"Et  Sefod";  Oberdorfer  (18.')7-6:i);  Abraham  Isaiah 
Caro  (1864-88),  author  of  an  extract  in  Mecklenburg's  "  Ha-Ke- 
tab  weha-Kabbalah  "  ;  Solomon  Goldschmidt  (1889-90), 
author  of  "Gesch.  der  Juden  ia  England":  Moses  Schle- 
singrer  (1890-96),  author  of  "Das  Aramaische  Verbuin  iin  Je- 
rusaleniischen  Talmud,"  and  editor  of  Aaron  ha-Kohen  of 
Lunel's  "Orhot  Hayyim";  and  Louis  Liewin  (since  1897), 
author  of  "  R.  Simon  b.  Jochai,"  "  Gesch.  der  Juden  in  Inow- 
razlaw."  "  Juden verfolgungen  im  Zweiten  Schwedisch-Pol- 
nlschen  Kriege,"  and  "Gesch.  der  Juden  in  Llssa." 

The  community  has  produced  a  number  of  Jewish 
scholars,  among  whom  may  be  mentioned  Gustav 
Gottheil  and  E.  M.  Pinner. 

Bibliography:  Louis  Lewln.  Axis  der  Verganaetiheit  der 
JUdi^chen  Gemeinde  zu  Pinne,  Pinne.  19118 ;  manuscripts 
in  the  archives  of  the  Jewish  congregation  of  Posen. 
u.  L.  Lew. 

PINNER,  ADOLF:  German  chemist;  born  at 
Wronke,  Posen,  Germany,  Aug.  31,  1842;  educated 
at  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary  at  Breslau  and 
at  the  University  of  Berlin  (Doctor  of  Chemistry, 
1867).  In  1871  he  became  privat-docent  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Berlin.  In  1873  he  became  assistant  pro- 
fessor of  chemistry  at  the  University  of  Berlin,  and  in 
1874  professor  of  chemistry  at  the  veterinary  college 
of  that  city.  In  1884  he  was  appointed  a  member 
of  the  German  patent  office,  and  in  the  following 
year,  of  the  technical  division  of  the  Prussian  De- 
partment of  Commerce.  He  has  received  the  title 
"Geheimer  Regierungsrath." 

Pinner  has  contributed  many  essays  to  the  profes- 
sional journals,  among  which  maj'  be  mentioned: 
"  Darstellungund  Untersuchungdes  Butylchlorals," 
in  "Annalen  der  Chemie,"  clxxix.,  and  in  "Berichte 
der  Deutschen  Chemischen  Gesellschaft."  1870-77; 
"Ueber  Iniidottther. "  in  "Annalen,"  ccxcvii.  and 
ccxcviii.,  also  in  "Berichte,"  1877-97  (which  essays 
he  combined  in  book  form  under  the  title  "Ueber 
Imidoather  und  Dessen  Derivate");  "Die  Conden- 
sation des  Acetous,"  in  "Berichte,"  1881-83;  "Ueber 
Ilvdantoie  tmd  Urazine,"  in  "Berichte,"  1887-89; 
"Ueber  Nicotin,"  in  "Berichte,"  1891-95,  and  in 
"Archiv  der  Pharmazie,"  ccxxxi,,  ccxxxiii. ; 
"Ueber  Pilocarpin,"  in  "Berichte,"  1900-3. 

He  is  also  the  author  of  "Gesetze  der  Naturer- 




scheinungen  "  and  of  "  Repetitorium  der  Chemie." 
in  two  volumes,  on  organic  and  inorganic  cbemis- 
try  respectively  (Utli  ed.,  Berlin,  1902).  The  latter 
work  is  well  known  to  all  German  students  of 
chemistry,  and  it  has  been  translated  into  English, 
Russian,  and  Japanese. 

e.  F.  T.  H. 

ANDER  StJSSKIND  :  German  Talmudist  and 
archeologist ;  born  in  Piuue  about  1800 ;  died  in  Berlin 
1880.  His  first  work,  bearing  the  pretentious  title 
of  "Kizzur  Talmud  Yerushalmi  we-Talmud  Babli" 
=  "Compendium  of  the  Jerusalem  Talmud  and  of 
the  Babylonian  Talmud"  (Berlin,  1881),  contained 
specimens  of  translation  of  both  Talmuds  and  an  at- 
tempted biography  of  the  tanna  Simeon  b.  Yohai. 
It  was  published  as  the  forerunner  of  his  proposed 
translation  of  the  Talmud ;  and  his  travels  through 
Germany,  France,  England,  Italy,  Turkey,  and  Rus- 
sia were  probably  undertaken  for  the  purpose  of 
furthering  that  plan.  Pinner  went  from  Constanti- 
nople to  St.  Petersburg  in  1837,  and  secured  the  per- 
mission of  Emperor  Nicholas  I.  to  dedicate  the  trans- 
lation to  him.  It  was  to  have  been  completed  in 
twenty-eight  folio  volumes;  but  only  one  appeared, 
the  tractate  Berakot,  which  was  published  five  years 
later  (Berlin,  1842).  This  is  a  splendidly  printed 
book,  dedicated  to  the  emperor,  who  also  heads  the 
list  of  subscribers.  The  latter  includes  the  names 
of  the  kings  of  Prussia,  Holland,  Belgium,  and  Den- 
mark, and  of  about  twenty-five  dukes,  princes,  arch- 
bishops, and  bishops.  The  volume  contains  appro- 
bations from  several  rabbis,  none  of  whom  lived  in 
Russia,  in  wliich  country  only  representatives  of 
Haskal.\h,  like  Abraham  Stern,  Isaac  Baer  Levin- 
sohn,  Jacob  Tugendhold  of  Warsaw,  and  Abraham 
b.  Joseph  Sack  of  Wilna,  favored  the  undertaking. 
Their  approval  was  given  in  signed  eulogies,  which 
follow  the  approbations  of  the  non-Russian  rabbis. 

Three  years  after  the  appearance  of  the  tractate 
Berakot,  Pinner,  who  had  apparently  remained  in 
Russia  in  the  hope  of  being  able  to  continue  the 
publication  of  the  translation,  gave  to  the  world  his 
famous  "  Prospectus  der  Odessaer  Gesellschaft  f iir 
Geschichte  und  Altherthum  GehOrenden  Aeltes- 
ten  Hebraischen  und  Rabbinischen  Manuscripte" 
(Odessa,  1845),  -which  for  the  first  time  brought  to 
the  attention  of  the  world  the  archeological  dis- 
coveries (mostly  spurious)  of  Abraham  Fikkovicii. 
The  publication  of  facsimiles,  on  which  Simhah 
Pinsker  and  other  investigators  founded  their  the- 
ories on  "nikkud"  (punctuation),  was,  according  to 
GeigerC'Wiss.  Zeit.  jQd.  Theol."  vi.  109),  Pinner's 
only  service  to  science.  His  own  investigations,  like 
his  translations,  were  considered  by  competent  crit- 
ics to  be  of  no  value. 

Other  works  of  Pinner  were :  "  Was  Haben  die 
Israeliten  in  Sachsen  zu  Hoffen  und  Was  1st  Ihnen 
zu  AVilnschenV"  Leipsic,  IS'6'S;  "OlTenes  Send- 
schreiben  an  die  Nationen  Europa's  und  an  die  Stande 
Norwegens,"  Berlin,  1848;  "  Denkschrift  an  die 
Juden  Preussens,  Besonders  f(ir  die  Juden  Berlins," 
ib.  1856,  on  the  political  and  religious  condition  of 
the  Jews;  " Kol  Kore,  Aufruf  an  die  Orthodo.xen 
Rabbinen  Europa's  und  die  Nothwendigkeit  einer 
Streng    Orthodoxen,    Allgemeinen     Rabbiner-Ver- 

sammlung  Dargestellt,"  ib.  1858.  He  is,  besides,  sup- 
posed to  be  the  author  of  an  incomplete  catalogue 
of  Hebrew  books  and  manuscripts  (see  Roest,  "Cat. 
Rosenthal.  Bibl."  s.v.). 

BrBLior.R.^PHV :  Alio-  Zeit.  des  Jud.  vol.  1.,  No.  1;  Bischoff, 
Kritische  Gcsiliiclitc  der  Talmnd-Uebersetzuuoen,  p.  68, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main,  lt<99 ;  Fiirst,  Bibl.  Jud.  iii.  103;  Ke- 
rem  Hcmal.  il.  174,  194;  Orient,  Lit.  1»47,  Nos.  1-2;  Mc- 
Cllntock  and  Strong,  Cyc.  xii.  77(5;  Steinschnetder.  Cat.  Bodl, 
S.V.;  Zeitlin,  Bibl.  Pust-Mendels.  pp.  2C8-2(i9. 

6.  P.   Wl. 

PINSK :  Russian  city  in  the  government  of 
Minsk,  Russia.  There  were  Jews  in  Pinsk  prior  to 
the  sixteenth  century,  and  there  may  have  been  an  or- 
ganized community  there  at  the  time  of  the  expul- 
sion of  the  Jews  from  Lithuania  in  1495;  but  the 
first  mention  of  the  Jewish  community  there  in  Rus- 
sian-Lithuanian documents  dates  back  to  1506.  On 
Aug.  9  of  that  year  the  owner  of  Pinsk,  Prince  Feo- 
dor  Ivanovich  Yaroslavich,  in  his  own  name  and  in 
that  of  his  wife.  Princess  Yelena,  granted  to  the  Jew- 
ish community  of  Pinsk,  at  the  request  of  Yesko  Mey- 
erovich,  Pesakh  Yesofovich,  and  Abram  Ryzhkevich, 
and  of  other  Jews  of  Pinsk,  two  par- 
Early        eels  of  land  for  a  house  of  prayer  and 

Jewish       a    cemetery,  and   confirmed    all    the 

Settlers,  rights  and  privileges  given  to  the 
Jews  of  Lithuania  bylving  Alexander 
Jagellou.  This  grant  to  the  Jews  of  Pinsk  was  con- 
firmed by  Queen  Bona  on  Aug.  18,  1533.  From  1506 
until  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century  the  Jews  are 
frequently  mentioned  in  various  documents.  In 
1514  they  were  included  in  the  confirmation  of  privi- 
leges granted  to  the  Jews  of  Lithuania  by  King 
Sigismund,  whereby  they  were  freed  from  special 
military  duties  and  taxes  and  placed  on  an  equality, 
in  these  respects,  with  the  other  inhabitants  of  the 
land,  while  they  were  also  exempted  from  direct 
military  service.  They  were  included  among  the 
Jewish  communities  of  Lithuania  upon  which  a  tax 
of  1,000  kop  groschen  was  imposed  by  the  king  in 
1529,  the  entire  sum  to-be  subject  to  a  pro  rata  con- 
tribution determined  upon  by  the  communities. 
From  other  documents  it  is  evident  that  members  of 
the  local  Jewish  community  were  prominent  as  tra- 
ders in  the  market-place,  also  as  landowners,  lease- 
holders, and  farmers  of  taxes.  In  a  document  of 
March  27,  1522,  reference  is  made  to  the  fact  that 
Lezer  Markovich  and  Avram  Volchkovich  owned 
stores  in  the  market-place  near  the  castle.  In  an- 
other document,  dated  1533,  Avram  Markovich  was 
awarded  by  the  city  court  the  possession  of  the  estate 
of  Boyar  Fedka  Volodkevich,  who  had  mortgaged  it 
to  Avram's  father,  Mark  Yeskovicli.  Still  other 
documents  show  that  in  1540  Aaron  llich  Khoroshenki 
of  Grodno  inherited  some  property  in  Pinsk,  and 
that  in  1542  Queen  Bona  confirmed  the  Jews  Kher- 
son and  Nahum  Abramovich  in  the  possession  of  the 
estate,  in  the  village  of  Krainovichi,  waywode.sliip 
of  Pinsk,  wliich  tiiey  hud  inherited  from  their  father, 
Abram  Ryzhkevich. 

Abram  Ryzhkevich  was  a  prominent  member  of 
the  .Jewish  community  at  the  beginning  of  the  six- 
teenth century,  and  was  active  in  communal  work. 
He  was  a  favorite  of  Prince  Feodor  Yaroslavich,  who 
presented  him  with  the  estate  in  question  with  all 
its  dependencies  and  serfs.     The  last-named  were 




relieved  from  the  payment  of  any  crown  taxes,  and 
were  to  serve  Abram  Ryzhkevicli  exclusively.  He 
and  his  children  were  regarded  us  boyars,  and  shared 
the  privileges  and  duties  of  that  class. 

Pesakh  Yesofovich,  mentioned  with  Yesko  Meyer- 
ovich  and  Abram  Ryzhkevicli  in  the  grant  to  the 
Jewish  community  of  1506,  took  an  important  part 
in  local  alTairs.  Like  Abram  Ryzhkevicli,  he  was  in- 
timate with  Prince  Feodor  Yarosla- 
Pesakh  Ye-  vich,  was  presented  by  the  prince  with 
sofovich.  a  mansion  in  the  town  of  Pinsk,  and 
was  exempted  at  the  same  time  from 
the  payment  of  any  taxes  or  the  rendering  of  local 
services,  with  the  exception  of  participation  in  the 
repairing  of  the  city  walls.  The  possession  of  this 
mansion  was  confirmed  by  Queen  Bona  to  Pesakh 's 
son  Nahum  in  1550,  he  having  purchased  it  from 
Bentz  Misevich,  to  whom  the  property  was  sold 
by  Nahum's  father.  Inheriting  their  father's  in- 
fluence, Nullum  and  his  brother  Israel  played  im- 
portant roles  as  merchants  and  leaseholders.  Thus 
on  June  23,  1550,  they,  together  with  Goshka  Mosh- 
kevicli,  were  awarded  by  Queen  Bona  the  lease  of 
the  customs  and  inns  of  Pinsk,  Kletzk,  and  Goro- 
detzk  for  a  term  of  three  years,  and  had  the  lease 
renewed  in  1553  for  a  further  term  of  three  years, 
on  payment  of  875  kop  groschen  and  of  25  stones  of 
wax.  In  the  same  year  these  leaseholders  are  men- 
tioned in  a  characteristic  lawsuit.  There  was  an 
old  custom,  known  as  "kanuny,"  on  the  strength  of 
which  the  archbishop  was  entitled  to  brew  mead 
and  beer  six  times  annually  without  payment  of 
taxes.  The  Pesakhovich  family  evidently  refused 
to  recognize  the  validity  of  this  privilege  and  en- 
deavored to  collect  the  taxes.  The  case  was  carried 
to  the  courts,  but  the  bishop  being  unable  to  show 
any  documents  in  support  of  his  claim,  and  admit- 
ting that  it  was  merely  based  on  custom,  the  queen 
decided  that  the  legal  validity  of  the  custom  should 
not  be  recognized;  but  since  the  income  of  the 
"  kanuny "  was  collected  for  the  benelit  of  the 
Church  the  tax-farmers  were  required  to  give  an- 
nually to  the  archbishop  9  stones  of  Avax  for  can- 
dles, "not  as  a  tax,  but  merely  as  a  mark  of  our 
kindly  intention  toward  God's  churches." 

The  Pesakhovich  family  continues  to  be  mentioned 
prominently  in  a  large  number  of  documents,  some 
of  them  dated  in  the  late  sixties  of  the  sixteenth 
century.     Thus  in  a  document  of  May  19,  1555, 
Nahum  Pesakhovich,  as  representative  of  all   the 
Jews  in  the  grand  duchy  of  Lithuania,  lodged  a 
complaint  with  the  king  against  the  magistrate  and 
burghers  of  Kiev  because,  coutrar}'  to  the  old-estab- 
lished custom,  they  had  prohibited  the 
The  Pe-      Jews  from  coming  to  Kiev  for  trading 
sakhovich    in  the  city  stores,  and  compelled  them 
Family.      to  stop  at,  and  to  sell  their  wares  in, 
the  cit}^  market  recently  erected  by  the 
burghers.      Postponing  his  final  decision  until  his 
return  to  Poland,  the  king  granted  the  Jews  the 
right  to  carry  on  trade  as  theretofore. 

In  a  document  of  Oct.  31,  1558,  it  is  stated  that 
the  customs,  inns,  breweries,  and  ferries  of  Pinsk, 
which  had  been  leased  to  Nahum  and  Israel  Pesak- 
hovich for  450  kop  groschen,  were  now  awarded  to 
Khaim  Rubinovich  for  the  annual  sum  of  550  gro- 
X.— 4 

schen.     This  indicates  that  the  Pesakhovich  family 
was  yielding  to  the  competition  of  younger  men. 

An  interesting  light  is  shed  on  contemporary  con- 
ditions by  a  document  dated  Dec.  12,  1561.  This 
contains  the  complaint  of  Nahum  Pesakhovich 
against  Grigori  Grichin,  the  estate-owner  in  the 
district  of  Pinsk,  who  liad  mortgaged  to  him,  to 
secure  a  debt  of  33  kop  groschen  and  of  5  pails  of 
unfermented  mead,  six  of  his  men  in  the  village 
of  Poryechye,  but  liad  given  him  only  live  men. 
The  men  thus  mortgaged  to  Nahum  Pesakhovich 
were  each  compelled  to  pay  annually  to  the  latter 
20  groschen,  one  barrel  of  oats,  and  a  load  of  hay ; 
they  served  him  oneday  in  every  seven,  and  assisted 
him  at  harvest-time.  This  would  indicate  that  the 
Jesvs,  like  the  boyars,  commanded  the  services  of 
the  serfs,  and  could  hold  them  under  mortgage. 
In  another  document,  dated  1565,  Nahum  Pesakho- 
vich informed  the  authorities  that  he  had  lost  in  the 
house  of  the  burgher  Kimich  10  kop  groschen  and 
a  case  containing  his  seal  with  his  coat  of  arms. 

In  1551  Pinsk  is  mentioned  among  the  communi- 
ties whose  Jews  were  freed  from  the  pa3'ment  of  the 
special  tax  called  "serebschizna."  In  1552-55  the 
starostof  Pinsk  took  a  census  of  the  district  in  order 
to  ascertain  the  value  of  property  which  was  held  in 
the  district  of  Queen  Bona.  In  the  data  thus  secured 
the  in  Pinsk  and  the 
landowners  in  its  vicinity  are  mentioned.  It  ap- 
pears from  this  census  that  Jews  owned  property 
and  lived  on  the  following  streets:  Dymiskovskaya 
(along  the  river),  Stephanovskayaulitza  (beyond  the 
Troitzki  bridge),  Velikaya  ulitza  from  the  Spasskiya 
gates,  Kovalskaya,  Grodetz,  and  Zhi- 
The  Pinsk  dovskayaulitzi,  and  the  street  near  the 

Jewry  in  Spass  Church.  The  largest  and  most 
1555.  prominent  Jewish  property-owners  in  and  vicinity  were  the  members 
of  the  Pesakhovich  family — Nahum,  Mariana,  Israel, 
Kusko,  Rakhval  (probably  Jerahmeel),  Mosko,  and 
Lezcr  Nahumovich ;  other  prominent  property- 
owners  were  Ilia  Moiseyevich,  Nosko  Moiseyevich, 
Abram  Markovich,  and  Lezer  Markovich.  The  syn- 
agogue and  the  house  of  the  cantor  were  situated 
in  the  Zhidovskaya  ulitza.  Jewish  settlements  near 
the  village  of  Ku.stzich  are  mentioned. 

A  number  of  documents  dated  1561  refer  in  vari- 
ous connections  to  the  Jews  of  Pinsk.  Thus  one  of 
March  10,  1561,  contains  a  complaint  of  Pan  Andrei 
Okhrenski,  representative  of  Prince  Nikolai  Radzi- 
will,  and  of  the  Jew  Mikhel  against  Matvei  Voitek- 
hovich,  estate-owner  in  the  district  of  Pinsk;  the 
last-named  had  sent  a  number  of  his  men  to  the 
potash-works  belonging  to  Prince  Radziwill  and 
managed  by  the  Jew  above-mentioned.  These  men 
attacked  the  works,  damaging  the  premises,  driving 
off  the  laborers,  and  committing  many  thefts. 

By  a  decree  promulgated  May  2, 1561,  King  Sigis- 
mund  August  appointed  Stanislav  Dovorino  as  su- 
perior judge  of  Pinsk  and  Kobrin.  and  placed  all 
the  Jews  of  Pinsk  and  of  the  neighboring  villages 
under  his  jurisdiction,  and  their  associates  Avere 
ordered  to  turn  over  the  magazines  and  stores  to  the 
magistrate  and  burghers  of  Pinsk.  In  August  of  the 
same  year  the  salt  monopoly  of  Pinsk  was  awarded 
to   the    Jews    Khemiya    and  Abram    Rubinovich, 




But  on  Dec.  25,  1564,  the  leases  were  awarded  to 
the  Jews  Vaska  Medenchich  and  Gershon  Avramo- 
vich,  who  offered  the  king  20  kop  gioschen  more 
than  was  paid  by  the  Christian  merchants.  In  the 
following  year  the  income  of  Pinsk  was  leased  to 
the  Jew  David  Shmerlevich. 

In  the  census  of  Pinsk  taken  again  in  1566,  Jew- 
ish house-owners  are  found  on  streets  not  mentioned 
in  the  previous  census;  among  these  were  the  Stara, 
Lyshkovska,  and  Sochivchinskaya  ulitzy.  Among 
the  house-owners  not  previous)}'  mentioned  were 
Zelman,  doctor  ("doctor,"  meaning  "rabbi  "  or  "day- 
yan "),  Meir  Moiseyevia,  doctor,  Novach,  doctor, 
and  others.  The  Pesakhovich  family  was  still 
prominent  among  the  landowners. 

In  a  circular  letter  of  1578  King  Stephen  Bathori 
informed  the  Jews  of  the  town  and  district  of  Pinsk 
that  because  of  their  failure  to  pay  their  taxes  in 
gold,  and  because  of  their  indebtedness,  he  would 
send  to  them  the  nobleman  Mikolai 
Under  Ste-  Kindei  with  instructions  to  collect  the 
phen         sumdue.    By  an  order  of  Jan.  20, 1581, 

Bathori.  King  Stephen  Bathori  granted  the 
Magdeburg  Uiglits  to  the  city  of 
Pinsk.  This  provided  that  Jews  who  had  recently 
acquired  houses  in  tiie  town  were  to  pay  the  same 
ta.xesas  the  Christian  householders.  Thenceforward, 
however,  tiie  Jews  were  forbidden,  under  penalty 
of  confiscation,  to  buy  houses  or  to  acquire  them  in 
any  other  way.  Elsewhere  in  the  same  document  the 
citizens  of  Pinsk  are  given  permission  to  build  a 
town  hall  in  the  market-place,  and  for  this  purpose 
the  Jewish  shops  were  to  be  torn  down.  The  grant 
of  the  Magdeburg  Rights  was  subsequently  con- 
firmed by  Sigismund  III.  (1589-1623),  Ladislaus  IV. 
(1633),  and  John  Casimir  (1650). 

In  spite  of  the  growing  competition  of  the 
Christian  merchants,  the  Jews  must  have  carried  on 
a  considerable  import  and  export  trade,  as  is  shown 
by  the  custom-house  records  of  Brest-Litovsk. 
Among  who  exported  goods  from  Pinsk  to 
Lublin  in  1583  Levko  Bendetovich  is  mentioned  (wax 
and  skins),  and  among  the  importers  was  one  Hay- 
vim  Itzkhakovich  (steel,  cloth,  iron,  scythes,  prunes, 
onion-seed,  and  girdles).  Abraham  Zroilevich  im- 
ported caps,  Hungarian  knives,  velvet  girdles,  linen 
from  Glogau,  nuts,  prunes,  lead,  nails,  needles, 
pins,  and  ribbons.  Abraham  Me}'erovich  imported 
wine.  Other  importers  were  Abram  Yaknovich, 
Yatzko  Nosanovicli,  Yakub  Aronovich,  and  Hilel 
and  Rubin  Lazarevich. 

About  1620  the  LiTnr.\Ni.\N  Cou>'ciL  wf  sorgan- 
ized,  of  which  Pinsk,  witli  Brest-Litovsk  and  Grod- 
no, became  a  part.  In  1640  the  Jews  Jacob  Rabin - 
ovich  and  Mordecai-Shmoilo  Izavelevioh  applied  in 
their  own  name,  and  in  the  names  of  all  the,  Jews 
then  living  on  church  lands,  to  Pakhomi  Oranski, 
the  Bisiiop  of  Pinsk  and  Turov,  for  permission  to 
remit  all  taxes  directly  to  him  instead  of  to  tiie  par- 
ish priests.  Complying  with  this  request,  the 
bishop  reaffirmed  the  rights  previously  granted  to 
the  Jews;  they  were  at  liberty  to  build  houses  on 
their  lots,  to  rent  them  to  newly  arrived  people,  to 
build  inns,  breweries,  etc. 

Toward  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century  the 
Jews  of  Pinsk  began  to  feel  more  and  more  the  ani- 

mosity of  their  Christian  neighbors;  and  this  was 

true   also  of   other  Jewish  communities.     In  1647 

"  Lady"  Deboraii  Lezerovaaud  her  son 

Increasing-  "Sir"  Yakub  Lezerovich  complained 

Anti-        to  the  magistrates  that  their  grain  and 

Jewish       hay  had  been  set  on  fire  by  peasants. 

Feeling.  In  the  following  year  numerous  com- 
plaints of  attack,  robbery,  plunder, 
and  arson  were  reported  by  the  local  Jews.  Rebel- 
lion was  in  the  air,  and  with  the  other  Jewish  com- 
munities in  Lithuania  that  of  Pinsk  felt  the  cruelties 
of  the  advancing  Cossacks,  who  killed  in  great  num- 
bers the  poorer  Jews  who  were  not  able  to  escape. 
Prince  Radziwill,  who  hastened  to  the  relief  of  the 
cit3\  finding  the  rioters  there,  set  it  on  fire  and 
destroyed  it. 

Hannover,  in  "  Yewen  Mezulah,"  relates  that  the 
Jews  who  remained  in  Pinsk  and  those  who  were 
found  on  the  roads  or  in  the  suburbs  of  that  city 
were  all  killed  by  the  Cossacks.  He  remarks  also 
that  when  Radziwill  set  fire  to  the  town,  many  of 
the  Cossacks  endeavored  to  escape  by  boats  and 
Avere  drowned  in  the  river,  while  others  were  killed 
or  burned  by  the  Lithuanian  soldiers.  Meir  ben 
Samuel,  in  "Zuk  ha-'Ittim,"  says  that  the  Jews  of 
Pinsk  were  delivered  by  the  townspeople  (i.e.,  the 
Greek  Orthodox)  to  the  Cossacks,  who  massacred 

Evidently  Jews  had  again  appeared  in  Pinsk  by 
1651,  for  the  rural  judge  Dadzibog  Markeisch,  in 
his  will,  reminds  his  wife  of  his  debt  of  300  gulden 
to  the  Pinsk  Jew  Gosher  Abramovich,  of  which  he 
had  already  repaid  100  gulden  and  110  thalers,  and 
asks  her  to  pa}'  the  remainder.  In  1(562  the  Jews  of 
Pinsk  were  relieved  by  John  Casimir  of  the  head- 
tax,  which  the)'  were  unable  to  pay  on  account  of 
their  impoverished  condition.  On  April  11,  1665, 
the  heirs  of  the  Jew  Nathan  Lezerovicli  were 
awarded  by  the  court  their  claim  against  Pana 
Tcrletzkaya  for  69.209  zlot.  For  her  refusal  to  al- 
low the  collection  of  the  sum  as  ordered  by  the 
court  she  was  expelled  from  the  country.  In  1665, 
after  the  country  had  been  ruined  by  the  enemy,  the 
Jewish  community  of  Pinsk  paid  its  proportion  of 
special  taxation  for  the  benefit  of  the  nobility. 

Beyond  the  fact  that  Hasidism  developed  in  the 
suburb  of  Karliu  (see  Aakon  hen  J.vcob  of  Kar- 
lin),  little  is  known  about  the  history  of  the  Pinsk 
community  in  the  eighteenth  century;  but  since  the 
first  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century  the  Jews 
there  have  taken  an  active  part  in  the  development 
of  the  export  and  import  trade,  especially  with  Kiev, 
Krementcluig,  and  Yekaterinoslav,  with  which  it  is 
connected  by  a  steamship  line  on  the  Dnieper. 
jNIany  of  the  members  of  the  Jewisii  community  of 
Pinsk  removed  to  the  newly  opened  South-Russian 
province  and  became  active  members  of  the  various 
commimities  there.  In  the  last  quarter  of  the  nine- 
tecntii  century  prominent  Jewish  citizens  of  Pinsk 
developed  to  a  considerable  extent 
In  the  its  indu.stries,  in  which  thousands  of 
Nineteenth  Jewisii  workers  now  find   steady  oc- 

Century.  cupation.  They  have  established 
chemical-factories,  sawmills,  a  match- 
factory  (400  Jewish  workers,  producing  10,000,000 
boxes  of  matches  per  annum ;  established  by  L.  Hirsch- 




man  in  1900),  shoe-nail  factor\'  (200  Jewisli  work- 
ers), candle-factory,  cork-factory,  parquet-factory, 
brewery,  and  tobacco-factories  (with  a  total  of  800 
Jewish  workers).  The  Liiriesand  Levineshavel)een 
especially  active  in  that  direction.  Another  cork- 
factory,  owned  by  a  Christian,  employs  150  Jewish 
workers:  and  the  shipyards  (owned  by  a  French- 
man), in  which  large  steamers  and  sailing  vessels  are 
built,  also  employs  a  few  hundred  Jews.  Besides 
these,  there  are  many  Jewish  artisans  in  Pinsk  who  are 
occupied  as  nailsmiths,  founders,  workers  in  brass, 
and  tanners;  in  soap-manufactories,  small  brew- 
eries, violin-string  factories,  the  molasses-factory, 
the  flaxseed-oil  factory,  and  the  tallit-factory.  In 
all  these  the  Jewish  Sabbath  and  holy  days  are 
strictly  observed.  Many  Jewish  laborers  are  cm- 
ployed  on  the  docks  of  Pinsk  and  as  skilled  boatmen. 
Pinsk  has  become  one  of  the  chief  centers  of  Jew- 
ish industry  in  northwest  Russia.  The  total  out- 
put of  its  Jewish  factories  is  valued  at  two  and  a 
half  million  rubles.  The  pay  of  working  men  per 
week  in  the  factories  is: 





3  to   7  rubles. 

3  to    .5      " 


6  to  18      " 

6  to  16      " 

1.20  to  2..''.0  rubles. 

MaU-h -factories 

Caudle       "       


1.20  to  2.50      " 

Since  1890  there  have  been  technical  classes  connected 
•with  the  Pinsk  Talmud  Torah,  where  the  boys  learn 
the  trades  of  locksmiths,  carpenters,  etc.,  and  technol- 
ogy, natural  history,  and  drawing. 

Bibliography:  Reaestu  i  Nadpisi;  Russltn-Yevreiski  Ar- 
khiv.  vols.  i.  and  li.;  Voskhud,  Oct.,  1901,  p.  23;  Welt,  1898, 
No.  11. 

J.  G.  L. 

The  first  rabbi  mentioned  in  connection  with  Pinsk 
is  R.  Simson.  With  R.  Solomon  Luria  (MaHRaSh) 
and  R.  ^lordecai  of  Tiktin,  he  was  chosen,  in  1568, 
to  adjudicate  the  controversy  relating  to  the  asso- 
ciation of  Podlasye.  His  successors  were:  R.  Naph- 
tali,  son  of  R.  Isaac  Katz  (removed  to  Lublin;  d. 
1650);  R.  Moses,  son  of  R.  Israel  Jacob  (c.  1073; 
his  name  occurs  in  the  "Sha'are  Shamayim  ") ;  R. 
Naphtali,  son  of  R.  Isaac  Ginsburg  (d.  1687);  R. 
Samuel  Halpern,  son  of  R.  Isaac  Halpern  (d.  1703; 
mentioned  in  "Dibre  Hakamim,"  1691);  R.  Isaac 
^leir,  son  of  R.  Jonah  Te'omim;  R.  Samuel,  son  of 
R.  Naphtali  Ilerz  Ginzburg  (mentioned  in  " 'Am- 
mude  'Olam,"  Amsterdam,  1713);  R.  Asher  Ginz- 
burg (mentioned  in  the  preface  to  "Ga'on  Lewi"); 

R.  Israel  Isher,  son  of  R.  Abraham 
Rabbis.      Mamri    (mentioned    in    Tanna    debe 

Eliyahu,  1747);  R.  Raphael,  son  of 
R.  Jekuthiel  Slissel  (1763  to  1773;  d.  1804);  R. 
Abraham,  son  of  R.  Solonum  (mentioned  in  the 
"Netib  ha-Yashar");  R.  Levy  Isaac;  R.  Abigdor 
(had  a  controversy  with  the  Hasidim  on  the  ques- 
tion of  giving  precedence  in  prayers  to  "  Ilodu  " 
over  "Baruk  she-Amar";  the  question  was  sub- 
mitted for  settlement  to  Emperor  Paul  I. :  "Vosk- 
hod,"  1893,  i.):  R.Joshua,  son  of  Shalom  (Phine- 
has  Michael,  "Masseket  Nazir,"  Preface):  R.  Hay- 
yim  ha-Kohen  Rapoport  (resigned  in  1825  to  go  to 
Jerusalem;  d.   1840);   Aaron   of  Pinsk  (author  of 

"Tosefot  Aharon,"  KOnigsberg,  1858;  d.  1842);  R. 
i\Iordecai  Sackiieim  (1843  to  his  death  in  1853);  R. 
Eleazar  Moses  Hurwitz  (1860  to  his  death  in  1895). 

Among  those  members  of  the  communit}-  of 
Pinsk  who  achieved  distinction  were  the  following: 
R.  Elijah,  son  of  R.  Moses  ("Kiryah  Ne'emanah," 
p.  125) ;  R.  Moses  Goldes,  grandson  of  the  author  of 
"Tola'at  Ya'akob";  R.  Kalonymus  Kalniau  Ginz- 
burg (president  of  the  community);  R.  Jonathan 
(•'Dibre  Rab  Meshallem  ") ;  R.  Sf>lomon  Bachrach, 
sou  of  ]{.  Samuel  P-.ichrach  ("' Pinkas  Tiktin");  li. 
Hayyimof  Karlin("'Ir  Wilna,"  p.  31);  R.  Solomon, 
son  of  R.  Asher  ("Geburath  He-Or");  R.  Joseph 
Janower  ("Zeker  Yehosef,"  Warsaw,  I860):  R. 
Samuel,  son  of  Moses  Levin  ("Ba'al  Kedoshim," 
p.  210):  R.  Asher,  son  of  R.  Kalonymus  Kalinan 
Ginzburg  ("'Kiryah  Ne'emanah,"  p.  185);  R.  (Jad 
Asher,  son  of  R.  Joshua  Rokeah  ("  Anshe  Shem,"  p. 
63);  R.  Joshua  Ezekiel  (ih.);  R-  Hayyim  SchOnlinkel 
(ib.  p.  70);  R.  Abraham  Isaac  ("Birkat  Rosh");  R. 
Notel  Michael  Sch5ntinkel  ("Da'at  Kedoshim,"  p. 
181);  Zeeb,  Moses,  Isaac,  and  Solomon  Wolf,  sous 
of  R.  Samuel  Levin;  R.  Jacob  Simhah  Wolfsohn 
("Anshe  Shem,"  p.  40);  R.  Aaron  Luria;  R.  Samuel 

The  writers  of  Pinsk  include:  R.  Moses  Aaron 
Schatzkes  (author  of  "Mafteah"),  R.  Zebi  Hirsch, 
Shereshevski,  A.  B.  Dobsevage,  N.  M.  Schaikewitz, 
Baruch  Epstein,  E.  D.  Lifshitz.  Abraham  Kunki 
passed  through  Pinsk  while  traveling  to  collect 
money  for  the  support  of  the  Jerusalem  Talmud  To- 
rah (preface  to  "  Abak  Soferim,"  Amsterdam,  1701). 

In  1781  the  heads  of  the  Jewish  congregations  of 
Pinsk  followed  the  example  of  some  Russian  Jewish 
communities  by  excommunicating  the  Hasidim.  In 
1799  the  town  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  its  records 
were  lost.  Pinsk  has  two  cemeteries :  in  the  older,  in- 
terments ceased  in  1810.  The  total  population  of  the 
town  (1905)  is  about  28,000,  of  whom  18,000  are  Jews. 

Karlin  :  Until  about  one  hundred  3'ears  ago  Kar- 
lin  was  a  suburb  of  Pinsk,  and  its  Jewish  residents 
constituted  a  part  of  the  Pinsk  community.  Then 
R.  Samuel  Levin  obtained  the  separation  of  Karlin 
from  Pinsk  (Steinschneider,  "'Ir  Wilna,"  p.  188). 
In  1870  the  Hasidim  of  Karlin  removed  to  the 
neighboring  town  of  Stolin.  The  rabbis  of  the  Mit- 
naggedim  of  Karlin  include:  R.  Samuel  Antipoler; 
R.  Abraham  Rosenkraiiz;  the  "Rabbi  of  Wolpe" 
(his  proper  name  is  imknown);  R.  Jacob  (author  of 
"Miskenot  Ya'akob")  and  his  brother  R.  Isaac  (au- 
thor of  "  Keren  Orah  ") ;  R.  Samuel  Abigdor  Tose- 
fa'ah  (author  of  "She'elot  u-Teshubot'") :  David 
Friedmann  (the  present  [1905]  incumbent:  author 
of  "  Yad  Dawid  "). 

n.  R.  B.   Ei. 

PINSKER,  DOB  BAR  B.  NATHAN  :  Polish 
Talmudist  of  the  eighteenth  century.  He  was  a 
descendant  of  Nathan  Spira  of  Cracow,  and  the 
author  of  the  Talmudical  work  "  Neta'  Sha'ashu'im  " 
(Zolkiev,  1748),  which  contains  novella?  on  the  sec- 
tion Nashim  of  the  Babylonian  Talmud  and  on  the 
tractates  Makkot  and  Shebu'ot,  besides  some  collec- 

Bibmooraphy:  Fiirst.  Bihl.  Jud.  Hi.  104;  Zedner,  Cat.  Hchr. 
nniika  lirit.  ^hl!>.  p.  210;  Fuenn,  Keticset  Yisrad,  pp.  186- 

187,  Warsaw,  1886.  

E.  C.  P.    Wl. 




Lev  Pinsker. 


Russian  plivsiciau;  burn  at  Tuniaslicv,  govLTunieut 
of  Piotrkow  (Piotrikov),  Poland.  1821;  son  of  Sim- 
hah  Pinsker;  died  at  Odessa  Dec.  21,  1891.  Pinsker 
obtained  his  early  education  in  his  father's  school, 
the  curriculum  of  which  included  not  only  general 
subjects  but  also  specifically  Jewish  ones.  After 
finishing  his  course  there  he  entered  the  gymnasium, 
and  later  the  Richelieu  Lyceum.  On  graduating 
from  the  latter  institution  he  accepted  the  position 
of  instructor  hi  the  Russian  language  at  the  Jewish 
school  in  Kishiuef.  In  the  following  yeav  he  began 
a  medical  course  in  the  University  of  Moscow,  and 

while  still  a  student  dis- 
played great  courage  in 
devoting  himself  to  the 
care  of  hospital  patients 
suffering  from  cholera, 
which  disease  was  at  that 
time  (1848)  epidemic.  On 
completing  his  course  he 
returned  to  Odessa,  and 
soon  after  was  appointed 
to  the  staff  of  the  city  hos- 
pital, having  been  highly 
recommended  by  the  au- 
thorities. His  great  in- 
dustry and  thoroughness 
gradually  won  for  him  the 
recognition  of  his  col- 
leagues and  of  the  public, 
and  within  ten  years  he  became  one  of  the  foremost 
physicians  of  Odessa. 

Pinsker  likewise  took  an  active  interest  in  com- 
munal affairs.  He  also  published  occasional  arti- 
cles in  the  periodicals  "Sion,"  "Den,"  and  "Raz- 
svyet."  Though  not  a  prolific  writer,  Pinskerevinced 
much  originality  and  feeling;  and  his  articles  were 
always  forceful.  He  pleaded  earnestly  for  more 
freedom  for  the  Russian  Jews,  and  endeavored  to 
convince  the  latter  of  the  great  value  of  modern 
education.  In  time  Pinsker  came  to  see  that  the 
Russian  Jew  could  not  expect  much  from  an  auto- 
cratic government,  and  that  any  deliverance  for  him 
must  come  through  his  own  exertions.  The  expres- 
sion of  this  conviction  appears  in  his  "  Autoemanci- 
pation,"  which  appeared  in  1881  over  the  nom  de 
plume  "Ein  Russischer  Jude."  The  author's  name 
soon  became  known,  however,  and  the  pamphlet 
created  much  comment  and  discussion.  Pinsker 
advocated  therein  the  acquisition  of  land  by  the 
Jews,  inasmuch  as  without  homes  of  their  own  they 
would  always  remain  strangers. 

A  congress  of  delegates  from  almost  all  the  coun- 
tries of  Europe  met  to  the  fundamental  idea 
set  forth  Ijy  Pinsker,  but  failed  to  formulate  an  ef- 
fective plan  for  the  solution  of  the  problem.  The 
only  practical  outcome  was  the  establishment  of  a 
society  for  the  aid  of  Jewish  inmiigrants  in  Pales- 
tine and  Syria.  As  chairman  of  this  .society  Pinsker 
energetically  devoted  himself  to  the  question,  work- 
ing patiently  throughout  the  remainder  of  his  life  for 
the  establi.shment  of  Jewish  settlers  in  the  Holy  Land. 

BinLior.RAPnv:    N.  R.  Rashkovskl,   SSovrememtyye   Ru!>slso- 
Yevreinldyc  Dyeyatcli,  p.  (U,  Odessa,  1899. 
H.  R,  J.    G.    L. 

PINSKER,  SIMHAH  :  Polish  Hebrew  scholar 
and  archeologist ;  born  at  Tarnopol,  Galicia,  JIarch 
17,  1801 ;  died  at  Odessa  Oct.  29,  1864.  He  received 
his  carl}--  Hebrew  education  in  the  heder  and  from 
his  father,  Shebah  ha-Levi,  a  noted  preacher,  who 
instructed  him  in  mathematics  and  German  also. 
In  his  youth  Pinsker  was  an  enthusiastic  admirer  of 
the  Hasidim,  but  soon  forsook  them.  He  at  first 
engaged  in  business,  but,  having  no  aptitude  there- 
for, was  obliged  to  abandon  it.  He  then  went  to 
Odessa,  and,  owing  to  his  calligraphic  skill,  became 
secretary  to  the  rabbi.  Here,  in  conjunction  with 
Lsaac  Horowitz  of  Brody  and  Littenfeld,  Pinsker 
succeeded  in  establishing  a  public  school  for  Jewish 
children,  of  Avhich  he  himself  served  as  principal 
until  1840. 

At  that  time  Abraham  Fiimovicn,  a  Karaite 
scholar,  brought  to  Odessa  a  number  of  ancient 
manuscripts,  unearthed  in  the  Crimea.  Among 
these  was  one  of  the  Later  Prophets  which  had  a 
singular  punctuation,  differing  widely  in  the  form 
of  the  vowels  and  singing-accents  from  the  one  then 
in  use.  This  manuscript  gave  ample  opportunity 
to  Pinsker  to  satisfy  his  propensity  for  research. 
He  at  once  set  himself  to  the  task  of  deciphering  the 
system  of  punctuation,  and  satisfactorily  acconi- 
plished  it.  He  had  already  become  known  as  an  ar- 
cheologist of  merit  through  his  contributions  to  the 
"  Orient " ;  but  with  this  di.scovery  his  fame  was  es- 
tablished. He  was  thereupon  honored  by  the  Rus- 
sian government  with  two  gold  medals  and  with  the 
title  "Honorable  Citizen";  and  the  communit}'  of 
Odessa  bestowed  upon  him  a  life-pension  of  300 
rubles  a  year. 

Pinsker  then  retired  from  communal  work,  and 
repaired  to  Vienna  in  order  to  devote  the  rest  of  his 
life  to  his  researches  and  to  the  arrangement  and 
publication  of  his  works.  Of  these  the  first  and 
most  important  one  was"Likkute  Kadmoniyyot" 
(Vienna,  1860),  in  which  he  describes  the  different 
periods  of  development  in  the  history  of  Karaism. 
He  maintains  that  the  term  "  Karaite "  is  derived 
from  the  Hebrew  "  kara  "  (Xtp)  =  "  to  call,"  "  to  in- 
vite," and  that  its  dates  from  the  first  period  of 
the  schism,  when  the  members  of  this  sect  sent  mes- 
sengers throughont  Jewry  "to  invite"  the  people 
to  join  their  ranks  ("' Likk\itc  Kadmoniyyot,"  p. 
16).  Pinsker  moreover  attempts  to  show  through- 
out the  whole  work  that  to  the  scholars  of  this 
sect  who  preceded  the  orthodox  Biblical  scholars 
and  grammarians  is  due  the  correct  system  of  Bib- 
lical orthography,  grammar,  and  lexicography  ;  and 
that  even  in  their  poetry  the  Karaites  were  models 
for  the  Hebrew  poets  of  the  Middle  Ages,  such  as 
Ibn  Gabirol  and  Jiidah  ha-Levi  (ih.  p.  107).  The 
"Likkute  Kadmoniyyot"  made  such  an  imjiression 
upon  the  scholarly  world  that  Jost  and  Graetz  pub- 
licly avowed  their  indebtedness  to  the  author,  the 
former  even  changing,  in  consequence,  some  of  the 
views  expressed  in  his  history  of  the  Jewish  sects. 

The  other  great  work  of  Pinsker,  published  in 
his  lifetime,  was  "Mabo  el  ha-Nikkud  ha-Ashshuri 
weha-Babli  "  (Vienna,  1863),  an  introduction  to  the 
Babylonian-Hebraic  system  of  punctuation ;  it  con- 
tains tiie  results  of  his  examination  of  the  manu- 
scripts in  the  Odessa  library.    As  an  appendix  to  it  is 




printed  the  "  Yesod  Mispar,"  by  Abraham  ibn  Ezra, 

ou  the  Hebrew  numerals.    Pinsker's  other  works  are : 

an  edition  of  the   "Miklol"  (Lyck,  1862).  Hebrew 

grammar  by  D.  Kimhi,  with  emendations  by  Pinsker 

and  others;  "Sefer  ha-Ehad  "  (Odessa,  1867),  on  the 

nine  cardinal  numbers,  by  Abraham  ibn  Ezra,  with 

commentary;    and  "Mishle  lia-Gezerah  weha-Bin- 

yan  "  (Vienna,  1887),  on  the  Hebrew  verb.     Pinsker 

left,  besides,  a  considerable  number  of  manuscripts 

ou  the  Hebrew  language  and  literature. 

At  Vienna,  Pinsker  lectured  for  some  time  at  the 

bet  ha-midrasli;  but,  his  health  soon  failing,  he  was 

brought  back  by  his  children  to  Odessa,  Avherc  he 


Bibliography  :  Zederbaum,  In  Mizpah,  Iv.  13-U ;  idem,  in 
Ha-Mcliz,  18(54,  No.  43;  Ha-Magliid,  18&'),  Nos.  7-10 ;  Mo- 
natsschrift,  x.  176  et  ^eq.:  Hc-Haht:},  v.  56  et  seq.;  Mazkir 
li-liene  lieshef,  in  Ha-Shahai;  i.  40  et  seq.;  H.  S.  Morais, 
Eminent  l»raeliles  of  the  iVinetcenth  Century,  pp.  279  et 
seq.,  Philadelphia,  1880. 
H.  15.  A.   S.   W. 

PINTO  or  DE  PINTO  :  Family  of  financiers, 
rabbis,  scholars,  soldiers,  and  communal  workers, 
originally  from  Portugal.  Members  of  it  lived  in 
Syria  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century;  and 
in  1535  there  was  at  Rome  a  Diogo  Rodrigues  Pinto, 
advocate  of  the  Maranos.  But  its  most  prominent 
members  lived  in  Holland,  particularly  in  Amster- 
dam, in  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century. 
They  were  among  the  greatest  financiers  in  that 
city ;  and  one  of  them  bequeathed  several  millions 
to  the  Jewish  community,  to  the  state,  to  Christian 
orphanages  and  churches,  and  to  the  Christian  clergy 
(see  his  testament  in  Schudt,  "Jlidische  Merkwur- 
digkeiten,"  i.  292).  Members  of  the  family  were  also 
prominent  in  South  America,  namelj^  in  Brazil  and 
in  Dutch  Guiana,  in  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  About  the  same  time  other  members  set- 
tled in  the  United  States,  becoming  very  influential, 
especially  in  the  state  of  Connecticut,  where  they 
took  an  active  part  in  the  Revolution.  The  earliest 
mention  of  the  Pintos  in  the  Connecticut  records  is 
under  date  of  1724;  in  those  of  New  York,  1736. 
The  best-known  members  of  this  family  are: 

Aaron  de  Pinto  :  Trustee  of  the  Portuguese  con- 
gregation at  Amsterdam  in  the  beginning  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  He  supported  Solomon  Ayl- 
LON  against  Zebi  Hirsch  Ashkenazi.  Ayllon  con- 
vinced Pinto  that  it  was  his  duty  to  uphold  the 
superiority  of  the  Portuguese  community  over  the 
Ashkenazim.  He  thus  helped  greatly  to  protect  Ne- 
Lemiah  Hayyun  and  to  persecute  Ashkenazi.  Pinto 
and  Ayllon  even  suggested  that  Ashkenazi  should 
be  cited  before  the  Portuguese  council,  which,  since 
he  did  not  heed  the  summons,  excommunicated  him. 

T>.  M.  Sel. 

Aaron  Adolf  de  Pinto:  Dutch  jurist;  son  of 
Moses  de  Pinto  and  Sara  Salvador;  born  at  The 
Hague  Oct.  24, 1828;  studied  law  at  Leyden  (LL.D. 
1852).  In  1862  he  was  appointed  referendary  in  the 
Department  of  Justice,  in  1871  "Raadsadviseur," 
and  in  1876  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  he  be- 
came vice-president  of  that  court  Dec.  31,  1903. 
He  has  been  a  member  of  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Sciences  since  1877.  The  law  of  i872,  abolishing 
tithes,  was  drawn  up  by  De  Pinto.  From  1870  to 
1881  he  was  secretary  of  a  commission  appointed  to 

prepare  a  penal  code,  which  was  put  in  force  in 
1886;  he  Avas  a  member  also  of  the  colonial  penal 
code  commission.  He  is  the  author  of  the  "Me- 
morie  van  Toelichting  op  liet  Wetsontwerp  tot  Af- 
schaffiug  van  de  Doodstraf."  From  1888  to  1902  De 
Pinto  was  editor-in-chief  of  the  "  WeekbJad  voor  het 
Reclit,"  and  lie  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Juris- 
tenvereeniging.  He  has  published :  "  Wetboek  van 
Strafrecht  voor  Nederland.sch  IndiG;  Wetboek  voor 
Europeanen,  Gevolgd  door  Memorie  van  Toelich- 
ting" (The  Hague,  1866);  "Hezzien  Wetboek  van 
Strafvoidering "  (2  vols.,  Zwolle,  1886-88);  "Het 
Proces  Dreyfus  Getoetst  met  Wet  en  Recht "  (2 
vols.,  1898-99).  De  Pinto  is  commander  of  the 
Order  of  the  Netherlands  Lion  and  oflicer  of  the 
Crown  of  Italy. 

Bibliography:   Enien   Haard,   1898    (with   portrait);   Een 
Halve  Eeuw,  i.  190  ;  ii.  52,  57,  60. 

s.  E.  Si.. 

Abraham  Pinto  :  Cofounder,  with  his  brother 
David  Pinto,  of  the  Portuguese  community  at  Rot- 
terdam in  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century. 
The  two  brothers  established  also  a  school  (Jesiba  de 
los  Pinto.s),  ■which,  in  1669,  after  the  death  of  one  of 
the  touiiders,  was  transferred  to  Amsterdam. 

Abraham  Pinto  :  Soldier  in  the  American  army 
in  1775,  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution.  He  Avas  a 
member  of  Companj'  X,  Seventh  Regiment  of  the 
State  of  Connecticut. 

i>.  M.  Sel. 

Abraham  de  Pinto:  Dutch  jurist;  born  at  The 
Hague  May  27,  1811 ;  died  there  May  26,  1878.  He 
studied  law  at  Leyden  (LL.D.  1835)  and  was  awarded 
a  gold  medal  by  the  university  for  a  competitive 
thesis  entitled  "E.xponaturetad  Examen  Revocetur 
Locus  C.  C.  de  Causa  Obligandi"  (1835).  In  1835 
he  became  editor-in-chief  of  the  "  Weekblad  voor  het 
Recht,"  and  from  1840  to  1876  he  edited  the  period- 
ical "  Themis, "  which  he  had  founded.  Abraham  de 
Pinto  was  a  member  of  the  municipal  council  of  The 
Hague  from  1851  until  his  death.  He  was  president 
of  the  Sephardic  congregation,  and  on  his  initiative 
was  founded  the  "Maatschappij  tot  Nut  der  Israe- 
lieten  in  Nederland  "  (1850).  He  was  appointed 
"  Landsadvocaat "  Dec.  27,  1863. 

De  Pinto  published  the  following  works:  "Een 
Woord  over  de  Circulaire  van  den  Minister  van 
Justitie"  (The  Hague,  1850);  "Handleiding  tot  de 
Wet  op  den  Overgang  van  de  Vroegere  tot  de 
Nieuwe  Wetgeving"  (ib.  1850);  "Handleiding  tot 
het  Wetboek  van  Burgerlijke  Rechtsvordering " 
(2d  ed.,  3  vols.,  1857) ;  "  Adviezen  1838-52  "  (Zwolle, 
1862);  "Handleiding  tot  het  Wetboek  van  Koop- 
handel  "  (3d  ed.,  2  vols.,  ib.  1879);  "Handleiding  tot 
de  Wet  op  de  Rechterli  jke  Organisatie  en  het  Beleid 
der  Justitie"  (2d  ed.,  rt.  1880);  "Handleiding  tot 
het  Wetboek  van  Strafvordering  '  (2d  ed.,  2  vols., 
lb.  1882);  "Handleiding  tot  het  Burgerlijk  AVet- 
boek"  (6th  ed.,  ib.  1883-85). 

Bibliography:  Wcckhlad  roor  het  Eecht,  1878.  Nos.  4240, 
4241;  Uoest,  NieitiLsbodc,  iii.  49;  Brinkman,  Catah>gus. 
s.  E.  Sl. 

Daniel  Pinto  :  Syrian  Talmudi,st;  lived  at  Aleppo 
in  the  seventeenth  century.  He  and  Moses  Galante 
went  to  Smyrna  in  order  to  pay  homage  to  Shab- 
bethai  Zebi. 




David  Pinto  :  Cofounder,  with  his  brother  Abra- 
ham, iif  tile  Portuguese  community  at  Rotterdam. 

David  Pinto  :  A  rich  broiier  of  Amsterdam  in 
the  eigliteentli  century  who  sided  with  Jonathan 
Eybesciutz  in  his  controversy  with  Jacob  Emden. 

Biblio(;rapiiv  :  Griitz.  Gesch.  3d  ed..  Ix.  262;  x.  13,  211,  321, 
368  ;  Hiihner.  in  Publ.  Am.  Jew.  Hist.  Soc.  xi.  88  et  seq. 

Isaac  Pinto  :  Dutch  captain  of  the  beginning  of 
the  eigliteentli  century.  At  the  head  of  a  company  of 
Jews,  Pinto  in  1712  heroically  defended  the  village 
of  Savanna  in  Surinam  and  beat  off  the  French 
under  Cassard.  Southey  ("History  of  Brazil,"  ii. 
241)  speaks  of  a  captain  named  Pinto,  wiio,  when 
the  Dutch  were  for  the  second  time  besieged  at  Re- 
cife, defended  the  fort  single-handed,  until,  over- 
whelmed by  superior  numbers,  he  was  obliged  to 
surrender.  He  is  probabl}'  identical  with  the  sub- 
ject of  this  article. 

Bibmography:  Felsenthal  and  Gottheil  in  Puhl.  Am.  Jew. 
Hist.  Sue.  iv.  3;  G.  A.  Kohiit,  il).  iii.  118  ct  seq.;  Koenen, 
(ie:<chieileui.'!  ili:i-Ji>(le)i  iit  yideiiatul,  pp.  281,294;  Simon 
Wolf,  The  American  Jew  as  Patriot,  Huldier,  and  Citizen, 

p.  452. 

U.  M.  Sel. 

Isaac  Pinto:  American  ritualist;  born  about 
1721;  died  Jan.,  1791;  member  of  Congregation 
Shearith  Israel  in  the  city  of  New  York.  He  is  re- 
membered chietiy  for  having  prepared  what  is  prob- 
ably the  earliest  Jewish  prayer-book  published  in 
America,  and  certainly  the  first  work  of  its  kind 
printed  in  New  York  city.  The  work  appeared  in 
1766,  and  the  title-page  reads  as  follows:  "Prayers 
for  Shabbath,  Rosli-llashanah  and  Kippur,  or  the 
Sabbath,  the  beginning  of  the  j'ear,  and  the  Day  of 
Atonement,  with  the  Amidah  and  Musaph  of  the 
Moadim  or  Solemn  Seasons,  according  to  the  Order 
of  the  Spanish  and  Portuguese  Jews.  Translated 
by  Isaac  Pinto  and  for  him  printed  b}'  John  Holt  in 
New  York.  A.]\I.  Oi")26."  It  seems  that  the  ma- 
liamad  of  the  London  congregation  would  not  per- 
mit this  translation  to  be  published  in  Enijland  (see 
Jacobs  and  Wolf,  "Bibl.  Anglo-Jud."  p.  174.  Lon- 
don, 1888;  G.  A.  Kohut,  in  ">ubl.  Am.  Jew.  Hist. 
Soc."  iii.  121;  Lady  Magnus,  "Outlines  of  Jewish 
History,"  p.  348,  Philadelphia,  1890). 

Pinto  was  the  friend  and  correspondent  of  Ezra 
Stiles,  president  of  Yale  College,  who  as  late  as  1790 
mentions  him  in  his  diary  as  "a  learned  Jew  at  New 
York."  From  Stiles'  account  it  appears  that  Pinto 
was  a  good  Hebrew  scholar,  studying  Ibu  Ezra  in 
the  original.  An  Isaac  Pinto,  po.ssibly  identical 
with  tlie  subject  of  tliis  article,  appears  to  have  been 
a  resident  of  Siratford,  Conn.,  as  early  as  1748 
("Colonial  Records  of  Connecticut,"  ix.  406). 

Bibliography  :  The  Literary  Diarjj  of  EzraStileit.  ed.  F.  B. 
I)t'Xt<!r,  .New  York.  liiOl ;  (ieorpe  A.  Kohut,  Kzra  Stik.i  ri/id 
the  Jews.  il».  liXKi ;  Morris  .Iristrow.  in  I'lilil.  Am.  Jew.  Hist.  ■ 
Soc.  X.  2!) ;  Leon  Huhner,  TItc  Jews  of  Xew  Ktmlnnd  Prior 

to  mx),  il).  Xi.  90. 

•T.  L.  Hi:. 

Isaac  de  Pinto  :  Portuguese  moralist  of  Jew- 
ish origin;  born  1715;  died  Aug.  14.  1787,  at  The 
Hague.  He  first  settled  at  Bordeaux,  and  then  re- 
moved to  Holland.  Pinto  was  a  man  of  wide  infor- 
mation, but  did  not  begin  to  write  until  nearly  fifty, 
when  he  acqiiire<l  a  i-eputation  by  defending  his  co- 
religionists against  Voltaire.  In  1762  he  published 
his  "Essai  sur   le   Luxe"  at  Amsterdam.     In   tlie 

same  year  appeared  his  "  Apologie  pour  la  Nation 
Juive,  ou  Reflexions  Critiques."  The  author  sent 
a  manuscript  copy  of  this  work  to  Voltaire,  who 
thanked  him.  Guenee  reproduced  the  "Apologie" 
at  the  head  of  his  "  Lettres  de  Quelques  Juifs  Portu- 
gais,  AUemands  et  Polouais.  a  M.  de  Voltaire."  In 
1768  Pinto  sent  a  letter  to  Diderot  on  "Du  Jeu  de 
Cartes."  His  "  Traitede  la  Circulation  etdu  Credit " 
appeared  in  Amsteidam  iu  1771.  and  was  twice  re- 
printed, besides  being  translated  into  English  and 
German.  His  "Precis  des  Arguments  Contre  les 
]\hiterialistes"  was  published  at  The  Hague  in  1774. 
Pinto's  works  were  published  in  French  (Am- 
sterdam, 1777)  and  also  in  German  (Leipsic,  1777). 

Bibliography:  Didot,  iN'oiu-eZ/c  Biographic  Geni'rale,r).282; 
Barbier,  Dietinnnaire  dcA  Auounines;  Dictinttnaire  d' Eco- 
nomic Politicale,  ii.;  Qut?rard,  La  France  Litteraire,  in^lJJ- 
ijemeine  Litteraturzeituug,  1787,  No.  273. 
D.  I.    Co. 

Jacob  Pinto :  Earlj'  Jewish  settler  at  New  Haven, 
Conn.,  where  he  was  residing  in  1759;  brother  of 
Solomon  Pinto.  He  figures  repeatedly  in  C(jnnecti- 
cut  records  between  1765  and  1776.  Pinto  espoused 
the  patriot  cause  at  the  outbreak  of  the  American 
Revolution  ;  and  he  appears  to  have  been  a  member 
of  a  political  committee  at  New  Haven  in  1775.  His 
name  appears,  with  that  of  other  influential  citizens 
of  the  place,  in  a  petition  to  the  Council  of  Safety 
for  the  removal  of  certain  Tories  in  1776. 

Bibliography:  J.  W.  Barber,  Connectintt  Historical  Collec- 
tions, p.  ITti.  New  Haven,  n.d.;  Leon  Hiihner.  The  Jewn  of 
New  Eiifilond  Prior  to  ISOO,  in  Publ.  Am.  Jew.  Hist.  Soc. 
xi.  93,  and  aiiUiorities  there  cited. 

Joseph  Jesurun  Pinto  :  American  rabbi;  born 
probably  in  England;  died  1766.  He  was  leader 
of  Congregation  Shearith  Israel,  New  York,  from 
1759  to  1766,  having  been  selected  for  tiie  posi- 
tion and  .sent  to  New  York  by  the  London  con- 
gregation pursuant  to  a  request  from  that  of  New 
York.  A  letter  from  the  former  to  the  latter,  dated 
1758,  relating  to  the  matter  is  still  extant.  Pinto 
became  a  minister  as  a  very  young  man,  and  in 
1762  married  Rebecca,  daughter  of  Moses  de  la 
Torre  of  London.  The  only  literary  production  of 
his  that  has  come  down  is  a  form  of  prayer  for  a 
thanksgiving  service  for  the  "Reducingof  Canada," 
published  at  New  York  in  1760. 

Bibmography:  N.  T.  Phillips,  in  Puhl.  Am.  Jew.  Hist.  Soc. 
ii.49-.">l.  vi.  12!);  Charles  V.  Daly,  The  Settlement  of  the  Jews 
in  Nortli  America,  p. .')(),  Nrw  York,  1893;  M.  tiaster.  Hist, 
of  Bevis  Marks,  London,  19(11. 
J.  L.  Hi). 

Josiah.  ben  Joseph  Pinto  (RIF)  :  Syrian  labbi 
and  preacher;  born  at  Damascus  about  1505;  died 
there  Feb.  or  March,  164S.  His  father,  Joseph 
Pinto,  was  one  of  the  rich  and  chaiitable  men  of 
that  city.  Josiah  was  a  jmpil  of  various  rabbis  in 
Talmud  and  Cabala,  and  later,  after  his  father's 
death,  he  studied  Talmud  under  Jacob  Abulafia,  who 
ordained  him  as  rabbi.  Pinto's  perinaneiit  residence 
was  at  Damascus,  where  later  he  ollicialed  as  rabbi 
until  his  death.  lie  went  twice  to  Aleppo,  and 
in  1625  he  removed  to  Safed  with  the  intention  of 
settling  there;  but  the  death  of  his  young  son, 
Joseph,  which  occurred  a  year  later,  induced  him  to 
return  to  Damascus. 

Pinto  was  the  author  of  tlie  following  works: 
"  Kesef  Nibl.iar"  (Damascus,  1616),  a  collection  of 

n — -VK — t!—-r- 

R  A  Y  E  R  S 


O  R 

The  SABBATH,  the  BEGINNING  of  the  YEAR. 


The   D  A  Y  of  ATONEMENTS; 


The  ^iMIDAH    and  MUSAPH  of   the  MO^DIM, 

O  R 

According  to  the  Order  of  the  Spanifh  and  For tugucfc  Jews, 
Translated  by  ISJJC  PINTO. 

And  for  him  printed  by  JOTTN  HOLT,  in  New- York, 

.  A.  M.  55^6. 



Title-Page  from  Isaac  Pinto's  Translation  of  the  Prayer-book,  Printed  at  New  York,  17t 

(From  the  Sulzberger  collection  In  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary  of  America,  New  York.) 




homilies  and  comments  on  Genesis  and  Exodus; 
"Kesef  Mezukkak  "  (finished  IG'25,  and  published  at 
Venice,  1628),  a  homiletic  commentary  on  the  Pen- 
tateuch, followed  by  a  pamphlet  entitled  "Kesef 
To'afot,"  glosses  on  the  Pentateuch;  "Me'or  'Ena- 
yira,"  commentary  on  Jacob  ibn  Habib's  "'En 
Ya'akob,"  which  is  a  collection  of  the  haggadot  of 
the  Babylonian  Talmud  (part  1.,  with  the  text,  Ven- 
ice, 1643;  part  ii.,  with  other  commentaries  and  the 
text.  Amsterdam,  1754);  "Kesef  Zaruf "  {i/>.  1714), 
commeutar}'  on  Proverbs;  and  "Nibhar  mi-Kesef  " 
(Aleppo,  1869).  Some  of  his  responsa  are  to  be 
found  in  the  collection  of  Yom-Tob  Zahalon  and  in 
Aaron  Alfandari"s  "  Yad  Aharon."  His  unpublished 
works  are:  "Kesef  Nim'as,"  a  commentary  on 
Lamentations;  "Kebuzzat  Kesef."  a  collection  of 
civil  laws  and  of  laws  concerning  women;  and  a 
collection  of  responsa. 

BiBLioORAPHV  :  Azxi\aUShemha-GednJim,l.:  Tuenn,  Keneset 
riVj-flf/,  p.  382;  Furst,  Bi7;/.7i<(/.  iii.  104  ;  Klijali  Vita  Sa.ssoon, 
In  Ha-Lcbanon,  vli.  15,  23;  Steinschneider,  Cat.  liodl.  cols. 
D.  M.  Sel. 

Juan  Delgado  Pinto.     See  Delgado. 

Solomon  Pinto  :  American  patriot  in  the  Revo- 
lutionary war.  A  settler  at  New  Haven,  Conn.,  he 
served  as  an  officer  in  the  Connecticut  line  through- 
out the  war,  and  was  among  the  patriots  wounded 
in  the  British  attack  upon  New  Haven  July  5  and 
6,  1779.  Pinto's  name  appears  repeatedly  in  Revo- 
lutionary records;  and  he  has  the  additional  distinc- 
tion of  having  been  one  of  the  original  members  of 
the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati  in  Connecticut.  He  is 
mentioned  as  late  as  1818. 

Bibliography:  Becord  «f  Service  of  Connecticut  Men  in 
the  War  of  the  Revolution,  pp.  218,  325,  360.  373,  553,  636, 
Hartford.  1889;  Leon  Hiihner,  The  Jeu'.s  of  New  Eng- 
land Prior  to  1800,  In  Puhl  Am.  Jew.  Hist.  Soc.  xl.  94-95, 
and  authorities  there  given;  G.  H.  HoUister,  The  History 
of  Connecticut,  11.  372,  New  Haven,  1855;  Royal  R.  Hlnman, 
Historical  Collection,  p.  567,  Hanford,  1842. 

J.  L.  Hu. 

PIOTRKOW:  Town  in  Russian  Poland,  near 
Wars.'iw\  For  some  time  Piotrkow  was  the  seat  of 
the  Polish  diet.  At  the  diet  of  1538,  held  there,  it 
■was  enacted  that  no  Jew  should  be  permitted  to 
farm  the  taxes,  and  that  Jews  should  wear  distinct- 
ive garments,  "so  that  they  might  be  distinguished 
from  Christians."  Anti-Jewish  laws  were  passed 
also  by  the  diets  of  1562,  1563,  and  1565,  these  diets 
being  influenced  by  the  Jesuits.  The  Jewish  com- 
munity of  Piotrkow,  however,  is  specifically  men- 
tioned for  the  first  time  in  1567,  when  two  Jews, 
Isaac  Borodavka  and  Mendel  Isaakovich,  were  tax- 
farmers  in  that  town  ("Gramoty  Velikikh  Knyazei 
Litovskikh,"  p.  104).  In  the  disastrous  time  be- 
tween 1648  and  1658,  the  period  of  the  Cossack  up- 
rising, the  Jewish  community  of  Piotrkow  suffered 
with  the  other  communities  in  Poland.  There  were 
then  fifty  families  there,  "almost  all  the  members  of 
which  were  killed"  by  the  Co.ssacks  ("Le-Korot  ha- 
Gezerot,"  v.  19).  In  1897  Piotrkow  liad  a  large 
Jewish  community,  having  one  synagogue,  several 
houses  of  prayer,  and  thirty  six  Hebrew  schools. 
An  old  and  celebrated  Hebrew  printing-press  is 
established  there.  The  town  has  a  total  population 
of  24,866. 

Bibliography:  Entziklopcdichexhi  Shwar,  xxiii.  472;  Gnitz, 
(.'(W/i. (Hebrew  transl.)  vli.  318,  328 ;  viii.  152 :  Rcgcsty,  i..  No. 

11.  R.  A.    S.    W. 

PIOVE  DI  SACCO  (ipL*"n  K^T'D)  :  Small  Ital- 
ian city  in  tlu'dislrictof  Padua;  the  first  in  that  terri- 
tory to  admit  Jews.  A  loan-bank  was  opened  there 
by  an  association  ("consortium")  before  1373,  and 
Avas  probably  an  unimportant  institution,  as  it  paid 
a  yearly  tax  of  only  100  lire.  "Wiien,  in  1455,  the 
Jews  of  Padua  were  forbidden  to  lend  money,  they 
transacted  their  business  through  their  fellow  bank- 
ers at  Piove.  No  Jews  except  a  few  money -brokers 
seem  to  have  lived  here;  and  apparently  these  were 
expelled  at  an  early  date.  Piove  never  had  a 
ghetto.  Leone  Komanini  Jacur  is  now  (1905)  the 
representative  for  Piove  in  the  Italian  Chamber  of 

The  city  owes  its  importance  to  the  fact  that  a 
Hebrew  printing-press  was  temporarily  established 
there.  Meshullam  Cusi  Rafab.  Moses  Jacob  printed 
at  Piove  Jacob  b.  Asher's  "Arba'  Turini "  in  folio, 
1475,  this  being  the  second  work  issued  there. 
Complete  copies  of  this  edition  are  extremely  rare. 
A  fine  impression  on  parchment  is  in  the  citv  library 
at  Padua  (B.  P.  574).  The  "Arba'  Turim "  was 
circulated  both  as  an  entire  work  and  in  the  sepa- 
rate parts. 

Bibliography:  A.  Ciscato.  Gli  Ehrei  in Padova,  1901,  pp.  21, 
5:3, 158 ;  G.  B.  de  Rossi,  Annates  Hebrceo-Typoaraphici,  etc., 
XV.,  No.  2. 

G.  L  E. 

PIPE  :  Musical  instrument  akin  to  the  flute. 
The  flute  was  a  favorite  instrument  of  the  ancients. 
The  monuments  show  flutes  of  various  shapes.  On 
the  Egyptian  monuments  are  pictured  (1)  single- 
tubed  direct  flutes  made  of  reed  or  wood,  (2)  rather 
long  cross-flutes,  and  (3)  long,  thin,  double-tubed 
flutes,  the  tubes  of  which,  liowever,  were  not  fast- 
ened together.  On  Assyrian  monuments  is  depicted 
a  shorter,  more  trumpet-shaped  double  flute.  The 
Syrians  used  the  small  gingras — known  also  to  the 
Athenians — only  a  span  long,  with  a  penetrating, 
mournful  sound.  The  flutes  used  by  the  Greeks 
were  very  varied;  and  it  is  probable  that  the  Israel- 
ites, too,  played  several  kinds;  but,  unfortunately, 
nothing  definite  about  their  sliape  is  known. 

(1)  The  "halil,"  from  "halal"  (to  bore  through), 
was  a  hollowed  piece  of  wood.  The  name  is  evidence 
for  the  fact  that  the  flute  was  made  from  cane  or 
wood.  It  consisted  of  a  tube  and  a  tongue  of  cane. 
The  number  of  holes  in  the  tube  Avas  originally  only 
two,  three,  or  four;  later  it  was  increased.  The 
tones  of  such  an  instrument  Avere  naturally  limited, 
and  it  was  manifestly  necessary  to  have  a  special 
flute  for  each  key.  It  was  not  until  art  was  more 
highly  developed  that  an  instrument  was  made 
which  could  be  played  in  different  keys.  Among 
the  Israelites  the  halil  was  used  for  music  played  at 
meals  on  festive  occasions  (Isa.  v.  12),  in  festal  pro- 
cessions (I  Kings  i.  40),  and  during  the  pilgrim- 
ages to  .lerusalem  (Isa.  xxx.  29).  The  Israelites  used 
also  the  "nebi'im"in  connection  with  the  kettle- 
drum (I  Sam.  X.  5).  The  flute  was,  in  addition,  the 
special  instrument  to  denote  mourning  (.Ter.  xlviii. 
36);  and  among  the  later  Jews  flute-playing  was 




considered   so  essential   at  fvinerals  that  even  the 
poorest  would  not  do  Avitliout  it. 

In  tlie  days  of  the  Old  Testament  there  were  no 
flute-players  in  the  Temple  orchestra.  In  the  Mish- 
nah,  'Ar.  ii.  3,  mention  is  made  that  flutes  were 
played;  it  states  that  at  the  daily  services  from 
two  to  twelve  flutes  were  used.     But  they  accom- 

^  ■! 







^Bkt  ^       -  >-^ 

'T^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^                                                           T^H 


^K        ■  ■       ••-,'*'-'  - 


y  - 

— ~M 

■RpflL"'""-            "^ 


^HHM|L.*^''''*  * "''' 



H|     ^^^1 

Pipes  in  Use  in  Palestine. 

(In-the  United  States  Natloual  Museum,  Wa8hing;ton,  D.  C.) 

panied  psalm-singing  only  at  the  slaughtering  of 
the  paschal  lambs,  on  the  first  and  seventh  daj's  of 
the  Passover,  and  during  the  eight  days  of  the 
Feast  of  Tabernacles,  when  a  flute  was  plaj'cd  be- 
fore the  altar  to  accompany  the  singing  of  the 
"Hallel"  (comp.  Tacitus,  "Historia,"  v.  5). 

(2)  A  second  kind  of  wind-instrument,  known  from 
very  early  times,  was  the  "'ugab,"  which  was  es- 
sentially an  instrument  to  express  joyousness.  and 
was  played  for  the  amusement  of  the  people,  but 
never  at  divine  service.  According  to  tradition, 
which  connects  the  use  of  the  'ugab  Avith  Jubal 
(Gen.  iv.  21),  the  instrument  was  a  bagpipe  ("sum- 
pongah " ;  Dan.  iii.  5).  The  same  sort  of  instru- 
ment— called  "ghaitah"  in  North  Africa — is  used  in 
Arabian  music.     The  older  descriptions  correspond 

in  tiie  main  with  the  form  now  found  in  Egvpt, 
Aral)ia,  and  Italy.  Two  pipes  are  inserted  in  a 
leathern  bag;  one  above,  into  which  the  player 
blows;  and  the  other,  provided  with  holes,  at  the 
bottom  or  slanting  at  the  side,  so  that  it  may  be 
played  with  the  fingers. 

(3)  The  instrument  mentioned  in  the  Hebrew  text 
of  Dan.  iii.  5,  7,  10,  15,  imder  the  name  "mashro- 
kita,"  is  the  syrinx,  or  Pan  flute,  which  generally 
consisted  of  seven  to  nine  reed  tubes,  of  different 
lengths  and  thicknesses,  arranged  in  a  row.  It  was 
the  favorite  instrument  of  shepherds  in  the  Orient, 
where  it  is  used  even  at  the  present  time.  Whether 
it  was  known  to  the  Hebrews  is  very  doubtful. 

(4)  "Nekeb"  (Ezek.  xxviii.  13  ct  seq.)  is  generally 
understood  to  denote  a  kind  of  flute;  but  this  is 
more  than  doubtful.  The  word  is  most  likely  a 
technical  term  used  in  the  goldsmith's  art. 

K.  fi.  n.  W.  N. 

PIPERNO,  SETTIMIO  :  Italian  economist; 
born  at  Rome  1834.  He  is  (1905)  professor  of  statis- 
tics and  political  economy  in  the  Technical  Institute 
of  Rome,  director  of  the  Cesi  Technical  School, 
and  a  member  of  the  board  of  administration  of  the 
Jewish  community  of  Rome.  Piperuo  is  the  author 
of  the  following  works,  in  addition  to  various  journal- 
istic articles:  "Studio  sulla  3Iorale  Indipendente  "; 
"Studio  sulla  Percezione";  "Elementi  di  Scienza 
Ecouomica  Esposti  Secondo  i  Nuovi  Programmi 
Governatici  per  gl'  Istituti  Tecnici,"  Turin,  1878; 
"II  Riconoscimento  GiuridicodelleSocietadi  3Iutuo 
Soccorso,"  Rome,  1882;  "La  Pensioui  di  Vecchiaia 
Presso  le  Societa  di  Mutuo  Soccorso  Italiane," 
Turin,  1883;  "La  Nuova  Scuola  di  Dlritto  Penale 
in  Italia,  Studio  di  Scienza  Sociale,"  Rome,  1886. 

Bibliography  :  De  Gubematis,  Diz.  Biog.;  idem,  Ecrivains 
du  Jour. 
s.  U.  C. 

ON: English  statesman;  born  in  London  1840; 
died  at  Guildford,  Surrey,  Jan.  9,  1903;  third  son  of 
Solomon  Benedict  de  Worms,  a  baron  of  the  Austrian 
empire.  He  was  educated  at  King's  College,  Lon- 
don, and  became  a  barrister  in  1863.  As  Baron  Henry 
de  Worms  he  sat  in  the  House  of  Commons  as  Con- 
servative member  for  Greenwich  from  1880  to  1885, 
and  for  the  East  Toxteth  division  of  Liverpool  from 
1885  to  1895,  when  he  was  created  a  peer.  He  was 
parliamentar}^  secretary  to  the  Board  of  Trade  in 
1885  and  1886  and  from  1886  to  1888,  and  under-sec- 
retary  of  state  for  the  colonics  from  1888  to  1892. 
In  1888  he  was  president  of  the  International  Con- 
ference on  Sugar  Bounties,  and  as  plenipotentiary 
signed  the  abolition  treaty  for  Great  Britain.  He 
became  a  member  of  the  Privy  Council  in  the  same 
year.  He  was  a  royal  commissioner  of  the  Patri- 
otic F'und,  and  one  of  the  royal  commis.sioners  of 
the  French  Exhibition  of  1900.  His  works  include: 
"England's  Policy  in  the  East"  (London,  1876), 
"Handbook  to  the  Eastern  Question  "  (5th  ed.,  Lon- 
don, 1877),  "The  Austro-Hungarian  Empire" 
(2d  ed.,  London,  1877),  "Memoirs  of  Count Beust" 
{ib.  1887). 

In  1864  he  married  Fanny,  daughter  of  Baron  von 
Tedesco  of  Vienna,  and  in  1887,  after  her  death, 
Sarah,  daughter  of  Sir  Benjamin  Samuel  Phillips. 

Pirhe  Zafon 

Pirke  de-Rabbi  Eli'ezer 



Lord  Pirbright  was  for  several  years  president  of 
the  Anglo-Jewish  Association,  but  resigned  in  1886 
owing  to  objections  raised  to  his  having  attended 
the  nuptials  of  his  eldest  daughter  in  a  church. 
During  his  parliamentary  career  he  was  a  warm  ad- 
vocate of  the  cause  of  Jews  in  lands  of  oppression, 
especially  Rumania  ("Jew.  Chron."  Jan.  16,  1903). 

BiBLiOGRAPUT:  n'/io's  Who,  1903;  Jewish  Year  Dnnk,  1903. 
J.  V.   E. 

PIRHE  ZAFON.     See  Periodicals. 

PIRKE   ABOT.     See  Abot. 

midrashic  work  on  Genesis,  part  of  Exodus,  and  a 
few  sentences  of  Numbers;  ascribed  to  li.  Eliezer 
b.  Hyrcanus,  and  composed  in  Italy  shortly  after 
833.  It  is  quoted  immediately  before  the  end  of  the 
twelfth  century  under  the  following  titles:  Pirke 
Rabbi  Eli'ezer  ha-Gadol  (Maimonides,  "Moreh," 
ii.,  xxvi.);  Pirke  Rabbi  Eli'ezer  ben  HjTcanus 
("Seder  R.  Amram,"  ed.  Warsaw,  1865.  p.  32ci); 
Baraita  de-Rabbi  Eli'ezer  ('"Aruk,"  s.v.  Dpip;  Rashi 
on  Gen.  xvii.  3;  gloss  to  Rashi  on  Meg.  2'2b;  David 
Kimhi,  "Sliorashim,"  s.r.  iiy);  Ilaggadah  de-Rabbi 
Eli'ezer  ben  Hyrcanus  (R.  Tarn,  in  Tos.  Ket.  99a). 
The  work  is  divided  into  fifty-four  chapters,  which 
may  be  divided  into  seven  groups,  as  follows: 

i.  Ch.  i.,  ii. :  Introduction  to  the  entire  work, 
dealing  with  the  youth  of  R.  Eliezer,  his  thirst  for 
knowledge,  and  his  settlement  at  Jerusalem. 

ii.  Ch.  iii.-xi.  (corresponding  to  Gen.  i.-ii.):  The 
six  days  of  the  Creation.  On  the  first  day  occurred 
the  creation  of  four  kinds  of  augels 
Contents,  and  of  the  forty-seven  clouds.  The 
second  day:  the  creation  of  heaven, 
other  angels,  the  tire  in  mankind  (impulse),  and  the 
fire  of  Gehenna.  The  tiiird  day:  the  division  of  the 
waters,  fruit-trees,  herbs,  and  grass.  The  fourth 
day:  creation  of  the  lights;  astronomy  and  the 
determination  of  the  intercalation.  The  leap-year 
reckoning  is  imparted  to  Adam,  Enoch,  Noah, 
Sheni,  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob.  The  fifth  day: 
birds  and  fishes;  enumeration  of  the  kinds  which 
may  be  eaten.  The  story  of  Jonah,  which  is  said 
to  belong  to  the  fifth  day.  The  sixth  day:  God's 
conference  with  the  Torali  in  regard  to  the  way  in 
which  man  should  be  created.  Since  God  is  the 
first  king  of  the  world,  all  the  great  rulers  are  enu- 
merated in  order  to  refer  to  God  as  the  first  one. 

iii.  Ch.  xii.-xxiii.  (=Gen.  ii.-viii.,  xxiv.,  xxix., 
1.):  The  time  from  Adam  to  Noah.  The  placing  of 
man  in  the  Garden  of  Eden  and  the  creation  of  Eve. 
Description  of  the  tliree  evil  qualities  which  shorten 
the  life  of  man — envy,  lust,  and  ambition.  Identi- 
fication of  the  serpent  with  Samael.  Announcement 
of  the  ten  appearances  of  God  upon  eartli  (" 'eser 
yeridot").  First  appearance  of  God  in  the  Garden 
of  Eden,  and  the  punishment  of  the  first  pair.  The 
two  wa3s,  the  good  and  the  evil,  are  pointed  out  to 
Adam,  who  enters  upon  his  penitence.  (The  story 
is  interrupted  here,  to  be  continued  in  ch.  xx.)  De- 
tailed discussion  of  the  three  pillars  of  the  world— 
the  Torah,  the  'Abodah,  and  the  Gemilut  Ilasiulim. 
God's  kindness  toward  Adam,  that  of  the  llananites 
toward  Jacob,  and  the  con.sideration  to  be  shown  to 

those  in  mourning.  The  literary  quarrel  between 
the  Shamniiiites  and  the  Hillelites  as  to  whether 
heaven  or  earth  was  created  first.  The  ten  things 
wiiich  were  created  on  Friday  evening.  Exegesis  of 
P.^lm  viii.,  which  Adam  sang  in  the  Garden  of  Eden. 
Di.scussion  of  the  Halxlalah  blessing  of  the  Sabbath 
evening  and  the  completion  of  Adam's  penitence. 
Cain  and  Abel;  Cain's  penitence.  Birth  of  Seth; 
the  sinful  generation.     Story  of  Noah. 

iv,  Ch.  xxiv. -XXV.  (=  Gen.  ix.,  x.,  xi.,  xviii., 
xix.):  The  sinful  generation.  Nimrod.  God's  sec- 
ond appearance.  The  confusion  of  tongues  and  the 
Dispersion.  Nimrod  is  killed  bj^  Esau,  who  takes 
his  garments,  which  Jacob  then  puts  on  in  order  to 
secure  the  blessing. 

V.  Ch.  xxvi. -xxxix.  (=:  Gen.  xl.,1.):  From  Abra- 
ham to  the  death  of  Jacob.  The  ten  temptations  of 
Abraham.  Lot's  imprisonment  and  Abraham's  pur- 
suit of  the  kings.  God's  covenant  with  Abraham. 
Tiie  circumcision,  and  the  appearance  of  tlie  angels. 
Identification  of  Hagar  with  Keturah,  and  the  story 
of  Ishmael.  The  sacrifice  of  Isaac.  Isaac  and  Re- 
bekah,  Jacob  and  Esau.  Proofs  given  by  Elijah, 
Elisha,  and  Sliallum  b.  Tikwah  that  the  dead  are 
resurrected  through  the  liberality  of  the  living. 
Those  that  will  be  found  worthy  to  be  resurrected. 
From  the  sale  of  the  birthright  to  the  time  when 
Jacob  left  Beer-sheba.  From  Jacob  at  the  well  to 
his  flight  from  Laban's  house.  Repetition  of  the 
three  preceding  chapters.  Story  of  Dinah  and  of 
the  sale  of  Joseph.  God's  fourth  appearance — in 
the  vision  of  Jacob  while  on  his  way  to  Egypt.  Jo- 
seph and  Potiphar.  Joseph  in  prison  ;  interpretation 
of  the  dream;  the  sale  of  the  grain.  Jacob's  bless- 
ing and  death. 

vi.  Ch.  xl.-xlvi.  (rrEx.  ii.-iv.,  xiv.-xx.,  xxxii.- 
xxxiv.):  From  the  appearance  of  Moses  to  the  time 
when  God  revealed  Himself  to  him  in  the  cleft  of 
the  rock.  Fifth  appearance  of  God — to  Moses,  from 
the  burning  bush.  The  miracles  performed  by  Moses 
before  Pharaoh.  God's  sixth  appearance — on  Sinai. 
Pharaoh's  persecution.  The  value  of  penitence; 
Pharaoh  is  not  destroyed,  but  becomes  King  of  Nin- 
eveh. Amalek's  pursuit  in  the  desert:  Saul  and 
Amaiek ;  Amalek  and  Sennacherib.  The  golden 
calf;  Moses'  descent  from  the  mountain;  his  prayer 
because  of  Israel's  sin.  Moses  on  Sinai ;  his  descent, 
and  the  destruction  of  the  golden  calf.  Seventh  ap- 
pearance of  God — to  Jkloses, 

vii.  Ch.  xlvii.-liv.  (=Ex.  xv. ;  Num.  ii.,  v.,  xi.- 
xiii.,  XXV.,  xxvi.;  in  these  chapters  the  sequence 
thus  far  observed  is  broken):  The  sin  committed  at 
Baalpeor.  The  courage  of  Phinehas.  The  priestly 
ofiice  conferred  upon  him  for  life  as  a  recompense. 
Computation  of  the  time  Israel  spent  in  servitude 
down  to  tiie  exodus  from  Egypt.  Continuation  of  the 
story  of  Amalek.  The  passing  over  to  Nebuchad- 
nezzar and  Ilaman.  Story  of  Esther.  Holiness  of 
the  months  and  of  Israel.  Enumeration  of  the  seven 
miracles:  (1)  Abraham  in  the  furnace;  (2)  Jacob's 
birth;  (3)  Abraham's  attainment  of  manhood (comp. 
Sanh.  107b);  (4)  Jacob  sneezes  and  does  not  die;  (5) 
the  sun  and  moon  remain  immovable  at  the  com- 
mand of  Joshua ;  (6)  King  Ilezekiah  becomes  ill,  but 
recovers;  (7)  Daniel  in  the  lion's  den.  Moses  is 
slandered  by  Aaron  aad  Miriam.     Ab.salom  and  his 



Pirhe  Zafon 

Pirke  de-Kabbi  Eli'ezer 

death.     God's  eighth    appearance — in  punishment 
of  Miriam. 

The  Pirke  appears,  according  to  Zunz,  to  be  in- 
complete, and  to  be  merely  a  fragment  of  a  larger 
work.     Sachs,  on  the  other  hand,  thinks  tliat  it  was 
compiled    from   two   previous   works 
Com-         by  the  same  author,  the  relation  of  the 

position,  two  productions  to  each  other  being 
tiiat  of  text  and  commentary,  the  text 
giving  merely  the  story  of  tiie  Bible,  whicii  was  in- 
terrupted by  the  commentary  in  the  form  of  the 
Haggadah,  and  the  commentary  being  intended  for 
reading  during  the  ten  days  of  penitence.  Horwitz 
thinks  that  the  author  developed  those  Bible  stories 
whicli  bore  relation  to  the  entire  nation,  dealing 
lightly  with  those  that  concerned  only  individuals. 

Jost  was  the  first  to  point  out  that  in  the  thirtieth 
chapter,  in  which  at  the  end  the  author  distinctly 
alludes  to  the  three  stages  of  the  Mohammedan  con- 
quest, that  of  Arabia  (niya  XC'O).  of  Spain  (D\T  "'''N). 
and  of  Rome  ('nil  i^Hi  "|"I3  ;  H80  c.e.),  the  names  of 
Fatinia  and  Ayesha  occur  beside  that  of  Ishmael, 
leading  to  the  conclusion  that  the  book  originated 
in  a  time  when  Islam  was  predominant  in  Asia 
Elinor.  As  in  ch.  xxxvi.  two  brothers  reigning 
simultaneously  are  mentioned,  after  whose  reign 
the  ^lessiah  shall  come,  the  work  might  be  ascribed 
to  the  beginning  of  the  ninth  century,  for  about 
that  time  the  two  sons  of  Harun  al-Rashid,  El- 
Amin  and  El-Mamun,  were  ruling  over  tiie  Islamic 
realm.  If  a  statement  in  ch.  xxviii.  did  not  point 
to  an  even  earlier  date,  approximately  the  same 
date  miglit  be  inferred  from  the  enumeration  of  the 
four  powerful  kingdoms  and  the  substitution  of 
Ishmael  for  one  of  the  four  which  are  enumerated 
in  the  Talmud  and  the  Mekilta. 

The  author  seems  to  have  been  a  Palestinian;  this 
appears  not  only  from  the  fact  that  some  of  the  cus- 
toms to  which  he  refers  (in  ch.  xiii.  and  xx.)  are 
known  only  as  Palestinian  customs,  but  also  from 
the  fact  that  nearly  all  the  authorities  he  quotes  are 
Palestinian,  the  exceptions  being  R.  Mesharshia 
and  R.  Shemaiah.  In  no  case  can  this  work  be 
ascribed  to  R.  Eliezer  (80-118  c.e.),  since  he  was  a 
tanna,  while  in  the  book  itself  the  Pirke  Abot  is 
quoted.  Late  Talmudic  authorities  belonging  to  the 
third  century  c.e.,  like  Shemaiah  (ch.  xxiii.),  Ze'era 
(ch.  xxi.,  xxix.),  and  Shila  (ch.  xlii.,  xliv.),  are  also 

The  following  customs  and  regulations  of  the  Jews 
are  referred  to  in  the  Pirke  de-Rabbi  Eli'ezer:  Reci- 
tation of  Ps.  xcii.  during  the  Friday  evening  serv- 
ices (ch.  xix. ;  comp.  Shab.  118a).  The  blessing 
"Bore  me'orc  ha-esh  "  (Praised  be  the  Creator  of  the 
tire)  recited  during  the  Ilabdalah  (ch.  xx.  ;  comp. 
Pes.  ;")9a).  Contemplation  of  the  finger-nails  during 
tiiis  blessing  (ch.  xx.).  After  the  Ilabdalah,  pour- 
ing of  the  wine  upon  the  table,  extinguisiiing  the 
candle  in  it,  dipping  the  hands  in  it,  and  rubbing 
the  eyes  (ch.  xx.).  Tiie  prohibition  against  women 
doing  fancy-work  on  tlie  day  of  the  New  Moon  (ch. 
xlv.).  The  blessing  of  "tal"  on  the  first  day  of  the 
Passover  (xxxii.).  The  sounding  of  the  shofar  after 
the  morning  services  in  all  the  synagogues  on  the 
New  Moon  of  the  month  of  Elul  (ch.  xlvi.).  The 
regulation  that  during  the  recitation  of  the  "Kol 

Nidre"  on  the  Day  of  Atonement  two  prominent 
members  of  the  community  shall  stand  beside  the  can- 
tor (xliv.),  and  that  on  Tluirsday  all 
Customs  worshipers  must  stand  while  reciting 
Mentioned,  prayers  (ch.  xlvi.).  Tlie  addition  of 
Deut.  xi.  20  to  the  daily  reading  of 
the"Shema'  "  (ch.  xxiii.).  The  banquet  after  the  cir- 
cumcision (ch.  xxix.;  comp.  Midr.  Teh.,ed.  Buber, 
p.  234b).  The  chair  of  Elijali  during  the  circum- 
cision (cii.  xxix.).  The  covering  of  the  prepuce 
with  earth  (ch.  xxix.).  The  performance  of  the 
marriage  ceremony  under  a  canopy  (ch.  xii.).  The 
standing  of  the  hazzau  beside  the  bridal  couple  (ch. 
xli.).  The  pronouncing  of  the  blessing  upon  the 
bride  by  the  hazzan  (ch.  xii.).  The  regulations  pro- 
viding that  no  woman  may  go  out  with  uncovered 
head  (ch.  xiv. ;  comp.  Ket.  72a);  that  the  groom 
may  not  go  out  alone  on  the  bridal  night  (ch.  xvi. ; 
comp.  Ber.  54b);  that  mourners  must  be  comforted 
in  tiie  chapel  (ch.  xvii.);  that  the  dead  may  be 
buried  only  in  "takrikin  "  (ch.  xxxiii. ;  comp.  M.  K. 
27a,  b) ;  that  a  person  sneezing  shall  say,  "  I  trust  in 
Thy  help,  O  Lord,"  while  any  one  hearing  him  shall 
say,  "Your  health!"  (ch.  lii.) — sickness  having  been 
unknown  before  the  time  of  the  patriarch  Jacob, 
whose  soul  escaped  through  his  nose  when  he  sneezed. 
The  following  chapters  close  with  benedictions 
from  the  "  Shemoneh  'Esreh":  ch.  xxvii. :  "Praised 
be  Thou,  O  Lord,  the  shield  of  Abraham";  ch. 
xxxi. :  "Praised  be  Thou,  O  Lord,  who  revivest  the 
dead  " ;  ch.  xxxv. :  "  Praised  be  Thou,  O  Lord,  Holy 
God";  ch.  xl. :  "Praised  be  Thou,  O  Lord,  who 
dost  pardon  knowingly";  ch.  xliii. :  "Praised  be 
Thou,  O  Lord,  who  demandest  penitence."  Chap- 
ters xvii.,  xxx.,  xxxi.,  xlvi.,  li.,  lii.,  liv.  also  remind 
one  of  the  "  Amidah." 

The  author  dwells  longest  on  the  description  of 
the  second  day  of  Creation,  in  which  the  "Ma'aseh 
Mcrkabah  "  (Ezek.  i.)  is  described  in  various  forms, 
and  although  this  passage  recalls  Donolo  and  the 
Alphabet  of  R.  Akiba,  it  is  evidently  much  older, 
since  it  does  not  mention  the  "Hekalot."  This  de- 
scription is  connected  with  that  of  the  creation  of 
the  seven  planets  and  the  twelve  signs  of  the  zodiac, 
the  reference  to  the  "mahzors"  and 
The  the  "  tekufot,"  and  the  discussion  of 

Tekufot.  the  intercalation.  In  the  series  of 
years  (3,  6,  8,  11,  14,  17,  19  in  the 
cycle  of  19)  in  whicii  the  intercalation  takes  place 
the  author  substitutes  the  fifth  year  for  the  sixth. 
His  cycle  of  the  moon,  furthermore,  covers  twenty- 
one  years,  at  the  end  of  which  ]U'riod  the  moon  again 
occupies  the  same  position  in  the  week  as  at  tlie  be- 
ginning, but  tills  can  happen  only  once  in  689,472 
j'ears,  according  to  the  common  computation. 

On  tlie  connection  of  the  Pirke  de-Rabbi  Eli- 
'ezer witli  tiie  Biraita  of  Samuel,  see  Sachs  in  "Mo- 
natssciirift,"  i.  277.  JManuscrijits  of  the  Pirke  are 
found  at  Parma  (No.  541),  in  the  Vatican  (No.  303; 
dated  1509),  and  in  the  Ilalbcrslam  library.  Tlie 
following  editions  are  known  :  Cnn.<;tantinople,  1518; 
Venice,  1548;  Sabbionetta,  1568;  Amsterdam,  1712; 
Wilna,  1837;  Lemberg,  1864.  A  commentary  upon 
it,  by  David  Luria,  is  included  in  the  "Wilna  edition, 
and  another,  by  Abraham  Broyde,  in  the  Lemberg 




Bibliography:  Zunz.  G.  V.  pp.  283  et  geq.;  Jost,  Gesch.  des 
Judenthum^  und  Sdner  Sekten.  p.  35,  note 2.  Leipsic,  1858; 
Senior  Sachs,  in  Kerem  Hemed,  viii.  34;  Ueher  dojiGeijen- 
Beitige  Verh(Htnii<^,  etc.,  in  Mutialsschrift,  i.  277;  Tehiualt, 
Berlin,  1850,  p.  U,  note  5;  p.  20,  note  2;  H.  Kahana.  In  Ha- 
Mauaid,  viii.  6;  S.  Frledmann,  in  Ilahtner's  J(J(J.  Lit.-Blatt. 
viii.  30-31, 34,  37  ;  M.  Steinschuelder,  in  Ha-Yoiialt,  i.  17,  Ber- 
lin, 1851;  R.  Kirchheim,  in  hitmductin  in  Lilirum  Talinu- 
dicum  de  Samaritanis.  p.  25,  Krankfort-on-the-Main,  Itol  ; 
Meir  ha-Levi  Honvitz,  SlUhnat  Habbi  Eliezei\m  Ha-Mag- 
gid,  xxiii.,  Nos.  8-30;  Fuenn,  Kene.'<ct  YisraeU  1.  321-344,  War- 
saw. 1886 ;  Israel  Luria,  in  Knkehe  Yizhak,  xxv.  82 ;  Israel 
L^vi,  in  R.  E.J.  xviii.  83;  Creizenach,  in  Jost's  AtmaUn,  li. 
140;  Gnitz,  in  MouaU'^chrift,  1859,  p.  112,  note  5;  Bacher, 
Ag.  Tan.  i.  122-123.  Strasburg,  1903. 

J.  S.    O. 

sian physician  and  pedagogue ;  born  1810 ;  died  Nov. , 
1881.  He  was  professor  at  the  University  of  Dor- 
pat.  As  a  statesman  Pirogov  belonged  to  that  re- 
nowned circle  of  men  whose  cooperation  in  educa- 
tional matters  was  sought  by  Alexander  II.  in  the 
first  years  of  his  reign.  His  "  Voprosy  K  Zliizni," 
in  "Morskoi  Sbornik"  (1856),  dealing  mainly  with 
educational  problems,  led  to  his  appointment  as 
superintendent  of  the  Odessa  school  district  (1856- 
1858),  and  later  to  that  of  the  Kiev  district  (1858- 
1861).  In  this  capacity  he  learned  to  know,  for  the 
first  time,  the  Jewish  people;  and  as  scholar  and 
seeker  after  truth,  as  the  true  friend  of  enlighten- 
ment and  the  enemy  of  class  antagonism,  he  treated 
the  Jews  in  a  kindlj-  spirit  and  displaj'ed  unusual 
interest  in  the  educational  problems  concerning 
them.  His  attitude  toward  the  Jews  is  best  shown 
by  the  words  which  he  addressed  to  the  Jewish 
community  of  Berdj'chev  on  his  retirement  from 
the  superintendency  of  the  Kiev  district :  "  You  are 
conveying  to  me  the  appreciation  of  my  sj'mpathy 
for  the  Jewish  people.  But  I  deserve  no  credit  for 
it.  It  is  a  part  of  my  nature.  I  could  not  act  con- 
trary to  mj'  own  inclinations.  Ever  since  I  began 
the  study  of  civics  from  the  standpoint  of  science,  I 
have  fejt  the  greatest  antagonism  for  class  preju- 
dices; and  involuntarily  I  applied  this  point  of  view 
also  to  national  distinctions.  In  science,  in  practi- 
cal life,  among  my  colleagues,  as  well  as  among  my 
subordinates  and  superiors,  I  have  never  thought  of 
drawing  distinctions  as  prompted  by 
Friendly  and  national  exclusiveness.  I 
Attitude     have  been  guided  by  these  convictions 

Toward  also  in  my  relations  with  the  Jews 
the  Jews,  when  brought  in  contact  with  them  in 
private  and  public  life.  These  con- 
victions, the  result  of  my  education,  having  been 
developed  by  lifelong  experience,  are  now  second 
nature  with  me,  and  will  not  forsake  me  to  the  end 
of  my  life." 

This  attitude  of  Pirogov,  acknowledged  by  all  as 
a  ])rominent  man,  was  for  the  Jews  of  great  social 
moment;  but  aside  from  this  he  took  an  active  part 
in  the  development  of  Jewish  education  also.  No- 
ticing that  the  Jewish  youth  in  the  .search  for  en- 
lightenment encountered  obstacles  on  the  part  of  the 
Russian  government  as  well  as  of  the  Jewish  people, 
tiie  great  mass  of  which  was  hostile  to  general  edu- 
cation, Pirogov  made  timely  appeals  to  the  Chris- 
tians as  well  as  to  tlie  Jews.  Being  familiar  with 
the  methods  of  instruction  in  the  various  Jewish  and 
Christian  schools,  Pirogov,  while  superintendent  of 
the  Odessa  district,  published  a  special  paper  on  the 

Odessa  Talmud  Torah  in  the  "Odesski  Vyestnik," 
citing  it  as  an  example  for  the  Christian  elementary 
schools,  and  noting  also  the  conscious  efforts  of  the 
Jews  in  the  acquisition  of  knowledge.  Further- 
more, while  still  superintendent  he  published  in  the 
Russo-Jewish  journal  "  Razsvyet,"  in  1860,  an  article 
on  the  necessity  of  enlightenment  among  the  Jewish 
masses;  and  he  invited  the  educated  Jews  to  form 
an  organization  for  the  purpose,  avoiding  violent 
and  unworthy  methods  in  the  treatment  of  their 
opponents.  Pirogov  also  deemed  it  the  duty  of  the 
Russian  public  to  lend  its  aid  to  young  Jewish  stu- 
dents. "  Where  are  religion,  morality,  enlighten- 
ment, and  the  modern  spirit,"  said  Pirogov,  "when 
these  Jews,  who  with  courage  and  self-sacrifice  en- 
gage in  the  struggle  against  prejudices  centuries 
old,  meet  no  one  here  to  sympathize  with  them  and 
to  extend  to  them  a  helping  hand? " 

There  existed  at  that  time  Jewish  government 
schools  which  were  very  unpopular  among  the 
Jewish  masses  owing  to  the  manner  in 
Appoints  which  thej' were  conducted;  and  Piro- 
First  Jew-  gov  devoted  much  work  toward  ma- 
ish  School  king  them  really  serve  their  avowed 
Principal,  purpose.  His  initiative  and  exertions 
led,  among  other  things,  to  the  aboli- 
tion of  the  rule  under  which  only  Christians  were 
eligible  for  appointment  as  principals  of  these 
schools.  In  most  cases  the  principals,  coarse  and 
uneducated,  were  unfriendlj'  to  the  Jews.  Pirogov 
appointed  the  first  Jewish  principal,  U.  S.  Rosen- 
zweig,  one  of  the  most  eminent  Jewish  pedagogues 
in  Russia. 

Pirogov  rendered  a  further  service  of  great  im- 
portance to  the  Jews  by  aiding  those  who  wished  to 
enter  the  general  middle  and  higher  institutions  of 
learning,  and  in  this  connection  he  worked  out  and 
presented  to  the  ministry  plans  for  the  reorganization 
of  the  Jewish  schools,  etc.  His  task  was  by  no 
means  an  easy  one ;  for  at  that  time  Pirogov  was  the 
only  patron  of  the  Jewish  youth.  It  is  said  that  the 
contemporary  minister  of  public  instruction  meas- 
ured the  distance  between  the  Jewish  schools  and 
the  churches. 

Pirogov  lent  his  aid  particularly  in  the  organiza- 
tion at  the  University  of  Kiev  of  a  fund  for  aiding 
Jewisli  students ;  it  was  also  he  who 
Aids  Jew-    took  the  first  steps  toward  enabling 

ish  Stu-      Jews  to  carry  on  their  studies  with 

dents  at  government  aid,  to  receive  scholar- 
University,  sliips,  etc.  Guided  by  the  same  edu- 
cational motives,  while  superintendent 
of  the  Odessa  district  he  advocated  allowing  the 
publication  of  the  first  Russo-Jewish  journal,  the 
"Razsvyet,"  and  the  Hebrew  paper  "Ha-Meliz." 

Unfortunately  Pirogov's  efforts  met  with  no  sup- 
port; his  views  on  the  education  of  the  Jews  evoked 
no  sympathy;  and  in  the  course  of  time  access  for 
the  Jews  to  the  general  schools  became  more  difficult. 

BiBi.iOGRAPHT:  M.  MorRulis,  N.  I.  Pimanv,  in  Vnskhod,  1881, 
No.  5;  N.  Botvinnik,  VziiU/ad]!  Pimudra  na  Vopras^i  Pros- 
vue^cheniun  Ycvrcyci\  in  Voahhod,  1903,  No.  8 ;  N.  Bakst. 
Pamyati  Pirngova,  in  RxiiviUi  Yevrei,  1882,  No.  1 ;  Sochine- 
nlya,  N.  I.  Pirogova,  2  vols.,  St.  Petersburg,  1900. 
II.   R.  * 

PISA  :  Town  in  Tuscany,  Italy,  at  the  mouth  of 
the  ]{iver  Arno;  formerly  a  port  of  the  Tyrrhenian 




Sea.  The  settlement  of  Jews  in  Pisa  dates  back  to 
very  early  times;  the  first  mention  of  a  congrega- 
tion is  n)et  with  in  the  "'Itinerary  "  of  Benjamin  of 
Tudela,  who  found  twenty  families  there  {c.  1165). 
The  importance  of  Pisa  as  a  commercial  town  ren- 
ders it  probable  that  the  congregation  continued  to 
exist;  and  this  supposition  is  directly  confirmed  by 
statutes  of  the  republic  issued  during  the  thirteenth 
century,  which  exclude  Jews  from  giving  evidence, 
and  command  them  to  wear  the  Jews'  badge.  The 
population,  possibly  envious  of  the  trade  of  the 
Jews,  was  hostile  to  them. 

Some  distinction  was  bestowed  upon  the  congre- 
gation by  the  settlement  of  the  Da  Pisa  family,  whose 
members,  by  their  eminence,  education,  and  readi- 
ness to  sacrifice,  were  extensively  and  benevolently 
active  in  behalf  of  the  Jews.     About  1400  Jchiel  b. 

and  had  become  subject  to  the  Medici,  who,  well 
aware  of  the  advantages  wliich  the  state  would  de- 
rive therefrom,  permitted  tlie  settlement  of  Jewish 
immigrants  from  Spain  and  Portugal.  When,  about 
1590,  the  Medici  opened  the  harbor  of  Leghorn,  they 
asked  Jews  to  .settle  there  also;  and  in  15'J3  the 
autiiorities  of  the  congrega:ion  of  Pisa,  to  which 
Leghorn  was  for  the  time  being  subordinate,  were 
granted  the  privilege  of  naturalizing  foreign  Jews. 
The  young  congregation  of  Leghorn  soon  separated 
from  that  of  Pisa  and  outnumbered  the  latter  consid- 
erably. The  Jews  of  Pisa  fared  as  did  those  of  other 
Tuscan  towns.  They  were  obliged  to  live  in  a 
ghetto,  and  were  restricted  in  their  rights;  but  iu 
general  they  were  treated  kindly.  With  the  en- 
trance of  the  French,  in  1798,  the  Jews  were  accorded 
full  citizenship.     The  Restoration  of  1814  acknowl- 


Old  Tombstones  from  the  Jewish  Cemetery  at  Pisa. 

(From  a  drawing  by  Albert  Hochreiter.) 

Mattithiah  da  Pisa  founded  a  loan-bank  in  Pisa. 
He  represented  the  congregation  at  tlie  Congress  of 
Bologna  in  1415,  and  at  Forli  in  1418.  His  grand- 
son, Jehiel,  a  MjEcenas  of  Jewish  poets  and  scholars, 
was  a  friend  of  Don  Isaac  Abravauel,  who  was  as- 
sociated with  him  and  who  while  still  in  Spain  laid 
claim  to  his  assistance  for  his  oppressed  brethren. 
At  the  same  time,  Jehiel  himself  was  in  danger;  as 
elsewhere  iu  Italy  after  1450,  the  Dominicans  harassed 
the  Jews  in  Pisa;  and  in  1471,  apparently  during 
the  presence  of  Bernardin  of  Feltre  in  the  city,  an 
assault  was  made  upon  their  houses.  Numbers  of 
fugitives  from  Spain  and  Portugal  disembarked  at 
the  port  of,  among  them  the  Yahya  family. 
Isaac  da  Pisa,  the  son  of  Jehiel,  took  care  of  the  fu- 
gitives and  assisted  them  to  find  new  means  of  sup- 
port. The  same  intentions  guided  also  his  nepliew, 
Jehiel  Nissim  b.  Samuel  da  Pisa,  who,  iu  1525,  shel- 
tered David  Reubeni  under  his  roof  for  several 
months,  and  furthered  his  enterprises,  from  which 
Jehiel  expected  much  benefit  for  all  Jews. 

Pisa  in  the  meanwhile  had  lost  its  independence 

edged  the  independence  of  the  congregation;  the 
ghetto  was  abolished  ;  and  gradually  the  rights  of 
the  Jews  were  extended;  but  only  the  establish- 
ment of  the  kingdom  of  Italy  (1861)  brought  full 

Of  rabbis  and  scholars  in  Pisa  the  following  are 
known:  Jehiel  b.  Mattithiah  da  Betel  (14th  cent.); 
Daniel  b.  Samuel  Rofe  b.  Daniel  Dayyan  da  Pisa; 
Raphael  b.  Eleazar  Meldola  (1750) ;  Jacob  b.  Moses 
Senior;  Eliezer  b.  Jacob Supino (about  1800);  Judah 
Coriat;  and  A.  V.  de  Benedetti.  Active  at  the  uni- 
versity were:  Salvadore  de  Benedetti,  the  translator 
of  Judah  ha-Levi;  Alessandro  d'Ancona,  for  many 
years  the  dean;  and  Vittorio  Supino,  now  (1905)  also 
rector.  David  Castelli  was  secretary  of  the  Jewish 
congregation  in  1865.  Pisa  had  temporarily  a  He- 
brew printing-office  in  the  eighteenth  century. 

In  1865  the   Jews  numbered  450;    in  1901  there 

were  500  in  a  total  population  of  about  61,300. 

BiBi.iORRAPMY  :  Ersph  and  Gniber,  E)if{/c.  section  il..  part  27, 
p.  151 :  Ci>rricrc  Israelitico,  x.,  xi.;  R.  E.  J.  xxvl.;  Mortara, 
Indice,  passim. 
G.  L  E. 

Pisa.  Da 



PISA,  DA :  Italian  family,  deriving  its  name 
from  tlie  city  of  Pisa.  It  can  be  traced  back  to  the 
fifteenth  century. 

Abraham  ben  Isaac  da  Pisa  :  Talmudist;  son 
of  Isiiac  ben  Ji-hiel;  lived  in  Bologna,  where  he  died 
in  1554.  He  was  often  consulted  about  religious 
questions.  One  of  his  responsa  is  found  in  the  col- 
lection of  Menahem  Azariah  da  Fano,  in  which,  de- 
spite liis  veneration  for  Meir  ben  Isatic  K.\tzenel- 
LENBOGEN  of  Padua,  Abraham  refutes  the  latter 's 
arguments  and  expresses  the  wish  that,  for  the  sake 
of  harmony,  the  rabbis  would  agree  upon  one  au- 
thority in  accordance  with  whose  decisions  religious 
questions  might  be  decided.  A  court  banker,  Abra- 
ham suffered  much  from  the  exactions  of  the  popes 
during  the  Turkish  wars,  and  consequently  was  in 
straitened  circumstances.  Not  being  able  to  pub- 
lish his  responsa,  he  left  them  in  manuscript,  with 
other  works  of  his. 

In  the  list  of  names  in  the  archives  of  the  Jewish 
community  of  Rome  for  the  years  1536  to  1542  is 
found  the  name  of  Solomon  da  Pisa  (see  Vogelstein 
and  Rieger,  "Gesch.  tier  Juden  in  Rom,"  ii.  419),  and 
among  the  prominent  members  of  the  community 
during  the  period  1542-1605  were  Abraham  ben 
Joseph  and  Moses  ben  Solomon  da  Pisa  (ib.  ii. 
421).  Two  of  the  later  descendants  of  this  family 
were  Giuseppe  Pisa  (b.  1827,  Ferrara;  d.  Milan, 
Feb.  24,  1904)  and  his  nephew  Ugo  Pisa.  The  for- 
mer, a  merchant  and  manufacturer,  took  an  active 
part  in   the  revolutionary  movement  of  1848. 

Other  distinguished  members  of  the  family  were 
Jehiel  (see  Jew.  E>'cyc.  vii.  83)  and  Isaac  ben  Je- 
hiel  (for  whose  son  Abraham  see  above). 

Daniel  ben  Isaac  da  Pisa :  Wealth}'  and  learned 
philanthropist  of  the  sixteenth  century.  lie  was 
called  to  the  rabbinate  of  Rome  during  the  pontifi- 
cate of  Clement  VII.,  and  succeeded  in  bringing 
harmony  into  that  community.  He  united  into  one 
congregation  the  different  elements,  consisting  of 
Italian  and  foreign-born  Jews,  and  instituted  a  coun- 
cil of  sixty  members  to  administer  the  affairs  of  the 
amalgamated  congregation.  The  decisions  of  this 
council  were  declared  legal  by  a  papal  decree  of 
Dec.  12, 1524.  While  David  Reubeni  was  at  Rome, 
Daniel  da  Pisa  provided  for  his  wants  and  served  as 
his  interpreter  before  the  i)ope.  Through  Daniel's 
influence  Reubeni  received  from  Clement  VII.  letters 
of  recommendation  to  the  King  of  Portugal  and  to 
other  Christian  monarchs. 

BiBLiof.RAPHT:  Gratz.  Gesch.  ix.  248;  Gedallah  Ibn  Yahya, 
ShahheJet  ha-Kabhalnh,  ed.  Venice,  p.  6")b;  Heilprln.  Seder 
h<uDoroU  1.  23«.  24-^..  Warsaw,  1883 ;  David  Kaufmann.  in  R. 
E.  J.  xxvi.  81-96,  xxlx.  146-147.  xxxi.  6.5  et  seq.,  xxxii.  130- 
134  :  Michael,  Orha-Hayyim.  No.  144  :  II  VessiUo  Israeliticn, 
1904,  p.  10.5;  Vopelsteln  and  Eieger,  Gesch.  der  Juden  iti 
Rom,  11.  40.  44,  128. 

D.  8.  Man. 

TJgo  Pisa:  Italian  writer  and  senator;  born 
Aug.,  1845.  After  taking  part  in  the  campaign  of 
1866  he  studied  law.  In  1869  and  1870  he  was  at- 
tached to  the  Italian  consulate  at  Constantinople, 
and  was  then  secretary  of  legation  in  China,  Japan, 
London,  and  Berlin  successively.  In  1873  he  entered 
the  Banca  Pisa  of  Milan ;  he  was  elected  common 
councilor,  judge  of  the  tribunal  of  commerce,  coun- 
sel and  president  of  the  chamber  of  commerce,  and 
finally  senator  (Nov.  17.  1898). 

Pisa  is  the  author  of  the  following  works:  "As- 
sicurazione  Colletiva  Contro  gl'  Infortunii  sul  La- 
voro,  ed  Interveuto  del  Patronato  Milanese  per  Fa- 
cilitarne  I'Applicazione,"  Milan,  1885;  "Liberi  Pro- 
tezionisti  e  Socialisti,"  ib.  1892 ;  in  collaboration  with 
G.  Fraschi,  "Sulla  Opportuuita  di  Dare  Maggiore 
Efficacia  Practica  all'  Azione  del  Consiglio  ilell'  In- 
duslria  e  del  Commercio,"  ib.  1893;  "Relation  sur 
la  Prevoyance  pour  les  Accidents  de  Travail  en 
Italie  1882-89"  (in  "Congr^s  International  des  Acci- 
dents du  Travail  et  des  A.ssurances  Sociales  i 
Milan  "),  tb.  1894;  "  Delle  Norme  per  Regolare  il  Li- 
ccnziamento  degli  Agenli  di  Commercio,"  etc.,  ib. 
1894 ;  "  Relation  sur  la  Prevoyance  pour  les  Acci- 
dents du  Travail  en  Italie  "  (in  "  Comite  Italien  de» 
Sciences  Sociales  pour  I'Exposition  de  Paris"),  ib. 
Bibliography  :  lUiuftrazione  Italiana,  1898,  part  11.,  p.  425. 

s.  U.   C. 

PISGAH  (always  with  the  article:  Ha-Pia- 
gah) :  ^Mountain  iu  Moab,  celebrated  as  one  of  the 
stations  of  the  Israelites  in  their  journey  through 
that  country  (Num.  xxi.  20)  and  as  the  place  of  one 
of  Balak's  sacrifices  {ib.  xxiii.  14),  but  chiefly  as  the 
place  of  Moses'  death  after  he  had  beheld  from 
its  summit  "all  the  land  of  Gilead,  unto  Dan;  and 
all  Naphtali,  and  the  land  of  Ephraim  and  Ma- 
nasseh,  and  all  the  land  of  Judali,  unto  the  hinder 
[western]  sea;  and  the  south,  and  the  plain  of  the 
valley  of  Jericho,  the  city  of  palm-trees,  unto  Zoar" 
(Dent,  xxxiv.  1-2,  R.  V.).  It  is  identified  (ib. 
xxxiv.  1)  with  Mount  Nebo;  and  in  Num.  xxiii. 
14  the  "field  of  Zophim  "  is  the  "top  of  Pisgah." 
Under  the  "  slopes  of  Pisgah  "  was  the  "  sea  of  the 
Arabah  "  or  Dead  Sea  (Deut.  iii.  17,  iv.  49;  Josh.  xii. 
3,  xiii.  20,  R.  V.). 

Pisgah  has  been  identified  also  with  the  modern 
Naba,  a  ridge  which  projects  westward  from  the 
plateau  of  Moab,  near  the  northeastern  end  of  the 
Dead  Sea,  about  five  miles  southwest  of  Heshbon, 
and  2,643  feet  above  the  Mediterranean  and  3,935  feet 
above  the  Dead  Sea.  It  is  described  by  G.  A.  Smith 
("Historical  Geography  of  the  Holy  Land,"  p. 
563)  as  about  two  miles  long,  with  a  level  top  about 
one-half  mile  broad.  "It  is  of  flinty  limestone, 
mostly  barren."  It  commands  an  extensive  view  of 
the  whole  of  western  Palestine.  There  are  two 
summits:  the  higher,  Ras  Naba;  the  lower  and  out- 
ermost, Ras  Siyaghah.  The  latter  commands  the 
whole  of  the  Jordan  valley  and  is  probably  identical 
with  the  "  top  of  Pisgah  which  looketh  down  upon 
Jeshimon  "  (Num.  xxi.  20,  R.  V.,  margin). 

The  name  "Pisgah  "  has  not  survived  till  modern 

times,  unless  in  "Ras  Fashkah,"  a  headland  on  the 

opposite  or  western  side  of  the  Dead  Sea.     It  is  said 

to  have  been  still    used,  however,  in  the  time  of 

Eusebius  (in  the  form  ^aayu;   comp.  LXX.   4>aa-)d, 

<J>aff,va)   for    a    district    in    that    region   (Eusebius, 

"Onomasticon,"  ed.  Lagarde,  pp.  124-125,  237). 

Bini.infiRAPiiY :  G.  A.  Smith,  JTMorical  Geographu  of  the 
Hull/  Land,  pp.  502-.5()6 ;  Tristram,  Land  of  Moah,  pp.  339- 
:^40;  Surveiiof  Ea.'^teni  Palestine,  pp.  154-1.56.  198-203;  Con- 
d('r,  Heth  and  Moah,  3d  ed..  pp.  132  c(  seq.;  Driver.  Commei> 
tarn  on  Deuteronomy  (xxxiv.  1). 
E.  r.  J.  F.  McL. 

PISGAH,  HA-.     See  Periodicals. 

PISTACHIO-NTJT.     See  Nut. 



Pisa,  Da 


p     ?Q    40    60    eo  100    _  _       ^9"*  METRES 

Q     20  40  fiO   RO  100 



PITHOM  (DnS:  LXX.  nafltj.  XiiBLii):  One  of  the 
cities  whicli,  according  to  Ex.  i.  11,  was  built  for 
the  Pharaoh  of  tlie  oppression  by  the  forced  labor 
of  the  Israelites.  The  other  city  was  Raamses;  and 
the  Septuagint  adds  a  third,  "On,  which  is  Ileliop- 
olis."  The  meaning  of  the  term  niJSDD  ^"iy,  ren- 
dered in  the  Authorized  Version  "treasure  cities" 
and  in  the  Revised  Version  "store  cities,"  is  not  defi- 
nitely known.  The  Septuagint  renders  ■K6lEiq  bxvpai 
"strong  [or  "fortified"]  cities."  Tlie  same  term 
is  used  of  cities  of  Solomon  in  I  Kings  ix.  19  (comp. 
also  II  Chron. 
xvi.  4).  The  lo- 
cation of  Pithom 
was  a  subject  of 
much  conjec- 
ture and  debate 
until  its  site  was 
discovered  by  E. 
Niiviile  in  the 
spring  of  1883. 
Ilerodotus  (ii. 
158)  says  that 
the  canal  made 
by  Necho  to  con- 
nect the  Red  Sea 
with  the  Nile 
"passes  Patu- 
mos,  a  city  in  the 
Arabian  nonie." 
This  district  of 
Arabia  was  the 
twentieth  nome 
of  Lower  Egypt, 
and  its  capital 
was  Goshen 
(Egyptian,"  Ko- 

The  site  of 
Pithom,  as  iden- 
tified by  Naville, 
is  to  the  east  of 
the  Wady  Tu- 
milat,  south- 
west of  Ismailia. 
Here  was  for- 
merly a  group 
of  granite  stat- 
ues representing 
Rameses  II., 
standing  b  e  - 
t  w  e  e  n  t  w  o 
gods;  and  from 

this  it  liad  been  inferred  that  this  was  the  city 
of  Raamses  mentioned  in  Ex.  i.  11.  The  excava- 
tions carried  on  by  Naville  for  the  Egypt  Ex- 
ploration Fund  disclosed  a  city  wall,  a  ruined 
temple,  and  the  remains  of  a  series  of  brick  buildings 
Avith  very  thick  walls  and  consisting  of  rectangular 
chambers  of  various  sizes,  opening  only  at  the  top 
and  without  any  communication  with  one  another. 
These  are  supposed  to  have  been  the  granaries  or 
store-chambers,  from  which,  possibly,  the  army  may 
have  been  supplied  when  about  to  set  out  upon  ex- 
peditions northward  or  eastward.  The  city  stood  in 
the  eighth  nome,  adjoining  that  of  Arabia;  so  that 

the  statement  of  Herodotus  is  not  exactly  correct. 
It  was  known  in  the  Greek  period  as  Ileroopolis 
or  Ileroonpolis.  The  Egyptian  name,  "Pithom" 
(Pi-Tum  or  Pa-Tum),  means  "house  of  Turn"  [or 
"Atum"],  i.e.,  the  sun-god  of  Heliopolis;  and  the 
Greek  word  "Hero"  is  probably  a  translation  of 

The  discovery  of  the  ruins  of  Pithom  confirms  the 
Biblical  statement  and  points  to  Rameses  II.  as  the 
Pharaoh  that  oppressed  Israel.  The  name  of  the 
city  Pi-Tum  is  first  found  on  Egyptian  monuments 

of  the  nineteenth 
dynastj'.  Im- 
portant evidence 
is  thus  afforded 
of  the  date  of  the 
Exodus,  which 
must  liave  taken 
place  toward  the 
end  of  the  nine- 
teenth dynasty 
or  in  the  be- 
ginning of  the 
twentieth  dy- 

In  the  Middle 
Ages  Fayum 
was  called 
"Pithom"  by 
the  Jews,  so  that 
the  Gaon  Saadia 
is  termed  "Al- 
Fayj'umi"  in 
Arabic  (Hebr. 
and  he  himself 
translates  "  Pi- 
thom "  in  Ex.  i. 
11  by  "Al  Fay- 


ROMAN   CITY  ^^ ^ 

..■•'"1. .j->  jP" 

/SiW^-^^-Cs;  J)  E 


^  "--■••" -'^r    — -  2^'"^"'-.: •■•"'••■-•: ■■"'■-■- 

„     .7ts^.™< -.,    ,  ^M>"-*  , "^  \«..  ""      ,,1'*      ■""■         % 

*«t  ■         .f-y  ,«llllb 

,„,,„jjiaaj]jjauiMMjto  ^  •■■■•";::■• t ■■■;;::•■■■■■■■:.■.' ,:;,?■ :":•'•'.:: T  ■"•-,»,•■-- 

'"'*'''•■■         ■'■■'"  "    BORMAV  A  CO.,  N.Y. 

Bibliography:  Na- 
ville, T?!C  Sttyre 
Citu  of  Pithom, 
etc.,  in  Memoir  of 
Egiipt  Explora- 
tion PumI,  1885; 
Sayce,  Higher 
Criticism  an<ithe 
J\/o;iHnif  ;if.sl894, 
pp.  2)9  et  .teq.,  2.50 
ct  iteq.:  Driver,  in 
Hoparth's  An- 
thoritii  and  Ar- 
chcroloau,  1899, 
pp.  &i  ct  ifcq.,  61, 

E.  c.    J.  F.  McL. 

PITTSBUBG  :  Second  largest  city  in  the  state 
of  Pennsylvania.  With  Allegheny,  the  twin-city 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Allegheny  River,  it  is  the 
chief  city  of  western  Pennsylvania. 

There  are  no  reliable  records  of  the  beginnings  of 
the  Jewish  community;  but  it  has  been  ascertained 
that  between  1838  and  1844  a  small  number  of  Jews, 
mostly  from  Baden,  Bavaria,  and  WUrttemberg,  set- 
tled in  and  around  Pittsburg.  These  were  joined 
by  others  in  1847  and  by  still  others  in  1852,  who 
included  in  their  numbers  the  founders  of  Jewish 
communal  life.  The  first  Jewish  service  was  held 
in  the  autumn  of  1844,  while  the  first  attempt  at 




organization  was  made  in  1847,  when  a  mere  hand- 
ful of  men  combined  with  the  hope  of  forming  a 
congregation.  They  worshiped  in  a  room  on  Penn 
street  near  Walnut  (now  13th)  street,  having  en- 
gaged the  Rev.  Mauuheimer  as  cantor.  They 
formed  also  a  Bes  Almon  Society,  and  purchased 
a  cemetery  at  Troy  Hill.  The  congregational  body 
finally  became  known  as  "Ez  Hajjim."  It  lacked 
homogeneity  on  account  of  the  varying  religious 
views  of  its  members;  ami  divisions  and  reunions 
took  place  from  time  to  time  until  about  1853,  when 
a  united  congregation  was  formed  under  the  name 
"Rodeph  Shalom."  In  1864  a  further  division  oc- 
curred, the  seceders  chartering  a  congregation  under 
the  name  "Ez  Hajjim"  in  1865,  and  purchasing  a 
cemetery  at  Sharpsburg. 

Congregation  Rodeph  Shalom  first  worshiped  in 

a  hall  over  the  Vigilant  engine-house    on  Third 

avenue,  then  in  the  Irish  hall  on  Sixth  street,  and 

in  1861  built  on  Hancock  (now  Eighth) 

Congrega-    street  the  first  synagogue  in  western 

tion  Pennsylvania.     In  1879  it  purchased 

Rodeph      the  West  View  Cemetery.     In  1884  the 

Shalom,  synagogue  was  enlarged,  but  it  was 
subsequently  torn  down,  and  the  pres- 
ent building,  under  erection  during  1900  and  1901, 
vpas  dedicated  on  Sept.  6  and  7  of  the  latter  year. 
Among  the  early  readers  and  teachers  of  Rodeph 
Shalom  were  Sulzbacher  and  Marcuson.  In  1854 
William  Armhold  took  charge  of  the  congregation, 
remaining  till  1865,  when  he  went  to  Philadel- 
phia. During  his  administration  the  congregation 
erected  the  temple  on  Eighth  street;  and,  in  con- 
junction with  Josiah  Cohen,  he  conducted  a  school 
which  was  maintained  from  1860  to  1868.  From 
1865  to  1870  L.  Naumburg  was  teacher  and  reader; 
and  in  his  day  the  Reform  movement  was  con- 
siderably advanced.  The  first  rabbi  of  the  con- 
gregation was  Lippman  !Mayer,  who  came  from 
Selma,  Ala.,  in  the  spring  of  1870.  He  success- 
fully guided  the  congregation  along  advanced 
Reform  lines  until  his  retirement  as  rabbi  emeritus 
in  1901.  By  that  time  he  had  seen  his  congregation 
grow  from  a  membership  of  65  to  150.  He  was 
succeeded  (April  1,  1901)  by  J.  Leonard  Levy,  the 
present  (1905)  incumbent,  who  was  called  from 
Reform  Congregation  Keneseth  Israel,  Philadel- 
phia. In  the  past  two  years  Rodeph  Shalom  has 
grown  considerably.  Its  present  number  of  mem- 
bers and  seat-holders  exceeds  400 ;  and  it  is  worthy 
of  record  that  on  the  day  after  the  dedication  of  the 
new  temple  (Sept.  8,  1901)  the  congregation  con- 
tributed a  sum  of  money  which  not  only  liquidated 
a  debt  of  nearly  $100,000,  but  left  a  surplus  of  over 

Rodeph  Shalom,  which  during  the  past  sixteen 
years  has  been  presided  over  by  Abraham  Lippman, 
has  since  1901  issued,  for  the  use  of  its  members  and 
others:  "  A  Book  of  Prayer  "  for  the  Sunday  services; 
"A  Text-Book  of  Religion  and  Ethics  for  Jewish 
Children";  "A  Home  Service  for  the  Passover"; 
"  A  Home  Service  for  Hanukkah  "  ;  "  The  Children's 
Service";  "Sabbath  Readings"  for  each  Sabbath  of 
the  year;  and  three  volumes  of  Sunday  lectures. 
The  congregation  distributes  these  Sunday  lectures 
weekly  in  pamphlet  form  to  all  who  attend  the  serv- 

ices, and  also  furnishes  gratuitously  a  special  edi- 
tion to  non-Jewish  residents  of  Allegheny  county. 

The  Ez  Hajjim  congregation  worshiped  for  a  time 
in  a  hall  in  the  Dennis  block  on  Second  avenue, 
and  in  1882  purchased  its  present  building  on  Fourth 
and  Ross  streets.  It  has  prospered,  and  is  an  active 
force  in  Jewish  congregational  and  communal  life. 
Among  its  ministers  may  be  mentioned :  A.  Crone 
(1874-81) ;  A.  Bernstein  (1881-91) ;  F.  Salinger  (1891- 
1897);  Michael  Fried  (since  1898),  the  present  (1905) 
incumbent,  a  graduate  of  the  Jewish  Theological 
Seminary  of  America.  Ez  Hajjim  belongs  to  the 
school  of  progressive  conservatism,  and  now  has 
famil}'  pews  and  confers  the  rite  of  confirmation. 
It  has  inaugurated  Friday  evening  services  and 
has  a  Ladies'  Auxiliary  Societj-,  a  flourishing  re- 
ligious school,  and  a  growing  alumni  as.socialion. 

Pittsburg  is  notable  in  American  Jewish  history 
on  account  of  the  conference  (see  Jew.  Encvc.  iv. 
215,  s.v.  Conferences,  Rabbinical)  held  there  in 
1885,  and  is  also  well  known  as  a  generous  supporter 
of  all  national  Jewish  movements,  notably  the  He- 
brew Union  College  and  the  Denver  Hospital. 
Among  the  more  prominent  local  philanthropic  and 
charitable  institutions  maybe  mentioned  the  follow- 
ing: (1)  J.  M.  Gusky  Orphanage  and  Home,  with 
the  Bertha  Rauh  Cohen  Annex.  The  Home  was 
founded  in  1890  by  Esther  Gusky,  in  memory 
of  her  husband,  Jacob  Mark  Gusky.  The  Annex 
was  the  gift  in  1889  of  Aaron  Cohen  in  memory  of 
his  wife,  Bertha  Rauh  Cohen,  the  only  daughter 
of  Rosalia  Rauh  and  the  late  Solomon  Rauh. 
The  Home  has  63  inmates,  an  annual 

Philan-  income  of  about  §10,000,  and  an  en- 
thropic  As-  dowment  fund  of  $67,000.  (2)  The 
sociations.  United  Hebrew  Relief  Association, 
a  union  of  the  Hebrew  Benevolent 
Society  and  the  Hebrew  Ladies'  Aid  Society.  It 
dispenses  §10,000  yearly,  and  has  a  sinking-fund 
of  §29,000.  (3)  The  Columbian  Council  School,  a 
social  settlement.  It  conducts  a  large  number  of 
classes,  public  lectures,  a  library,  public  baths,  a 
gymnasium,  etc.  The  bath-house  was  the  gift  of 
Alexander  Peacock.  The  disbursements  are  about 
§6,000  annually.  (4)  The  Ladies'  Hospital  Aid  se- 
curesand  pays  for  hospital  attention  for  the  sick  poor. 
Ithasanannualincome  of  about  §8,000,  and  isat  pres- 
ent endeavoring  to  erect  a  Jewish  hospital.  (5)  The 
Young  Ladies'  Sewing  Society,  which  dispenses 
clothing  to  the  poor;  income  about  §2,000  annually. 

The  Concordia  Club  fosters  Jewish  social  life 
in  Pittsburg.  The  Council  of  Jewish  Women 
is  represented  by  the  Columbian  Council.  The 
Y.  M.  H.  A.  has  been  reorganized,  and  gives 
promise  of  great  activity.  The  Independent  Or- 
der of  B'nai  B'rith  has  five  lodges;  and  the  Inde- 
pendent Order  of  the  Free  Sons  of  Israel,  the  Sons 
of  Benjamin,  Sons  of  Israel,  and  Sons  of  Abraham 
have  two  each.  There  are  two  weekly  papers,  one 
in  English,  "The  Jewish  Criterion," of  which  Rabbi 
Levy  and  Charles  II.  Joseph  are  the  editors,  and  one 
in  Judteo-German,  the  "  Volksfreund." 

The  Jews  of  Pittsburg  are  prominent  in  the  profes- 
sions and  in  commerce.  Donors  to  non-sectarian 
charities  include  J.  D.  Beknd  and  Isaac  Kaufmann, 
the  latter  of  whom  in  1895  gave  the  Emma  Kaufmann 




Free  Clinic  to  the  medical  department  of  the  West- 
ern University.     Among  those  who  have  held  posi- 
tions in  public  life  are  Emannel  Wert- 
Prominent   heimer,  select  councilman  and  member 
JeAvs.         of  the  state  house  of  representatives; 
Morris  Einstein,  select  councilman  (15 
years);  Josiah  Cohen,  judge  of  the  Orphans'  Court; 
E.  E.  Mayer,  city  physician ;   L.  S.  Levin,  assistant 
city  attorney.     Isaac  W.  Frank  is  president  of  the 
National  Founders'  Association,  and  A.  Leo  Weil  is  a 
member  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  Voters' 
Civic  League. 

Since  1882  there  has  been  a  steady  increase  in  the 
number  of  Jews  in  Pittsburg,  the  new  settlers  com- 
ing mostly  from  eastern  Europe.  Russian,  Ruma- 
nian, and  Hungarian  Jews  have  come  in  large  num- 
bers, and  are  beginning  to  display  an  appreciable 
interest  in  public  affairs.  They  have  si.x  synagogues 
(whose  rabbis  include  A.  M.  Ashinsky  and  M.  S. 
Sivitz),  many  hebras,  and  a  number  of  small  relig- 
ious societies.  The  Pittsburg  Jewry  strongly  sym- 
pathizes with  the  Zionistic  movement,  liaving  a 
large  number  of  Zionistic  societies.  The  number  of 
Jewish  inhabitants  is  estimated  at  between  15,000 
and  25,000,  in  a  total  population  of  about  322,000. 

Bibliography:  History  of  Congregation  Rode ph  Shalom, 
1899;  articles  in  the  Jewish  Criteriori,  1901,  and  AinericaJi 
Im-aclite,  1893. 
A.  J.  L.  L. 

PIUS  rV.  (Gian  Angelo  Medici)  :  Pope  from 
1559  to  1565.  He  was  a  Milanese  of  humble  origin, 
and  became  cardinal  under  Paul  III.,  through  the 
latter's  relations  with  Gian's  brother  Giangiacomo, 
who  had  made  himself  master  of  Sienna.  Gian,  who 
enjoyed  the  pope's  confidence,  was  clever,  good- 
natured,  condescending,  somewhat  worldly-minded, 
and  in  every  way  a  complete  contrast  to  the  fanatical 
Paul  IV.,  after  whose  death  he  succeeded  to  the 
papacy.  This  contrast  appeared  in  the  severity 
with  which  he  dealt  with  Paul's  favorites.  Al- 
though he  did  not  favor  the  Inquisition,  he  did  not 
dare  attack  it.  He  convened  the  Council  of  Trent 
for  the  third  time,  and  succeeded  in  having  it 
"brought  to  a  satisfactory  termination  through  the 
ability  of  the  president  of  his  choice,  Marone. 

The  Jews  breathed  more  freely  under  Pius.  It 
■was  due  to  his  intervention  that  Emperor  Ferdinand 
canceled  the  edict  of  expulsion  which  had  been  is- 
sued against  the  Bohemian  Jews.  He  bettered  the 
condition  of  the  Jews  in  Rome  and  in  the  Pontifical 
States  by  changing  and  in  part  revoking  the  restric- 
tions imposed  by  Paul  IV.,  and  by  granting  them 
the  following  privileges:  to  lay  aside  the  Jews' 
badge  when  traveling,  if  they  remained  only  for  one 
day  in  any  place ;  to  enlarge  the  ghetto,  and  to  open 
shops  outside  of  it;  and  to  acquire  real  estate  be3'ond 
the  ghetto  limits  to  tlie  value  of  1,500  gold  ducats. 
The  Jus  Gazaka  or  Gazaga,  of  later  date,  rests 
upon  a  decree  to  prevent  the  increase  of  rent  in  the 

Pius  ordered  the  restoration  of  account-books  and 
communal  records  which  had  been  confiscated,  and 
pardoned  all  the  trespasses  committed  by  the  Roman 
Jews  against  Paul's  decrees  except  murder,  coun- 
terfeiting, mockery  of  Christianity,  and  lese-majesty. 
He  even  granted  the  Jews  permission  to  print  the 
X.— 5 

Talmud,  though  under  a  different  name.     His  suc- 
cessor, Pius  v.,  followed  in  Paul  IV. 's  footsteps. 

BiBLiofiRAPHY  :  (iralA  Gem-h.  Ix.  -.m  ;  Joseph  ha-Kolien,  'Emek 
ha-Iinlui,  pp.  VM  ct  i<e(j.;  David  (Jans,  .?c»ifl^i  Dawid  for  the 
year  1559;  Uanke,  GcKvh.  der  I'dpxtf,  1.  2(fi  et  ,se(/.;  Stern. 
Vrkundliche  licitrUoi.,  p.  137  ;  VoRelsteln  and  I!ie(?er,  GcKch. 
der  Judcn  in  Horn,  il.  lOO  et  8cq.;  Zuuz,  In  Geiger'a  WiisH. 

Zcit.  JUd.  Tltcol.  V.  40 

H.  V. 

PIYYUT  (plural,  Piyyu^m)  :  Hymn  added  to 
the  older  liturgy  that  developed  during  the  Tal- 
mudic  era  and  up  to  the  seventh  century.  The 
word  is  derived  from  the  Greek  term  for  poetry, 
perhaps  more  directly  from  noiT/r^c.  The  author  of 
a  piyyut  is  called  "payyetan,"  a  Neo-Hebrew  form 
derived  from  "  piyyut."  In  midrashic  literature  the 
word  "piyyut"  is  used  merely  in  the  general  sense 
of  "fiction"  (Gen.  R.  Ixxxv.;  Yalk.,  Dan.  1063), 
while  "  payyetan  "  is  used  in  the  technical  sense  of  an 
autlior  of  synagogal  poetry.  R.  Eleazar,  son  of 
Simon  b.  Yohai,  was  called  a  student  of  the  Bible 
and  the  Mishnah,  a  payyetan,  and  a  preacher  (Lev. 
R.  xxx. ;  Pcsik.  179a,  ed.  Buber;  Zunz,  "G.  V."  p. 
380;  ide7n,  "S.  P."  p.  60). 

The  oldest  piyyutim  are  anonymous.     They  were 

written  during  the  era  of  the  early  Geonim  (c.  7th 

cent.)  and  are  embodied  in  the  prayer-book.     They 

show  an  attempt  at  meter,  and,  as  in 

Historical    some  late  Biblical  poetical   composi- 

Develop-     tions,  the  successive  lines  are  often  al- 
ment.        phabetically  arranged.     Examples  of 
this  kind  are  found  in  the  Sabbath  morn- 
ing prayer  "El  Adon,  ha-Kol  Yoduka,"  in  the  peni- 
tential prayers  "We-IIu  Rahum"  for  Mondays  and 
Thursdays,  and  elsewhere. 

The  oldest  payyetan  known  by  name  is  Jose  ben 
Jose  (ha-Yatom);  his  date  can  be  fixed  only  from 
the  fact  that  he  was  known  to  Saadia,  who  quotes 
him;  but  this  merely  proves  that  he  lived  not  later 
than  850.  The  next  payyetan  known  is  Yannai, 
who  is  said  to  have  been  the  teacher  of  the  most  pro- 
lific and  popular  of  the  old  payyetanim,  Eleazar  ben 
Kalir.  The  latter's  most  famous  successor  was  Saadia 
Gaon,  in  the  tenth  century.  From  that  time  the  pay- 
yetanim become  very  numerous  and  are  found  in 
all  larger  Jewish  settlements,  notably  in  Germany, 
France,  Spain,  and  Italy.  Zunz  ("  Literaturgesch.") 
counts  over  900  names  of  payyetanim.  It  seems 
likely  that  they  were  influenced  by  the  troubadours 
and  the  minnesingers,  both  in  the  writing  of  their 
poems  and  in  their  musical  settings. 

In  Germany  in  the  eleventh  century  there  were 

Moses  ben  Kalonymus,  Meshullam  ben  Kalonymus, 

Simon   ben  Isaac,  and   Gershom  ben 

In  Judah ;  in  the  twelfth  century  Jeku- 

Germany,    thiel  ben  Moses  of  Speyer,  Menahem 

France,  ben  Machir  of  Ratisbon,  Meir  ben 
Spain,  and  Isaac  (the  hazzan),  Kalonymus  ben 
Italy.  Judah,  Eliezer  ben  Nathan  (author  of 
the  history  of  the  persecutions  during 
the  Crusades),  Ephraim  l)en  Isaac  of  Ratisbon,  and 
Ephraim  ben  Jacob  of  Bonn  ;  in  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury Moses  ben  Hasdai  ipn  (of  Tachau  ?),  Eleazar 
ben  Judah  of  Worms,  and  Eliezer  ben  Joel  ha-Levi. 

In  France  Benjamin  ben  Samuel  of  Coutances 
(11th  cent.;  Gross,  "Gallia  Judaica,"  p.  553),  Yom- 
Tob  ben  Isaac  of  Joigny  (martyred  at  York  in  1190), 




Rashi,  and  many  of  the  tosatists,  were  liturgical 
poets,  as  were  Moses  of  Coucy  and  Abraham  and 
Jedaiah  Bedersi. 

In  Spain,  where  Hebrew  poetry  reached  the  high- 
est development,  the  best  liturgical  poets  were  Sol- 
omon ibn  Gabirol,  Judah  ha-Levi,  and  Abraham  and 
Moses  ibn  Ezra.  A  large  number  of  others  whose 
names  are  famous  in  philosophical  and  Talm\idic 
iit«rature  wrote  liturgical  poems,  as  Joseph  ben 
Isaac  ibn  Abitur,  Isaac  Ghayyat,  Judah  ben  Bileam, 
Bahya  ben  Joseph  ibn  Pakuda,  and  Isaac  ben  Reu- 
ben of  Barcelona;  even  Maimonidesis  known  as  the 
author  of  a  few  hymns. 

lu  Italy,  where,  according  to  some,  Eleazar  Kalir 
had  his  home,  there  were  payyetauim  from  the  tenth 
to  the  eighteenth  century.  According  to  Zunz,  Sol- 
omon ha-Babli  of  tlie  tenth  century  lived  in  Rome 
("  Babel "  being  a  metonj^mic  name  for  Rome).  To 
the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries  belong  Isaiah 
di  Trani  and  Immanuel  of  Rome.  After  the  four- 
teenth, payyetanim  became  fewer,  and  their  produc- 
tions were  rarely  embodied  in  the  official  liturgy. 
Generally  their  piyyutim  were  written  to  commemo- 
rate some  local  event.  Thus  Baruch  ben  Jehiel  ha- 
Kohen  wrote  on  the  devastation  wrought  during  the 
time  of  the  Black  Death  (1347) ;  Abigdor  Kara,  ou  the 
persecution  in  Prague  (1389);  Samuel  Scliottcn,  on 
the  fire  in  Frankfort-on-the-Main  (1711);  Jacob  ben 
Isaac,  on  the  conquest  of  Poscn  by  a  hostile  army 
(1716);  and  Malachi  ha-Kohen,  on  an  earthquake 
that  threatened  Leghorn  (1742).  The  Thirty  Years' 
war  (1618-48),  also  the  Cossack  persecutions  under 
Chmielnicki  (1648),  produced  an  extensive  literature 
of  such  piyyutim. 

The  piyyutim  are  of  various  kinds,  according  to 
their  theme,  their  place  in  the  liturgy,  or  their  form. 
The  Selihah,  the  penitential  prayer. 
Classifica-    occupies  the  foremost    rank    and   is 
tion.         most  likely  the  oldest.     The  "We-Hu 
Rahum,"  for  Mondays  and  Thursdays, 
was  known  as  early  as  the  time  of  the  Geonim.     It 
was  originally  composed  for  fast-days,  as  were  some 
of  the  older,  anonymous  selihot:    the  "El  Melek 
Yosheb"  and  the    various  litanies,    which  are,  in 
parts,  found  in  Talmudic  literature;    the  "Abinu 
Malkenu  " ;  and  the  "Mi  she-'Anah."     A  common 
theme  of  the  selihot  is  the  sacrifice  of  Isaac  (see 
'Akedah).     Another  regular  feature  of  the  peniten- 
tial prayers  is  the  confession  of  sins  ("widdui"), 
in  which  the  initial  letters  of  the  successive  lines  are 
generally  in  alphabetical  order.     The  introductory 
part  is  called  the"petihah,"and  the  closing  part  the 
PizMON,  to  which  there  is  a  refrain. 

The  hymns  for  holy  daA's  and  some  special  Sab- 
baths are  more  specifically  called  "piyyutim,"  or 
often,  wrongly,  "yozerot."  They  are  divided  ac- 
cording to  their  place  in  the  regular  liturgy.  Those 
that  are  inserted  in  the  evening  prayer  ("  'arbit")arc 
called  Ma'arabiyyot ;  those  inserted  in  the  first 
benediction  of  the  morning  prayer  are  called  Yozer, 
from  the  benediction  "Yozer  Or  "  ;  in 
Special      the     second    benediction,    Ahabah, 

Names.       from  the  initial  word  of  that  benedic- 
tion ;  those  in.sertcd  in  the  benediction 
following  the  Shema'  are  called  Zulat,  from  the  key- 
words "En  Elohim  zulateka,"  or  Ge'ullah,  from 

the  benediction  "Go'el  Yisrael."  Other  names 
taken  from  the  characteristic  words  of  the  passages 
in  which  the  piyyutim  are  inserted  are  Ofan  and 
Me'orah.  Kerobot  (incorrectly  Keroboz,  i)Liiiaps 
uudi-r  French  influence;  Zunz,  "  S.  P."  p.  6o)  is  the 
name  of  a  piyj'ut  inserted  in  the  Tefillah  proper  (see 
Keuobot  and  Siiemoneh  'Esueii).  Anntlier  name, 
rarely  used,  for  the  same  piyyut  is  Shib'ata,  from 
"shib'ah"  (=  "seven"),  because  the  telillot  for  Sab- 
bath and  holy  days  consist  of  seven  benedictions. 
A  special  class  of  piyyutim  is  formed  by  the  Toka- 
hah  (=  "reproof "),  penitential  discourses  some- 
what similar  to  the  widdui,  and  tiie  Kinah  for  the 
Ninth  of  Ab. 

According  to  their  poetical  form  there  are  to  be 
distinguished  the  Sheniyah,  the  stanzas  of  which 
consist  of  two  lines  eutli ;  the,  consisting 
of  three  lines;  the  Pizmon,  already  mentioned  ;  the 
Mostegab,  in  which  a  Biblical  verse  is  used  at  the 
beginning  of  every  stanza  ;  the  Shalmonit,  a  meter 
introduced  by  Solomon  ha-Babli  (Zunz,  "  S.  P."  p. 
167;  idem,  "Ritus,"  p.  135).  The  poetical  form  was 
originally  acrostic,  according  to  the  alphabet  in 
proper  order  (3K)  f^r  reversed  (p  "iBTl)  or  in  some 
artiticial  form  (D"3^K)-  In  later  times,  beginning 
with  the  eleventh  century,  it  became  customary 
for  the  author  to  weave  his  name  into  the  acrostic, 
sometimes  adding  an  invocation  ;  forinstance,  "May 
he  prosper  in  the  Law  and  in  good  deeds." 

The  days  on  which  pivyu^im  are  inserted  in  the 

regular  liturgy  are  the  holy  days  (including  Purim 

and   the  Ninth  of  Ab)  and  a  number  of  Sabbaths 

which  possess  special  significance,  as 

When  Piy-  the  Four  Parashiyyot,  including  the 

yutim  Are  Sabbaths  falling  between  them  ("  Haf- 

Recited.  sakot");  the  Sabbaths  on  which  New 
Moon  falls;  Hanukkah  Sabbath;  Sab- 
bath Bereshit,  when  the  first  portion  of  the  Torah 
is  read;  Sabbaths  on  which  the  Scriptural  reading 
has  some  special  significance,  as  when  the  sacrifice 
of  Isaac  (Wayera),  or  the  Song  of  Moses  (Beshal- 
lah),  or  the  Ten  Commandments  (Yitro),  or  the  law 
of  the  Red  Heifer (Hukkat)  is  read;  and  other  Sab- 
baths. The  persecutions  during  the  Crusades  con- 
stitute the  theme  of  the  "Zulat,"  on  the  Sabbaths 
intervening  between  Passover  and  Pentecost.  Spe- 
cial events,  as  a  circumcision  on  the  Sabbath  or  a 
wedding  during  the  week,  are  celebrated  by  appro- 
priate piyyutim.  On  this  point  the  various  rites,  as 
the  Ashkenazic,  the  Polish,  the  Sephardic,  the  Italian, 
those  of  Carpcntras  and  Oran,  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  Worms,  and  Prague,  and  other  prominent 
old  communities,  differ  very  greatly,  as  they  differ 
also  with  regard  to  the  pieces  selected  for  the  holy 
days.  In  general,  however,  every  minhag  has  given 
preference  to  the  works  of  local  authors. 

The  natural  development  of  the  language  intro- 
duced into  the  piyyutim  not  only  the  Neo-Hebrew 
words  which  are  found  in  the  prayers  of  Talmudic 
times,  such  as  "  'olam "  in  the  sense  of  "  the  uni- 
verse" (Biblical  Hebrew,  "eternity"),  "merkabah" 
( =  "  the  divine  chariot "),  "  hitkin  "  (—  "  to  arrange  "), 
but  also  a  large  number  of  new  words  formed  on 
models  and  from  roots  found  in  Talmudic  and  mid- 
rashic  literature  or  arbitrarily  developed  from  such 
words  as  are  met  with  in  the  works  of  the  oldest 




payyetanim.  Thus  Jose  ben  Jose  employs  "shu'at 
ketoret"  (="the  service  of  the  frankincense")  in 
his  ritual  for  the  Day  of  Atonement  (Landshutli, 
"Siddur  Ilegyon  Leb,"  p.  507,  KOnigsberg,  1875), 
an  expression  the  use  of  which  has 
Philolog-     only  a  weak  support  in  tlie  Biblical 

ical  and  "  sha'ah "  (comp.  Gen.  iv.  5).  The 
Dogmatic    typical  development  of  the  mannerism 

Charac-      of  the  payyetanim  is  found  as  early  as 

teristics.  in  the  works  of  Yanuai — for  instance, 
in  his  piyyut.  f"i"  Passover  eve,  em- 
bodied in  the  Haggadaii  and  in  the  Ashkenazic 
ritual  for  the  Sabbath  preceding  Passover  ("Az 
Rob  Nissim ").  He  uses  by  preference  such  rare 
and  poetical  expressions  as  "  zarah  "  (=  "  to  call ")  in- 
stead of  "  kara,"  and  "  sah  "  (  =  •'  he  spoke  ")  for  "  dib- 
ber" ;  and  such  midrashic  allegorical  designations 
as  "ger  zedek  "  for  Abraham,  "  Patros"  for  Egypt; 
and  he  arbitrarily  mutilates  Biblical  and  rabbin- 
ical words  {e.g.,  flD^ta  [="the  camp"]  from  Dp'D 
[Greek,  rd^L^'],  the  Aramaic  translation  of  "degel" 
in  Num.  ii.  2). 

The  master  in  this  line  is  Kalir,  whose  |*V1p  y^  in 
the  kerobah  for  Sabbath  Zakor  (the  Sabbath  prece- 
ding Purim)  has  become  proverbial  for  its  manner- 
isms (see  Erter,  "  Ha-Zofeh, "  Vienna,  1864).  No  bet- 
ter, as  a  rule,  is  its  intrinsic  worth  as  poetry.  The 
piyyut  suffers  from  endless  repetitions  and  from  ex- 
cessive attention  to  rime  and  the  acrostic.  One  of 
the  most  curious  instances  is  afforded  by  the  selihah 
of  Ephraim  ben  Jacob  of  Bonn  (12th  cent.),  beginning 
"Ta  shema',"  and  found  in  the  Ashkenazic  ritual  for 
the  fifth  day  after  New-Year.  The  author,  who 
shows  a  remarkable  command  of  the  Talmudic  idiom 
and  a  profound  knowledge  of  Talmudic  dialectics, 
argues  with  God,  in  the  style  of  the  Talmudic  dis- 
course, to  prove  that  Israel  should  receive  far  better 
treatment  at  His  hands,  saying,  "  To  every  question 
there  is  an  answer ;  only  mine  remains  unanswered  !  " 

There  are,  however,  a  few  noble  exceptions,  as 
Judah  ha-Levi's  poems,  notably  his  famous  ode  on 
Zion,  found  in  the  liturgy  for  the  Ninth  of  Ab,  and 
Solomon  ibn  Gabirol's  hymns,  as  hiswonderful  pen- 
itential hymn  "  Shomamti  be-Rob  Yegoni "  in  the 
Ashkenazic  ritual  for  the  Fast  of  Gedaliah.  Abra- 
ham ibn  Ezra's  religious  poetry,  while  noble  in 
thought  and  grammatically  correct,  lacks  the  in- 
spiration of  true  poetry. 

Among  the  German  and  French  payyetanim,  Solo- 
mon ben  Abun  of  France  (12th  cent.)  and  Simon 
ben  Isaac  of  Worms  (10th  cent.)  likewise  may  be 
quoted  as  exceptions.  While  both  poets  labor 
under  the  difficulties  created  by  the  customs  of 
acrostic,  rime,  and  midrashic  allusion,  they  display 
deep  religious  sentiment  and  are  free  from  that 
mannerism  which  seeks  distinction  in  creating  diffi- 
culties for  the  reader.  Simon  ben  Isaac's  poem 
beginning  "  Atiti  le-hananek,"  which  serves  as  an 
introduction  to  the  kerobah  for  the  Shaharit  serv- 
ice of  the  second  New-Year's  day  (Ashkenazic 
ritual),  is  a  noble  expression  of  trust  in  God's 
mercy,  not  unworthy  of  Ps.  cxxxix.,  from  which 
the  author  drew  his  inspiration.  The  ]iizmon 
"Shofet  Kol  ha-Arez,"  by  Solomon  ben  Abun  (Zunz, 
"Literaturgesch."  pp.  311-312),  found  in  the  Ash- 
kenazic ritual  for  the  day  preceding  New-Year  and 

for  the  Shaharit  service  on  the  Day  of  Atonement, 
expresses  in  profoundly  religious  tones  the  belief  in 
divine  justice. 

It  seems,  as  has  already   been   stated,  that   the 
payyetanim,  like  the  troubadours,  conceived  their 
poetry  as  something  that  po.ssessed  no 
Opposition   liturgical  character  in  the  strict  sense 
to  of  the  word.     The  degree  of  approval 

Piyyutim.  with  which  these  hymns  were  re- 
ceived, or  of  personal  respect  which 
the  author,  in  many  instances  a  local  rabbi,  enjoyed, 
decided  for  or  against  the  insertion  of  the  pi3'yutim 
in  the  Mahzou  of  the  congregation.  Opposition  to 
the  inclusion  of  the  piyyut  in  the  regular  prayer  as 
an  unlawful  interruption  of  divine  service  is  found 
as  early  as  the  eleventh  century.  Rabbenu  Tam 
(Jacob  ben  MeVr)  defends  the  practise  against  the 
objections  of  Hananeel  and  Hai  Gaon  ("  Haggahot 
Maimoniyyot,"  in  "Yad,"  Tefillah,  vi.  3).  Jacob 
ben  Asher  disapproves  of  the  practise,  quoting  the 
opinion  of  his  father,  Asher  ben  Jehiel,  and  of  Mei'r 
ha-Kohen.  Still,  in  the  fourteenth  century  the  cus- 
tom was  so  well  established  that  Jacob  Molln 
(Maharil ;  Hilkot  Yom  Kippur,  p.  47b,  ed.  War- 
saw, 1874),  disapproved  not  only  of  the  action  of  his 
disciples,  who  preferred  to  study  in  the  synagogue 
while  the  congregation  recited  the  piyyutim,  but 
also  of  any  departure  from  local  custom  In  the  selec- 
tion of  the  piyyutim  and  the  traditional  airs(Isserles, 
in  notes  on  Tur  Orah  Hayyim,  68;  Shulhan  'Aruk, 
Orah  Hayyim,  619). 

Other  objections,  from  the  esthetic  standpoint, 
and  on  account  of  the  obscure  and  often  blasphe- 
mous language  used,  have  been  presented  in  a  mas- 
terly criticism  upon  Kalir's  piyyutim  by  Abraham 
ibn  Ezra  (commentary  on  Eccl.  v.  1).  These  objec- 
tions, against  which  Heidenheim  endeavored  to  de- 
fend Kalir  (commentary  on  the  ^erobah  for  the 
Musaf  of  the  Day  of  Atonement),  were  revived  in 
the  earliest  stages  of  the  Reform  movement  (see 
Zunz,  "Ritus,"  pp.  169  et  seq.).  Indeed,  as  early  as 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  dogmatic 
objections  to  the  piyyutim  were  raised,  chiefly  in 
regard  to  addressing  prayers  to  the  angels,  and  to 
certain  gross  anthropomorphisms  (Lampronti,  "Pa- 
had  Yizhak,"  8. v.  V3nV.  pp.  33b  et  sf?.)— objections 
the  force  of  which  some  of  the  strictest  Orthodox 
rabbis,  like  Moses  Sofer,  recognized.     (See  Anthro- 


The  Reform  movement  resulted  in  the  general 
disuse  of  the  piyyutim  even  in  synagogues  in 
which  otherwise  the  traditional  ritual  was  main- 
tained ;  but  in  such  synagogues  and  even  in  almost 
all  those  which  use  the  Reform  ritual,  some  of  the 
most  popular  piyyutim  for  New-Year  and  the  Day 
of  Atonement  have  been  retained. 

The  verbal  difficulties  of  the  piyyut  made  com- 
mentaries a  necessity,  so  that  even  the  authors  them- 
selves appended  notes  to  their  piyyutim.  An  ex- 
haustive commentary  by  Johanan  Treves  was  pub- 
lished in  the  Bologna  (1541)  edition  of  the  Roman 
Mahzor.  Of  the  later  commentators  none  has  done 
more  valuable  work  than  Wolf  Heidenheim,  who, 
however,  limited  himself  to  the  Ashkenazic  and  to 
the  Polish  ritual.  He  was  the  first,  also,  to  write  a 
correct  German  translation  of  the  whole  Matizor,  but 




neither  his  nor  Michael  Sachs's  translation  succeed 
in  tlie  almost  impossible  task  of  remaining  faithful  to 
the  original  and  producing  at  the  same  time  a  road- 
able  text  in  German.  The  same  may  be  said  of  the 
translations  in  other  modern  languages.  An  excep- 
tion exists  in  the  work  of  Seligmann  Heller,  who 
succeeded  in  producing  a  really  poetical  veraion  of 
some  of  the  piyyutim. 

BiBLiOGRAPH V :  3X<itiJ<>r,  ed.  Heidenhelm,  Introduction ;  Zunz, 
S.  P.;  idem,  Lifirufuri/of/i.;  idem,  Ki'ttw;  Gestettner,  3/af- 
teach  ha-Piju(im,  Berlin,  18i<9;  Weiss,  Dor.  iv.  2--»l-22t); 
Landsbutb.  'Ammude  ha-'Ahodah  ;  Fleckeles,  Te.'ihuhali  mc- 
Aluitiah.  \o\.  1.,  No.  1,  Prajrue,  1K)9 ;  Wolff,  I>ic  Stimmen 
der  Aeltesten  und  GlaubwUrdiostcn  Rabbincn  Ubci'  die 
Pijutim,  Leipslc,  1857. 


PIZMON :  Hymn  with  a  refrain ;  usually  the 
chief  poem  in  the  scheme  of  selihot  sung  or  recited 
by  the  cantor  and  congregation  in  alternation.  Of 
the  many  etymological  derivations  suggested  for 
the  word,  "  psalm  "  (Greek,  rpaTifiSg)  seems  the  most 
likely.  Others  which  have  been  offered  find  the 
origin  of  the  word  in  the  Aramaic  D|3  (lamenta- 
tion), the  Hebrew  |Q  (treasure;  comp.  Dn30).  the 
Greek  Tzoir/fxa  (poem),  or  the  French  "passemente- 
rie "  or  German  "  posamentir  "  (embroidery). 

Among  the  Sephardim  any  important  hymn,  in 
parts  of  the  service  other  than  the  selihot,  con- 
structed in  metrical  stanzas  with  a  refrain,  is  termed 
a  pizmon.  Such,  for  example,  are  AnoT  Ketannaii 
and  'Et  Sha'are  Razon.  These  and  others  like 
them  are  distinguished  by  a  special  traditional  mel- 
ody. This  is  also  the  case  with  the  chief  pizmonim 
of  the  Ashkenazim  (comp.  Bemoza'e  Menxhiah; 
YisRAEL  Nosha' ;  Zekor  Berit);  but  several  are 
chanted  to  a  general  melody  for  such  poems,  for 
which  see  Selihah. 

On  the  use  of  the  word  "  pizmon  "  among  the  Jews 

of  South  Arabia,  see  "Berliner  Festschrift,"  p.  12. 

Bibliography:  Aruch  Completum,  ed.  Kobut,  s.v.  pcro, 
wbere  valuable  material  Is  given. 

A.  F.   L.   C. 

ZER  HA-LEVI :  Italian  Talmudist  and  physi- 
cian ;  flourished  in  the  first  half  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury. As  physician  he  was  active  in  Cremona;  as 
editor,  in  Venice.  In  the  latter  city  he  was  em- 
ployed in  the  Bomberg  printing  establishment,  and 
wrote  an  introduction  to  the  edition  of  Maimonides' 
"Yad  ha-Hazakah  "  published  there. 

According   to  a  statement  of  Landshuth,  Pizzi- 

ghettone  was  rabbi  in  Ferrara ;  but  this  statement  is 


Bibliography  :  Mortara,  Tndice  ;  I.  T.  Eisenstadt,  Da'at  ICe- 
d(is:)iim.  p.  .58;  Landshutb,  'Ammude   ha-'Abndah,   p.  343; 
Furst,  Bibl.  Jud.  lil.  106. 
e.  c.  a.  Pe. 

PJURKO,  ABRAHAM    MARCUS  :    Russian 

Hebraist  and  pedagogue;  born  at  Lomza  Feb.   15, 

1853.     After  having  studied  Talmud  and  rabbinics, 

he  devoted  himself   to  modern  Hebrew  literature, 

publishing  successively  :  "  Bat  Yiftah  "  (Lyck,  1873), 

a  Biblical  poem ;   "  He'uyim  ha-Debarim  le-Mi  slie- 

Amaram"  (Warsaw,  1880),  criticisms  on  Bibliral  and 

Talmudical  legends;  "Sefer  Miktabim  ha-Shalem" 

{ib.   1882),  a  Hebrew  letter-writer,  containing  150 

specimens  of  letters  on  different  subjects;    "Nit'e 

Na'amanim  "  (ib.  1884),  100  stories  for  tiie  young; 

"Kur  ha-Mibhan"  (ib.  1887),  a  book  for  teachers, 

containing  a  Biblical  catechism ;  "  Haskalah  ^ledu- 
mah"  (ih.  1888).  a  sketch  of  Jewish  life. 

In  1893  Pjurko  published  eleven  stories  for  chil- 
dren, two  of  whicli  were  written  by  his  son  Hay- 
yim,  and  in  1894  "  Sliebot  Sofer  ha-Siialem,"  a  new 
letter-writer,  also  containing  150  specimens.  In  the 
same  j-ear  he  published  "  Yalkutha-Re'im,"a  gram- 
matical work  in  verse,  and  issued  a  new  and  revised 
edition  of  his  "  Nit'e  Na'amanim. "  "  Elef  ha-Magen," 
a  grammar  for  school  courses,  was  published  in 

In  1899  Pjurko  began  the  publication  of  the 
weekly  periodical  "Gan  Slia'ashu'im,"  in  which,  be- 
sides numerous  articles  by  him,  two  of  his  works 
deserving  special  mention  were  published,  namely, 
"  Ab  le-Banim  "  (1899)  and  "  Ha-Rab  we-Talmidaw  " 
(1900).  Tiic  latter  work  consists  of  essays  on  gram- 
mar. In  addition,  Pjurko  has  contributed  to  many 
Hebrew  periodicals. 

II.  n.  B.  Ei. 

PLACE-NAMES  :  The  geographical  names  of 
Palestine  are  not  so  often  susceptible  of  interpreta- 
tion as  the  personal  names,  which  frequently  form 
regular  sentences  referring  to  divine  action  (see 
Names).  The  majority  of  place-names,  probably, 
preceded  the  Israelitish  conquest,  as  is  shown  by  the 
fact  that  several  of  them  have  already  been  identified 
in  the  name-list  given  in  the  Egyptian  and  Assyrian 
monuments  (see  map,  Jew.  Encyc.  ix.  486).  Here 
there  are  towns,  like  Joppa,  Jerusalem,  Gaza,  Dor, 
and  Ajalon,  which  have  had  a  continuous  existence 
under  one  name  for  over  three  thousand  years.  Even 
of  the  compound  names,  some  existed  in  the  early 
lists,  showing  that  Abel,  Ain,  and  Beth  were  used 
from  the  earliest  times  to  designate  respectively 
meadows,  springs,  and  shrines. 

Some  of  the  names  of  places  bear  evidence  of  the 
existence  of  shrines  of  local  deities;  thus,  Beth- 
shemesh  and  En-shemesh  were  devoted  to  the  wor- 
ship of  the  sun;  Beth-anath  and  Beth-dagon  to 
Anath  and  Dagon  respectively.  Ashtart  seems  to 
have  been  the  local  deity  of  Ashteroth  Karnaim, 
and  it  has  been  suggested  that  the  various  place- 
names  containing  "rimmon"  (En-rimmon,  Gath- 
rimmon,  etc.)  indicate  a  deity  of  that  name,  though 
"rimmon  "  itself  means  "pomegranate."  In  a  few 
cases  the  indefinite  term  "el  "  is  used,  as  in  Beth-el, 
Penuel,  and  Jezreel.  It  is  uncertain  whether  these 
places  were  named  in  honor  of  the  Israelitish  god  or 
of  some  Canaanite  local  deity. 

In  addition  to  such  theophorous  names  there  are 
many  which  are  derived  from  plants,  as  Beth-tap- 
puah  (the  apple-tree) ;  Hazezon-tamar  (the  city  of 
palm-trees;  another  name  for  Jericho);  while  Elira 
and  Elon  imply  the  oak.  Similarly,  ]ilare-nainesare 
derived  from  animals,  as  from  the  stag  (Ajalon),  the 
gazel  (Ophrah),  the  wild  ass  (Arad),  the  calf 
(Eglon),  and  tiie  kid  (En-gedi).  Bird-names  are 
more  rare,  Beth-hoglah  (the  partridge)  being  the  best 
known.  The  place  Akrabbim  was  probably  named 
after  the  .scorpions  which  abounded  there  (for  a 
fuller  list  see  Jacobs,  "Studies  in  Biblical  Archaeol- 
ogy," pp.  101-103). 

Some  of  these  names  occur  in  plural  or  in  dual  form, 
as  Eglaim,  Mahanaim,  Diblatiiaim;  in  tlie  vocalized 
text  of  the  Bible,  Jerusalem  also  has  this  form.     In 




the  majority  of  cases,  it  appears  this  refers  to  some 
duplication  of  objects — in  the  case  of  Jerusalem,  to 
the  twin  hills  upon  which  it  is  situated.  There  are 
a  certain  number  of  compound  names  conveying  in- 
formation as  to  the  localities,  as  those  compounded 
with  "en"  (spring),  e.g.,  Enrogel,  En-gedi;  with 
"beer"  (well),  e.g.,  Beer-sheba,  Beeroth;  witii 
"hazar"  (village),  e.g.,  Hazar-gaddah ;  with  "ir" 
(town),  e.g.,  Ir-nahash;  with  "kir"  or  "kiryah" 
(city),  e.g.,  Kir-Moab;  and  with  "gath"  (wine- 
press), e.g.,  Gath-rimmon. 

Natural  features  gave  names  to  other  places,  as 
the  predominant  color  in  Lebanon  (white),  or  Adum- 
mim  (red).  The  size  of  a  town  gave  rise  to  the 
names  Kabbah  (great),  and  Zoar  (small),  while  its 
beauty  is  indicated  in  Tirzah  and  Jotbah.  The 
need  of  defense  is  indicated  by  the  frequency  of 
such  town-names  as  Bozrah,  which  means  literally 
a  "fortified  place,"  Geder,  a  "walled  place,"  and 
Mizpah,  a  "watch-tower." 

Perhaps  the  most  frequent  component  is  "beth," 
implying,  as  a  rule,  a  sacred  shrine.  This,  however, 
is  sometimes  omitted,  as  is  shown  in  the  case  of  Beth- 
baal-meon,  Avhich  occurs  also  as  Baal-meon,  though 
sometimes  the  second  component  is  omitted  and  the 
word  reduced  to  Beth-meon.  It  has  been  conjectured 
that  the  name  of  Bethlehem  is  connected  with  the 
Babylonian  god  Lahamu.  Especial  interest  at- 
taches to  the  place-names  Jacob-el  and  Joseph-el, 
which  occurred  in  the  Egyptian  hieroglyphics,  and 
are  supposed  to  throw  light  upon  the  names  of  the 

Altogether,  there  are  about  fifteen  hundred  place- 
names  occurring  in  the  Old  Testament  and  Apocry- 
pha, the  majority  of  which  still  need  philological 
inquiry.  Many  names  relating  to  places  occur  in 
the  Old  Testament  with  specialized  meanings  which 
are  not  adequately  represented  in  the  English  ver- 
sions, as  Shefelah  (the  maritime  plain  of  Phenicia) ; 
so  with  Negeb  (southern  Judea). 

Bibliography  :  G.  B.  Gray,  In  Cheyne  and  Black,  Encyc. 
Bibl.;  G.  Grove,  in  Stanley's  Sinai  ajid  Palestine,  pp. 


PLAOZEK,  ABRAHAM:  Austrian  rabbi; 
born  at  Prerau  Jan.,  1799;  died  at  Bo.skowitz  Dec. 
10,  1884.  In  1827  he  became  rabbi  in  his  native 
city,  and  from  1832  to  1840  he  officiated  at  Weiss- 
kirchen,  in  Moravia,  whence  he  was  called  to  Bos- 
kowitz.  In  Oct.,  1851,  he  succeeded  S.  R.  Hirsch  as 
acting  "  Landesrabbiner  "  of  Moravia,  and  in  this  office 
he  successfully  defended  the  rights  of  the  Jews,  espe- 
cially during  the  period  of  reaction.  Placzek  was 
one  of  the  most  prominent  Talmudists  of  his  time, 
as  well  as  a  successful  teacher,  and  carried  on  corre- 
spondence with  eminent  rabbis,  in  whose  collections 
of  responsa  his  name  is  frequently  mentioned. 

Birliograpiiy:    Die   iVeKzeif,  1884,  p.  483;    G.   Deutsch,  In 
Luah,  ed.  Epstein,  Briinn,  1885. 
s.     ■  S.  F. 

rabbi;  born  at  Weisskirchen,  Moravia,  Oct.  1,  1835; 
son  and  successor  of  Abraham  Placzek.  In  1858  he 
founded  a  high  school  at  Hamburg,  and  two  years 
later  was  called  to  Brlinn.  Since  1884  he  has  been 
styled  "  Landesrabbiner "  of  Moravia,  after  having 

had  charge  of  that  rabbinate  as  assistant  to  his  father 
from  1861.  It  is  mainly  due  to  him  that  only  men 
with  an  academic  and  theological  training  are  ap- 
pointed as  rabbis  in  Moravia.  Placzek  is  now  (1905) 
chief  rabbi  of  Brlinn,  a  knight  of  the  Order  of  Fran- 
cis Joseph,  and  curator  of  the  Israelilisch-Theolo- 
gische  Lehranstixlt  at  Vienna;  he  was  likewise 
founder  of  the  Proseminar,  witii  which  a  cantors' 
school  is  connected,  as  well  as  of  a  number  of  phil- 
anthropic societies.  He  is  an  honorary  member  also 
of  several  political  societies. 

Placzek  has  published,  in  part  under  the  pseudo- 
nym Benno  Planek :  "Gedichte"  ("Im  Eruw, 
Stimmungsbilder,"  1867),  the  novel  "  Der  Takif," 
and  other  works,  several  of  which  have  been  trans- 
lated into  English,  French,  and  Hebrew.  He  is 
known  also  as  a  naturalist  (comp.  "Kosmos,"  v., 
vols.  iii.  and  X.),  his  scientific  works  including:  "Die 
Affen,"  "  Wiesel  und  Katze,"  "Der  Vogelgesang 
nach  Seiner  Tendenz  und  Entwicklung,"  "  Vogel- 
schutz  oder  Insektenschutz,"  "Zur  Kliirung  in  der 
Vogelfrage,"  "  Atavismus,"  and  "Kopf  und  Herz  " 
(an  introduction  to  the  study  of  animal  logic). 

s.  S.  F. 

PLAGUE.  —  Biblical  Data  :  Word  which  is 
used  in  the  English  versions  of  the  Bible  as  a 
rendering  of  several  Hebrew  words,  all  closely  re- 
lated in  meaning.  These  are:  (1)  "Maggefah"(a 
striking,  or  smiting):  Used  in  a  general  way  <  f  the 
plagues  inflicted  upon  the  Egyptians  (E.x.  ix.  3-4); 
of  the  fatal  disease  which  overtook  the  spies  (Num. 
xiv.  37),  and  of  that  which  slew  many  of  the  people 
after  the  rebellion  of  Korah  (Num.  xvi.  48-49),  and 
at  Shittim  because  of  idolatrous  practises  at  the 
shrine  of  Baal-peor  (Num.  xxv.  8,  9, 18;  Ps.  cvi.  29- 
30);  of  the  tumors  which  attacked  the  Philistines  on 
account  of  the  presence  of  the  Ark  (I  Sam.  vi.  4),  and 
of  the  three  days'  pestilence  which  ravaged  Israel 
after  David's  numbering  of  the  people  (II  Sam. 
xxiv,  21,  25);  of  a  disease  of  the  bowels  (II  Chron. 
xxi.  14-15),  and,  propheticallj',  of  a  plague  which 
shall  consume  the  flesh  of  the  enemies  of  Jerusalem, 
both  man  and  beast  (Zech.  xiv.  12,  15,  18). 

(2)  "Negef,"  from  the  same  root  and  with  the 
same  general  meaning  as  "  maggefah "  (a  blow, 
a  striking):  Used  of  the  plague  of  Baal-peor 
(Josh.  xxii.  17),  of  that  which  followed  the  rebellion 
of  Korah  (Num.  xvi.  46-47),  and  with  a  general  ap- 
plication {Vj\.  xii.  13,  XXX.  12;  Num.  viii.  19).  The 
corresponding  verb  is  used  with  the  sense  of  "  to 
plague  "in  Ex.  xxxii.  35,  Josh.  xxiv.  5,  and  Ps. 
Ixxxix.  23. 

(3)  "  Nega'  "  (a  touch,  a  stroke) :  Used  of  the  last 
of  the  Eg3'ptian  plagues  (Ex.  xi.  1)  and  manv  times 
of  leprosy  (Lev.  xiii.,  xiv.,  and  xxiv.,  and  generally 
in  I  Kings  viii.  37-38  and  Ps.  xci.  10).  The  corre- 
sponding verb,  in  addition  to  a  general  use  in  Ps. 
Ixxiii.  5,  14,  is  used  of  the  plague  which  afflicted 
Pharaoh  and  his  house  because  of  the  wrong  done 
to  Abram  (Gen.  xii.  17). 

(4)  "Makkah"  (a  blow,  a  wound):  Used  of  the 
plague  which  was  due  to  the  eating  of  quails  (Num. 
xi.  33),  of  tlie  plagues  of  Egypt  (I  Sam.  iv.  8\  and 
more  generally  (Lev.  xxvi.  21 ;  Deut.  xxviii.  59,  61; 
xxix.  22;  Jer.  xix.  8,  xlix.  17,  1.  13). 




(5)  "Deber":  Rendered  "plagues"  in  Hos.  xiii. 
14;  "murrain"  (i.e.,  catlle-plague)in  E.\.  ix.  3;  and 
"pestilence"  in  Ex.  v.  3,  ix.  15;  Num.  xiv.  12,  and 
Hab.  iii.  5. 

E.  c.  J.  F.  McL. 

In  Rabbinical  Literature  :   Commenting  on 

the  words  of  Jethro,  "For  in  the  thing  wherein  they 
dealt  proudly  he  was  above  them"  (Ex.  xviii.  11), 
the  Talmud  says:  "The  Egyptians  were  cooked  in 
the  pot  in  which  they  cooked  others"  (Sotah  11a), 
that  is,  the  punishment  was  made  to  correspond  to 
their  crime,  on  the  "jus  taiionis"  principle.  This 
refers  to  Pharaoh's  edict  to  the  effect  that  all  Jew- 
ish infants  were  to  be  cast  into  the  Nile,  the  Egyp- 
tians being  punished  by  the  plague  that  turned  the 
water  of  the  Nile  to  blood.  Af  the  same  time  this 
plague  proved  that  the  Nile  was  not  a  deit}'  as  the 
Egyptians  believed.  Furthermore,  the  Egyptians 
suffered  to  the  full  extent  the  evils  of  the  plagues, 
and  did  not  derive  any  benefit,  however  indirect, 
therefrom.  Hence,  the  frogs  died  in  heaps  "and  the 
land  stank";  while  the  " 'arob,"  which  the  Rabbis 
say  was  a  mixture  or  drove  of  wild  animals  (not 
"a  swarm  of  flies  "),  disappeared  after  the  plague 

ceased,  and  "  there  remained  not  one  " ; 

' '  Lex        so  that  the  Egyptians  might  not  profit 

Taiionis."    from  the  hides  of  the  animals,  which 

they  might  have  done  had  the  latter 
died  like  the  frogs.  Two  theories  have  been  ad- 
vanced for  the  plague  of  darkness,  one  of  which 
is  that  the  plague  was  intended  to  hide  the  anni- 
hilation of  the  wicked  Israelites  who,  refusing  to 
leave  Egypt,  died  there. 

The  period  of  each  plague  was  seven  days  (Ex. 
vii.  25);  and  twenfy-four  days  intervened  between 
one  plague  and  the  next.  The  ten  plagues  lasted 
nearly  twelve  mouths  ('Eduy.  ii.  10;  comp.  Ex.  R. 
ix.  12).  The  order  and  nature  of  the  plagues  are 
described  by  R.  Levi  b.  Zachariah  in  the  name  of  R. 
Berechiah,  who  says:  "God  used  military  tactics 
against  the  Egyptians.  First,  He  stopped  their 
water-supply  (the  water  turned  to  blood).  Second, 
He  brought  a  shouting  army  (frogs).  Third,  He  shot 
arrows  at  them  (lice).  Fourth,  He  directed  His  le- 
gions against  them  (wild  animals).  Fifth,  He  caused 
an  epidemic  (murrain).  Sixth,  He  poured  naphtha 
on  them  (blains).  Seventh,  He  huiled  at  them  stones 
from  a  catapult  (hail).  Eighth,  He  ordered  His 
storming  troops  (locusts)  against  them.  Ninth,  He 
put  them  under  the  torturing  stock  (darkness). 
Tenth,  He  killed  all  their  leaders  (first-born)  "  (Yalk., 
Ex.   182;    Pe.sik.  R.  xvii.  [ed.  Friodmann,  89bJ)." 

Ten  other  plagues  were  inflicted  on  the  Egyptians 
in  the  Red  Sea  (Ab.  v.  6;  Ab.  R.  N.  xxxiii. ;  conip. 

ed.  Schechter,  2d  version,  xxxvi.),  in 

Plagues  in   the  various  ways  in  which  Pharaoh 

the  and  his  hosts  were  drowned.     R.Jose 

Red  Sea.     the  Galilean  says:    "The   Egyptians 

in  the  Red  Sea  sufl'ered  fifty  plagues. 
In  Egypt  the  'finger 'of  God  was  recognized  by  the 
ten  plagues;  but  at  the  Red  Sea  God's  powerful 
'  hand  '  was  visible  [Ex.  xiv.  31,  Hebr.],  which  being 
multiplied  by  five  fingers  makes  fifty  plagues."  R. 
Eliezer  multiplied  these  by  4,  making  200  plagues; 
and  R.  Akiba  multiplied  them  by  5,  making  250 
plagues.     Each  adduced  his  multiplier  from  the 

verse:  "He  cast  upon  them  (1)  the  fierceness  of  his 
anger,  (2)  wrath,  (3)  and  indignation,  (4)  and  trouble, 
(5)  by  sending  evil  angels  among  them  "  (Ps.  Ixxviii. 
49).  R.  Eliezer  does  not  count  "fierceness  of  his 
anger"  (Mek.,  Ex.  vi. ;  comp.  Ex.  R.  xxiii.  10;  see 
also  the  Passover  Haggadah). 

The  order  of  the  plagues  in  the  Psalms  differs 
from  that  in  Exodus.  R.  Judah  indicated  the  latter 
order  by  the  mnemonic  combination  3nX3  ll'l])  1^1, 
consisting  of  the  initial  letters  of  the  ten  plagues 

as  follows:  nniN  Ti2  ^ni*'  im  nny  d^js  vtisv  dt 

niTian  (n30)1trn  =  (l)  water  turning  to  blood,  (2) 
frogs,  (3)  lice,  (4)  swarms  of  beasts,  (5)  murrain,  (6) 
blains,  (7)  hail,  (8)  locusts,  (9)  darkness,  (10)  slaying 
of  the  first-born.  The  ten  plagues  are  further- 
more divided  thus:  three  performed  through  Moses, 
three  through  Aaron,  three  directly  by  God,  and 
one,  the  sixth,  through  Mcses  and  Aaron  together 
(Ex.  vii.  17-x.  21;  "Shibbole  ha-Leket,"  ed.  Ruber, 
p.  97b). 
E.  c.  J.  D.  E. 

Critical  View:  In  the  majority  of  cases  the 

plague  is  regarded  and  spoken  of  as  a  divine  visita- 
tion, a  penalty  inflicted  upon  the  individual,  family, 
or  nation  because  of  sin.  Even  the  common  disease 
of  leprosy  is  said  to  be  "  put  in  a  house  "  by  God 
(Lev.  xiv.  34).  The  exact  nature  of  the  fatal  sickness 
which  attacked  the  people  on  more  than  one  occasion 
in  the  wilderness  is  a  matter  of  conjecture,  but  there 
can  be  little  doubt  that  it  was  the  bubonic  plague 
which  destroyed  the  Philistines  (I  Sam.  v.  6-12). 

The  calamities  inflicted  upon  the  Egyptians  be- 
cause of  Pharaoh's  refusal  to  let  the  people  of  Israel 

go  into  the  wilderness  to  observe  a  feast 

Plagues  of  to  Yiiwn  are  designated  "  plagues " 

Egypt-       (Ex.  ix.  14,  xi.  1).     The  narrative  in 

Exodus  tells  of  ten  such  visitations. 
According  to  the  critical  aualj^sis  of  the  sources  of 
this  narrative  it  appears  that  one,  probably  the  ear- 
liest, story  (J)  tells  of  seven  of  the  ten  plagues  (viz., 
1,  2,  4,  5,  7,  8, 10);  another  (E),  of  four,  or  possibly 
six  (viz..  1,  3  [?J,7,  8,  9,  10  [?]);  and  the  third  (P), 
of  six  (viz.,  1,  2,  3,  5,  6,  10).  P.salm  Ixxviii.  recalls 
seven,  and  Psalm  cv.  eight,  of  these.  It  is  possible 
that  one  or  more  of  the  plagues  may  be  duplicated 
in  the  narrative  as  it  now  stands. 

The  first  plague  was  the  defilement  of  the  river. 
"  All  the  waters  that  were  in  the  river  were  turned 
to  blood.  And  the  fish  that  was  in  the  river  died  " 
(Ex.  vii.  21).  The  Egyptians  regarded  tlie  Nile  as 
a  god  (seeMaspero,  "Dawn  of  Civilization,"  pp.  36- 
42),  and  no  doubt,  to  the  Hebrew  writer,  this  visita- 
tion seemed  peculiarly  appropriate.  Tiie  water  of 
the  Nile  regularly  becomes  discolored  from  minute 
organisms  or  from  decaying  vegetable  matter  and 
mud  carried  down  by  the  floods  which  reach  Egypt  in 
June.  The  color  is  said  to  vary  from  gray -blue  to 
(lark  red.  A  cause  of  this  plague  might  therefore 
be  found  in  the  presence  of  an  unusually  large 
quantity  of    such   impurities,    making    the  water 

putrid.      The   second   plague   was  a 

Details  of   multitude   of  frogs.     The  third  and 

Plagues,      fourth  consisted  of  swarms  of  insect 

pests,  probably  stinging  flies  or  gnats. 
The  fifth  was  a  murrain,  or  cattle-plague,  probably 
anthrax  or  rinderpest.     Pruner  ("Krankheiten  des 

I;  ■ 



[06*  ■'TO  '■!>'')  fr'l  I'ft 


lifnp  I'm  T*  |3^' ' 

Ifin6>'>9  n31K 

Of^'J   BBO  pft?  'I'c? 



-  -^— **■    -^•.    •  "    •         /•■■ 



nnDD.  nao 


■L    lU. 1*,!!.     .     -.7i'ir-,i 

If  f*M<> -I^JX-ii 






Mil  -'^"li^C  (i 

•  p'pjift  c;o 


to'  SIP"  JjfrP'J" 
p^?  If)?  <rfi  !'/» ■n 

.  p's"?!*}*!  *n$i^in 

■5*  tip  »ywe5'fi'c^'njpn 

(nj  i?'p   36x'  '3>^ 

.  pppnr7P5 


The  Ten  Plagues,  Accordixq  to  a  Passover  Hagoadah  of  1695. 

(From  the  Sulzberger  collection  In  the  Jewish  Theological  Semlotr;  of  Amerlcs,  New  York.) 




Orients,"  Erlangen,  1847)  describes  an  outbreak  of 
the  last-named  in  Egypt  in  1842. 

The  si.\tli  plague  was  one  of  boils  which  Philo  ("  De 
Vita  Moysis")  describes  as  a  red  eruption  in  which 
the  spots  became  swollen  and  pustular,  and  in  which 
"the  pustules,  confluent  into  a  mass,  were  spread 
over  the  body  and  limbs."  This  description,  if  cor- 
rect, would  point  to  smallpox.  The  seventh  plague 
was  a  great  storm  of  hail ;  the  eighth,  a  swarm  of 
locusts  destroying  the  crops  and  even  the  leaves  and 
fruit  of  the  trees.  The  ninth  was  a  "thick  dark- 
ness "  continuing  for  three  days.  It  has  been  sug- 
gested that  such  a  darkness  might  have  been  caused 
by  the  south  or  southwest  wind,  which  blows  about 
the  time  of  the  vernal  equinox,  bearing  clouds  of 
sand  and  fine  dust  that  darken  the  air  (see 
Denon,  "Voyage  dans  I'Egypte,"  p.  286,  Paris, 
1802);  this  wind  blows  for  two  or  three  days  at  a 
time.  The  tenth  and  last  plague  was  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  first-born,  when  Yhwh  "gave  their  life 
over  to  the  pestilence  and  smote  all  the  first-born  of 
Egypt"  (Ps.  Ixxviii.  50-51). 

Bibi,io(;raphy  :    Dilimann-Ryssel,    Exodus  und    Leviticus, 
Lelpsic,  1897;  Pruner,  Krnhkheiten  des  Orients,  Erlangen, 
1847;    A.  Macalister,  Medicitie  and  Plague,  in  HastiDRs, 
Diet.  Bible. 
E.  c.  J.  F.  McL. 

PLANTS.— In  the  Bible  :  The  following  names 
of  plants  and  plant  materials  are  found  in  the  Old 


[The  plant-names  in  this  table  follow  the  order  of  the  Hebrew 
alphabet,  but  are  transliterated  according  to  the  system  adopted 
by  The  Jewish  Encyclopedia.] 

Hebrew  Name. 

Botanical  Name. 

Popular  Name. 


AbaUihim  (plu- 



Agam,  agmon.. 

Atialim,    abalot 


Cyperus  Papyrus,  Linn.  (?).... 
CitruUus  vulgaris,  Schrad 

fruit  of  Capparis  spinosa,  Linn. 

Juglans  regia,  Linn 

Juncus,  Arundo.  Phragmites. . 
Aquilaria     Agallocha,     Roxb. 

(Gildemeister  and  Hoffmann, 

"  Die  Aetherischen  Oele,"  p. 

64.=),  note). 

Eruca  satlva.  Lam.  (?) 

Origanum  Maru,  Linn 

Cyperus  Papyrus,  Linn 

Lyclum  europsEum,  Linn 

Pistacia  Terebinthus,  var.  Pal- 

aestina,  Engl. 

Papyrus  (?). 

Thorny  caper. 
Rush,  reed. 


Wild  marjoram. 

Ahu,  gome 


Elah  (see  zori).. 

Allah,  allon 

Algummim,  al- 


Sandalwood  (?). 

mugglm  (pl.). 

Cedrus  Libanl 

a  conifer,  Pinus  or  Abies 

Tamarix  Syrlaca,  Bolss.,orTa- 
marix  articulata,  Vahl. 

Cfiiar  of   T<pha- 


Pine  or  fir 



Stinkweed  (?). 

In  the  Mishnah 
a  sort  of  fruit. 


Botnlm  (pl.)... 

Bezallm  (pl.)... 

gum  of  the  Balsamodendron 

Mukul,  Hooker, 
fruit  of  Pistacia  vera,  Linn.. . . 

Allium  Cepa,  Linn 


Berr^h,  berot. . . 

Phicopappus  s'-oparlus,  Sleb.. . 
Abies  Cilicica,  Ant.  and  Ky  . . . 
vegetable  lye  of  Mesembryan- 

themum,  Sallcomia,  Alzoon. 

Balsamodendron    Opobalsa- 

mum,  Kunth. 
not  a  plant,   but  erroneously 

Identlfled  by  Wellhauscn  and 

Kautzschwith  Malabathrum. 

Coriandrum  sativum,  Linn 

Cilician  spruce. 

Basam,  bosem.. 



Hebrew  Name. 


Gome  (see  ahu) . 




Duda'lm  (pl.). 



Hobnim  . 
Hadas  ... 



Habazzelet  . . . 


Hittah  . . . . 
Helbenah  . 
Hallamut , 

Haful .. 
"i'izhar . 

Kussemet . 



Libneh  .. 
Lebonah , 

Luz  (see  sha 





Nahal   (see    ta- 





Sillon  (pl.  sallo- 
.  nlm). 

Botanical  Name. 

Popular  Name, 

(prototype)  Plantago  Cretica,. rolling  balls  of 

Linn.,  Gundelia  Tournefor- 
tii,  Linn.,  Centaurea  myrio- 
cephala,  Schrad.,  and  others 
(Fonck,  "Streifziige,"  etc., 
p.  87;  Kerner,  "  Pflanzenle- 
ben."  il.  787). 

dry  weeds, 
as  explained 
by  Bar  He- 
bneus  on  Ps. 
Ixxxiii.  14. 

Vitis  vinifera,  Linn 'Grape-vine. 

Cupressus Cypress. 

Mandragora  offlcinarum,  Linn.  Mandrake. 
Andropogon  Sorghum,  Linn..  .Bread,  durra. 
a  thistle,  especially  Centaurea  Star-thistle. 
Calcitrapa,  Linn.,  and  others. 

Myrtus  communis,  Linn j Myrtle. 

Olea  Europaea,  Linn Olive. 

Colchicum,    especially  Colchi- 

cum  Steveni,  Kuntli. 

Solanum  coapulans,  Forsk 

probably    Echinops    viscosus. 

DC:  perhaps  Acanthus  Syri- 

acus,  Linn. 

Triticum  vulgare,  Linn. 

resin    of    Ferula   galbaniflua, 

Boiss.  and  Buhse. 
Anchusa,  Linn 

Allium  Porrum,  Linn. 

Lathyrus,  Linn 

figurative  for  "  zayit " 

j  According     to 

tradition,   a 

fodder  for 



Bugloss  or  alka- 


Cuminum  Cyminum,  Linn.. 

Triticum  Spelta.  Linn 

Lawsonia  alba,  Lam 

root  of  Curcuma  longa,  Linn. 

Populus  alba,  Linn 

from  Boswellia  Carteria,  Bird- 
wood,  and  others. 

mastic   isic)   of  Pistacia   Len- 

tiscus,  Linti. 
Artemisia  monosperma,  Delile, 

Artemisia  Judaica,  Linn. 

Atrlplex  Halimus,  Linn 

especially  from  Commiphora 
Abyssinica,  Engl.,  and  Com- 
miphora Schiniperi.  Engl, 
(according  to  Holmes,  per- 
haps Coiniiiiphiira  Kataf, 
Engl.,  Balsamodendron  Ka- 
fal,  Kunth  :  see  Gildemeister 
and  Hoffmann,  I.e.  p.  639 
Schweinfurth. "  Berichte  der 
Deutschen  Pharmacologisch- 
en  Gesellschaft,"  iii.  237. 
cited  by  Gildemeister  and 
Hoffmann,  I.e.  p.  637). 

according  to  Saadia,  Prosopls 
Stephanlana,  Willd. 

resin  of  Styrax  officinalis, Linn, 
tragacanth  of  Astragalus  gum- 

mifer,  Labill.,  and  others. 
a  prickly  plant,  which  can  not 

be  identified  with  certainty. 
Nardostachys  Jatamansi,  DC. 


Poterium  splnosum,  Linn  {?). 

Rubus  sanctus,  Schreb. 


White  poplar. 




Varieties  of  as- 



Thorny  bumet; 
perhaps,  also, 
other  thorn- 

Thorn,  thorn- 





Hebrew  Name. 


'Adashim  (pi.), 
'Ez  shemen  — 


'A rot,  consid- 
ered by  the 
LXX.  as  iden- 
tical with 



Botanical  Name. 

according  to  Ibn  Janah,  Atra- 
phaxis  spinosa,  Linn.;  ac- 
cording to  Jerome,  Urtica, 

Lens  esciilenta,  Mnch 

Eheagnus  hortensis,  M.  Bleb. 
CO,  Finns  Halepensis,  Mill. 

Populus  Euphratica,  Ollv 







Zinnim  (pi 


Zori  (see  elah). 

^iddab, ke 



Platanus  orlentalis,  Linn 

Juniperus  oxycedrus,  Linn — 

Vlctafaba.  Linn.,  probably  also 
Vigna  Sinensis,  var.  sesqui- 
pedalis,  Linn. 

Panicum  mlliaceum,  Llnn.(?). 

Citrullus  Colocyntnis  (Linn.), 

Linum  usitatlsslmum,  Linn. . . 

Zizyphus  spina-ChristI,  Linn... 

Popular  Name. 

Atraphaxis,     or 


Euphrates   pop- 



Salix  safsat,  Forsk 

resin  of  Pistacia  Tereblnthus, 
var.  PalEestina,  Engl.,  but, 
according  to  Jewish  tradi- 
tion, resin  of  Commiphora 
Kafaf,  Engl.  (Balsamoden- 
dron  Kafal,  Kunth). 

varieties  of  Cinnamomum  Cas- 
sia, Bl. 



Ricinus  communis,  Linn. 

5aneh. . . 

Keneh      bosem 
'  and  kaneh  ha- 
tob.  ■ 

Urtica,  Linn  (?) 

Arundo    Donax,    Linn.,   and 

Phragmites  communis,  Trin. 

Acorus  Calamus,  Linn 



Klshshu'im  (pi.) 


Rim  men 
Rotem  . . . 

Sorah  (same  as 
dohan  [?]). 







Shayit  (?). 


Shaked, luz  . . , 

Shikmah  . . . 






Common  castor- 
oil  plant. 

Cinnamomum        Zeylanlcum, 


Nigella  sativa,  Linn 

Cucumis  Chate,  Linn.,  and  Cu- 

cumis  sativus,  Linn, 
according   to    Post,    Citrullus 

Colocynthus  (Linn.),  Schrad. 

(see  pakku'ot),  but  this  is 

very  doubtful). 

Punica  Granatum,  Linn 

Retama  Raetam  (Forsk.),  Web. 

Artemisia,  Linn 

Hordeum,  Linn 

Allium  sativum,  Linn... 
Lllium  candidum,  Linn. 

Acacia  Nilotica,Del.,and 

Paliurus  aculeatus,  Linck  (?) 
Prunus     Amygdalus,     Stokes 

(Amygdalus    communis, 

Ficus  Sycomorus,  Linn 

Tamar,  and  pos- 
sibly also  na- 


Tirzah  .'. 

Ficus  Carica,  Linn 

Cupressus  sempervirens,  Linn 
according  to  the  Targ.,  Comiis 

mas,Linn.,orComus  Austra 

lis.  Cam. 
Phoenix  dactyllfera,  Linn 

Calamus  (Gilde- 
meister  and 
Hoffmann,  I.e. 
p.  384). 













Mains  communis,  Desf . 

(1)  according  to  Saadia  and 
Ibn  Janah,  Pinus  Halepensis. 
Mill.;  (2)  according  to  the 
Vulgate,  Ilex,  either  Quercus 
Ilex,  Linn.,  or  Quercus  coc- 
cifera,  Linn. 


Cornel,  do g- 



(1)  Pine;  (2) oak. 

In  the  Apocrypha  :    In  the  Apocryphal  books 

tlie  following  pjiints  and  plant-products  are  men- 
tioned: vine,  palm,  lig,  olive-tree,  mulberry-tree 
(pomegranate),  wheat,  barley,  pumpkin,  rush,  reed, 
grass,  cedar,  cypress,  terebinth,  mastic,  holm-oak, 
rose,  lily,  ivy,  hedge-thorn,  spices,  cinnamon,  aspal- 
athus,  myrrh,  galbanum,  stacte,  and  incense.  The 
rose  and  ivy  are  mentioned  in  the  Mishnah  also; 
but  they  do  not  occur  in  the  Hebrew  Old  Testa- 

The  rose-plant  of  Jericho,  mentioned  in  Ecclus. 
(Sirach)  xxiv.  14,  has  been  identified,  through  over- 
hasty  speculation,  with  Anastatica  Ilierochuntica, 
which,  however,  is  not  found  in  that  district.  This 
Anastiiticn  is  frequently  used  by  the  Christians  as  a 
symbol,  while  the  modern  Jews  have  frequently 
mentioned  it  in  their  poetry.  The  Asteriscua  pyg- 
mcBus,  Coss.,  which  grows  at  Jericho,  also  has  been 
regarded  as  the  rose  of  Jericho.  The  branches  of 
the  Anastatica  bend  inward  when  the  fruit  becomes 
ripe,  so  that  the  numerous  closed,  pear-shaped  pods, 
found  at  the  ends  of  the  branches,  seem  to  be  sur- 
rounded by  a  lattice.  In  the  case  of  the  Asteriscua, 
on  the  other  hand,  after  the  time  of  ripening  it  is 
not  the  branches,  but  the  top  leaves,  grouped  in 
rosettes,  which  close  over  the  fruit  (Robinson, 
"Palastina,"  ii.  539;  Sepp,  "Jerusalem  und  das 
Heilige  Land,"  i.  610;  Post,  "Flora  of  Syria,  Pales- 
tine, and  Sinai,"  p.  67;  Kerner,  "Pflanzenleben," 
ii.  783). 

In  Philo  and  Josephus  :  Philo  gives  no  addi- 
tional iufonnatiou  regarding  the  knowledge  of  bot- 
any possessed  by  the  Jews  in  antiquity.  It  is  true 
that  he  made  allegorii  al  use  of  grass  and  flowers, 
wild  trees  and  those  t.-^at  bear  fruit,  the  oak,  the 
palm,  and  the  pomegrmate,  incense,  and  the  tree  of 
life  (Siegfried,  "Philo  von  Alexandria,"  pp.  185 
et  seq.,  Jena,  1875),  but  he  wrote  neither  on  botany 
nor  on  agriculture  (Meyer,  "Gesch.  der  Botanik,"  ii. 
80).  Josephiis,  on  the  other  hand,  deserves  special 
mention,  since  he  was  the  only  author  in  Jewish  an- 
tiquity who  attempted  to  describe  a  plant  in  exact 
detail.  He  says,  in  his  discussion  of  the  head-dress 
of  the  high  priest  ("  Ant."  iii.  7,  §  6) :  "  Out  of  which 
[the  golden  crown]  arose  a  cup  of  gold  like  the  herb 
that  we  call  'saccharus,'  but  which  is  termed 
'hyoscyamus' by  the  Greeks."  The  form  aoKxapov 
is  the  Greek  transliteration  of  the  Aramaic  "  shak- 
runa,"  which  is  not  mentioned  again  until  it  is  named 
in  the  medical  work  ascribed  to  Asaph  ben  Bere- 
CHiAH.  The  next  description  of  the  plant  is  given 
in  Hebrew  by  Azariah  dei  Rossi  ("Me'or  'Enayim," 
ch.  xlix.).  Josephus  describes  it  from  personal 
observation  and  shows  a  very  clear  knowledge  of  the 
peculiarities  of  the  plant.  In  describing  it  he  men- 
tions the  ptjKcn',  or  poppy,  for  the  first  time  in  Jew- 
ish literature,  as  well  as  the  plants  ei^u/iov  (rocket), 
(iowiaq,  and  ai^iipinq.  He  is  likewise  the  first  to  refer 
to  the  chick-pea  in  'epe'^ivOuv  o'tKOi  ("B.  J."  v.  12, 
§  2),  the  vetch  ("  karshinna  " ;  Vicia  Ervilia,  Linn. ; 
5po/3of,  ib.  V.  10,  §  3),  the  fenugreek  {Ti-igonella 
Famim-Qmcum,  Linn. ;  r^P/c,  ib.  iii.  7,  §  29),  the 
amomum  ("Ant."  xx.  2,  §  3)  growing  near  Carrhne, 
and  the  laurel- wreaths  of  the  Romans  {6d<pvT],  "B.  J." 
vii.  5.  §  4). 
The  second  specifically  botanical  reference  is  to 




the  -ijyavov,  a  lue  of  extraordinary  size  growing  in 

the  precincts  of  tlie  palace  at  Macharus.     The  rue  is 

mentioned  by  Josephus  ("  B.  J. "  vii.  6, 

Plants       §  3)  for  the  first  time  among  Jewish 

First  Men-  writers,  though  it  occurs  also  in  Luke 

tioned   by    xi.  42.    Later  the  Greek  name  appears 

Josephus.  as  a  foreign  word  in  the  Mishnah.  The 
rue  at  Macha?rus  was  equal  to  any  fig- 
tree  in  height  and  breadth,  and  according  to  tradition 
it  had  been  standing  since  the  time  of  Herod ;  the 
Jews  cut  it  down  when  they  occupied  this  fortress. 
The  valley  bounding  the  city  on  the  north,  Josephus 
continues,  is  called  Ba'arah  (my3;  Epstein,  "Mi- 
Kadmoniyyot,"  p.  108),  and  produces  a  marvelous 
root  of  the  same  name.  "  It  is  a  flaming  red,  and 
shines  at  night."  Then  follows  the  popular  de- 
scription of  a  magic  root  that  can  be  drawn  from 
the  earth  only  by  a  dog,  which  loses  its  life  thereby. 
^Elian  {c.  180)  repeals  the  tale;  but  a  picture  in  the 
Vienna  manuscript  of  Dioscorides,  made  in  the  fifth 
centurj-,  is  the  earliest  proof  that  this  mysterious 
root  was  supposed  to  be  the  mandragora  or  man- 
drake (Ferdinand  Cohn,  in  "  Jahresbericht  der 
Schlesischen  Gesellschaft  filr  Vaterlitndische  Cul- 
tur,"  botanical  section,  1887,  27,  x. ;  "  Verhaudlungen 
der  Berliner  Anthropologischen  Gesellschaft,"  17,  x. 
[1891]  730;  19,  xii.  749.  Instead  of  a  dog,  an  ass 
pulls  out  the  root  according  to  Midr.  Agada,  ed. 
Buber,  on  Gen.  xlix.  14.  On  the  human  form  of  the 
mandrake  see  Ibn  Ezra  on  Cant.  vii.  14;  Salfeld, 
"Hohelied,"  p.  72.  The  popular  belief  regarding 
the  mandragora  is  given  in  full  by  Judah  Hadassi 
[1148]  in  "Eshkol  ha-Kofer,"  152c;  Maimonides, 
"Moreh,"  French  transl.  by  Munk,  iii.  235;  Giide- 
mann,"  Gesch."iii.  129;  GrUnbaum,  "  jQdisch-Deut- 
sche  Chrestomathie,"  p.  176). 

Josephus  was  also  the  first  to  mention  the  so-called 

Sodom-apple,   Calotropis  procera,  Willd.  (Post,  I.e. 

p.  526),  describing  it  as  a  fruit  exactly  resembling 

edible  apples  in  color,  but  composed  only  of  ashes, 

and  crumbling  in   the  hand  to  dust 

The  ("  B.  J. "  iv.  8,  §  4).    He  speaks  highly 

Sodom-      also  of  the  fruitfulness  of  Palestine, 

Apple.  mentioning  particularly  the  palms 
("Ant."  iv.  6,  §  1;  "  B.  J."  i.  6,  §  6; 
iii.  10,  §  8;  iv.  8,  §§  2,  3,  4)  and  balsam  at  Jericho 
("Ant."  xiv.  4,  §  1 ;  xv.  4,  §  2)  and  Engedi  (ib.  ix.  1, 
§  2),  as  well  as  the  palms  at  Phasaelis,  Archelais  (ib. 
xviii.  2,  §  2),  and  Persea  ("B.  J."  iii.  3,  §  3).  The 
balsam-tree  was  introduced  by  the  Queen  of  Sheba, 
and  was  afterward  planted  ("Ant."  viii.  6,  §  6)  and 
tapped  ("B.  J."  i.  6,  §  6).  At  Jericho  the  cypress 
(/ciTrpof,  ib.  iv.  8,  §  3)  and  the  fxvpojid'kavoq  {ib.  iv.  8, 
t5  3)  also  grew.  In  Pera?a,  furthermore,  there  were 
fruitful  places  where  olive-trees,  vines,  and  palms 
flourished  (/6.  iii.  3,  ^  3),  but  the  fruits  of  Gennesaret 
surpassed  all  {ib.  iii.  10,  §  8,  a  statement  which  is 
confirmed  by  the  Talmud). 

Naturally  every  recapitulation  of  Biblical  history 
contains  references  to  all  the  Biblical  plants;  and  in 
Jo.sephu8  references  are  found  to  Adam's  fig-leaves 
("  Ant."i.  1,  §  4);  the  olive-leaf  of  Noah's  dove  (26. 1. 
8,  §5);  Noah's  vine  (i'ft.i.  6,  §3);  Ishmael's  fir-tree  (iVj. 
i.  12,  §  3,  kldTT],  as  LXX.  and  Josephus  render  D^IT'K'n 
by  analogy  with  NHIti'N);  Abraham's  oak,  Ogyf/es 
{ib.  i.  10,  §  3);  the  terebinth  standing  near  Hebron 

since  the  creation  of  the  world  ("B.  J."  iv.  9,  §  7); 

Esau's  lentil  pottage  ("Ant.". ii.  1,  §  1);  Reuben's 

mandrakes  (?'6.  i.  19,  ^8);  the  wheat-sheaf  in  Joseph's 

dream  {ib.  ii.  2,  §  2)  and  the  grapes  in 

Biblical      the  visions  of  the  two  Egyptians  {ib. 

Names       ii.  5,  §  2);  Moses'  ark  of  bulrushes  (j6. 

Recapitu-    ii.  9,  §  4),  and  the  burning  bush  {iidro^, 

lated  by     ib.  ii.   12);  tlie  manna  that  was  like 

Josephus.    bdellium  and  coriander  {ib.  iii.  1,  §  6); 

the  blossoming  almond-rod  (i'6.  iv.  4,  § 

2);  the  seventy  palms  (?6.  iii.  1,  §3);  Ruhab's  stalks 

of  flax  {ib.  V.  1,  §  2) ;  the  trees  in  Jotham's  parable  {ib. 

V.  7,  §  2);  the  cypress  and  thistle  of  the  parable  in  II 

Kings  xiv.  9  {ib.  ix.  9,  §  2);  Hiram's  cedar-trees  {ib. 

Vii.  3,  §2;  viii.  2,^7;  SigS;  " B.  J."  v.  5,  ^2);  the 

pine-trees,  which  Josephus  says  were  like  the  wood 

of  fig-trees  {nevKiva,  "Ant."  viii.  7,  §  1);  the  lilies 

and   pomegranates  on   the   pillars  of   tiie  Temple 

{ib.  viii.  3,  g  4)  and  on  the  golden  candlestick  (iii. 

6.  §  7). 

Solomon  "  spoke  a  parable  on  every  sort  of  tree, 
from  the  hyssop  to  the  cedar"  {ib.  viii.  2,  §  5)  and 
built  the  Af)Vfi6v  {ib.  viii.  6,  §  5;  comp.  6pvfi6q,  " oak- 
coppice,  "?6.  xiv.  13,  ^  3;  "B.  J."  i.  13,  §  2;  Boett- 
ger,  "Topographisch-Historisches  Lexicon  zu  den 
Schriften  des  Flavins  Josephus,"  p.  105). 

Josephus,  as  well  as  the  Biblical  narrative,  men- 
tions apples  eaten  by  Herod  ('' Ant."xvii.  7;  "B.J." 
i.  33,  §  7);  fig-trees  ("Ant."  viii.  7,  §  1 ;  "B.J."  vii. 
6,  ^3);  pomegranates  ("Ant."  iii.  7,  ^  6);  cages  of 
sedge (i"6.  ii.  10,  §  2);  wheat (/6.  xvii.  13,  §3;  "B.  J." 
V.  13,  ^  7);  wheat  and  barley  ("Ant."  ix.  11,  §2; 
"B.  J."  V.  10,  $^  2);  barley  alone  ("Ant."  iii.  10,  §  6; 
V.  6,  §  4);  and  herbs  {laxavEin,  "B.  J."  iv.  9,  §  8). 

In  describing  the  legal  code,  Josephus  recapitu- 
lates the  following  Biblical  plants:   hyssop  at  vari- 
ous sacrifices  ("Ant."ii.  14,  §  6;  iv. 
Plants       4,  §  6) ;  flax  in  the  priestly  robes  {ib. 
Named  in    iii.  7,  §  7) ;   pomegranates,  signifying 
the  Legal    lightning,  on  the  high  priest's  gar- 
Code,        ments  ("B.  J."  v.  5,  §  7);   lilies  and 
pomegranates  on  the  golden  candle- 
sticks ("Ant."  iii.  6.^7);   cinnamon,   myrrh,  cala- 
mus, and  iris  ("  kiddah  ")  in  the  oil  of  purification  {ib. 
iii.  8,  I  3;  Whist  on:  "cassia");  cinnamon  and  cassia 
("B.  J."  vi.  8,  §  3);    the  first-fruits  of  the  barley 
("Ant."  iii.  10,  §5);  he  likewise  cites  the  precept 
against  sowing  a  diversity  of  plants  in  the  vineyard 
{ib.  iv.  8,  §  20).     In  like  manner  the  Biblical  meta- 
phor of  the  broken  reed  {ib.  x.  1,  §  2)  is  repeated. 

Josephus  is  of  course  acquainted  with  the  citron- 
apple,  mentioned  in  the  Mishnah  and  forming  part 
of  the  festival-bush  together  with  the  palm-branch, 
willow,  and  myrtle,  although  he  calls  it  vaguely  the 
"  Persian  apple  "(u^Aov  TTjqllepciag),  not  the"  Median" 
("Ant."  iii.  10,  §  4).  He  is  more  accurate  in  desig- 
nating the  fruit  itself  {Kirpia,  ib.  xiii.  13,  ^  1).  The 
golden  vine  of  the  Temple  is  mentioned  twice  {ib. 
xiv.  3,  §  1;  "B.  J."  v.  5,  %  A). 

The  "Yosippon"  (ed.  Gagnier,  ii.  10,  §  70)  men- 
tions among   the   wonders  seen  by 
The  Alexander  on  his  way  to  India  a  tree, 

"Yosippon."  ptOpUD'N,  which  grew   until   noon, 
and  then  disappeared  into  the  earth. 
In  the  same  work  (ii.  1 1 ,  §  77)  the  trees  of  the  sun  and 
moon  forewarn  Alexander  of  his  early  death. 




In  the  New  Testament :  Tlie  following  names 

of  plants  may  be  cited  from  the  New  Testament: 

New  Testament 

oypitAaios      (op 

posed  to  KoA. 



o/aiTfAos  (ffTai^v- 

_  A.)). 








6vifo<:,  deriva- 
tive from  Ovia. 






Ai^ai'os  .... 

^tai'i'a . 




<tIto<;,  (TTaxvi.. . 




(rvKY),   crvKov, 



Botanical  Name. 

Olea  Europaea,  Linn.,  var.  syl- 


Aqullarla  Agallocba,  Roxb. 

Anethum  graveolens,  Linn.. 

Artemisia,  Linn 

Rubus,  Linn 

Olea  Europa?a,  Linn 

Lolliim  temulentum.  Linn... 


Thuja  aiticulata,  Vahl 

Arundo    Donax, 


nis,  Trln. 
Ceratonia  Siliqua,  Linn 

Linn.,    and 

Hordeum,  Linn 

Lilium  candidum,  Linn 

Cuminum  Cymlnum,  Linn  . . 

Linum  usitatissimum,  Linn. 

from  the  Tamarix  mannifera, 
Ehrenberp,  and  Alhagi  Mau- 
rorum,  DC. 

Nardostachys  Jatamansl.  DC. 

Ruta,  Linn 

Sinapis,  Linn 


Morus  nigra,  Linn 

Ficus  Sycomorus,  Linn. 
Ficus  Carica,  Linn 

Trlbulus  terrestris,  Linn 

Origanum  Mam,  Linn 

Phoenix  dactylifera,  Linn  . . . 

Popular  Name. 

Wild     olive    of 
northern  Syria. 









Bearded  darnel. 




bread,  carob. 






Flax  (used  only 
for  wick  and 
for  linen  gar- 





Wheat,  grain. 





Wild  marjoram. 

More  general  terms  are  a.v9o^  (flower),  poravT}  (herbage),  Sfv- 
ipov  (tree),  xA^iia  (branch),  \dxavov  (vegetable),  <t>pvyavov 
(brushwood),  <i>vTeia  (plant),  \Aa>pds  (green),  xopro^  (grass). 

The  following  names  of  plants  are  found  in  proper 
names  in  the  New  Testament:  the  palm  (Thamar), 
the  lily  (Susanna),  the  fig  (Beth-phage),  the  narcis- 
sus (as  tlie  name  of  the  Roman  Narcissus) ;  the  name 
of  the  date  has  been  conjectured  to  form  part  of  the 
name  of  Bethany  (Bet-hine).  The  crown  of  thorns 
placed  on  Jesus  may  have  been  composed  of  the 
gatland-thorn,  Paliurus  acideatus,  Lam.,  of  the  ju- 
jube, Zizyphus  vulgaris.  Lam.,  or  of  a  variety  of 
hawthorn,  the  Cratmgns  Azarolus,  Linn.,  or  the  Cra- 
taegus monogyna,  Willd. 

In  the  Pseudepigrapha :  There  are  few  ref- 
erences to  plants  in  the  pseudepigrapha,  so  far  as 
the  latter  are  included  in  Kautzsch's  collection  ("Die 
Apokryphen  und  Pseudepigraphen  des  Alten  Testa- 
ments," Freiburg-im-Breisgau  and  Leipsic,  1900, 
cited  here  as  K.).  In  these  references  Biblical  figures 
and  concepts  prevail  for  the  most  part.  The  fertilitj'^ 
("shebah  ha-arez  ")  which  was  the  glory  of  Pales- 
tine (Deut.  viii.  8)  is  lauded  by  Aristeas  (§  112;  K. 
ii.  15),  who  praises  the  agriculture  there.  "The 
land,"  he  says,  "is  thickly  planted  with  olive-trees, 
cereals,  and  pulse,  and  is  rich  in  vines,  honey,  fruits, 
and  dates."  When  Abraham  entered  Palestine  he 
saw  there  vines,  figs,  pomegranates,  the  "  balan  " 
and  the  "ders"  (two  varieties  of  oak,  /Jd^vof  and 

''pi'C).  terebinths,  olive-trees,  cedars,  cypress-trees, 
frankincense-trees  (Xi^nvoq),  and  every  tree  of  the 
licld  (Book  of  Jubilees,  xiii.  6;  K.  ii.  63). 

According  to  the  later  (Christian)  version  of  the 
Greek  of  Baruch  (iv. ;  K.  ii.  451),  Noah 
planted  the  vine  only  because  the  wine  was  destined 
to  become  the  blood  of  Jesus;  otherwise,  the  vine 
from  which  Adam  ate  the  forbidden  fruit  would 
have  fallen  under  a  curse.  Noah  is  saved  like  one 
grape  of  a  whole  cluster,  or  one  sprig  in  an  entire 
forest  (II  Esd.  ix.  21 ;  K.  ii.  384).  The  vine  is  also 
mentioned  in  the  Sibylline  Books  (iv.  17;  K.  ii.  201), 
the  Syriac  Apocalypse  of  Baruch  (x.  10;  K.  ii.  415), 
and  in  the  Testaments  of  the  Twelve  Patriarchs 
(Levi,  2;  K.  ii.  466),  where  the  Lord  becomes  to 
Levi  his  farm,  vine,  fruits,  gold,  and  silver.  When 
the  Messiah  shall  come  the  earth  will  bring  forth 
its  fruit  ten  thousandfold ;  and  on  each  vine  there 
will  be  1,000  branches;  on  each  branch,  1,000  clus- 
ters; and  on  each  cluster,  1,000  grapes;  and  each 
grape  will  yield  a  "cor"  of  wine  (Syriac  Apoc. 
Baruch,  xxix.  5;  K.  ii.  423).  The  Syriac  Apoc- 
alypse of  Baruch  (xxxvi.  3  et  seq.  ;  K.  ii.  424  et  seq.) 
contains  also  a  vision  of  a  forest,  a  vine,  and  a  cedar, 
and  the  Book  of  Jubilees  (xiii.  26;  K.  ii.  65)  men- 
tions tithes  of  seed,  wine,  and  oil. 

Fig-leaves  are  said  to  grow  in  paradise,  a  belief 
based  upon  the  Biblical  account  (Apoc.  Mosis, 
§  21 ;  K.  ii.  522),  while,  according  to  the  Ethiopia 
Apocalypse  of  Baruch,  the  figs  which  Ebed-melech 
carries  remain  fresh  anduuwithered  during  his  sleep 
of  sixty-six  years  and  are  taken  to  Babylon  by  an 
eagle  (p.  402). 

Among  other  trees  and  fruits  mentioned  in  the 
pseudepigrapha  are:  the  olive-tree  (Sibyllines,  iv. 
17;  K.  ii.  201;  Test.  Patr.,  Levi,  8,  p.  467;  instead  of 
"  siah  "  [Gen.  xxi.  15],  the  Book  of  Jubilees,  xvii.  10 ; 
K.  11.  70,  reads  "olive-tree  "),  palms  (Enoch,  xxiv.  4; 
K.  11.  254),  dates  of  the  valley  (Jubilees,  xxix.  15; 
K.  11.  90),  nut-tree  (Enoch,  xxix.  2;  K.  11.  256;  not 
the  almond -tree,  which  is  mentioned  shortly  after- 
ward, ib.  XXX.  8),  almonds  and  terebinth-nuts  (Jubi- 
lees, xiii.  20;  K.  11.  109,  following  Gen.  xliii.  11), 
aloe-tree  (Enoch,  xxxl.  2;  K.  11.  256),  cedar  (Test. 
Patr.,  Simeon,  6;  K.  il.  464).  A  book  sprinkled  with 
oil  of  cedar  to  preserve  it  Is  described  in  the  As- 
sumption of  Moses  (i.  17;  K.  11.  320);  the  locust-tree 
(Enoch,  xxxli.  4;  K.  ii.  256),  and,  especially,  oaks 
also  are  mentioned,  as  In  the  Syriac  Apocalypse  of 
Baruch  (Ixxvii.  18;  K.  Ii.  441);  they  are  said  to  grow 
at  Hebron  (Enoch,  vl. ;  K.  11.  414),  at  Mamre  (Jubilees, 
xlv.  10;  K.  11. 65),  and  in  the  land  of  Sichem(  Jubilees, 
xxxi.  2;  K.  il.  92);  the  oak  is  likewise  mentioned 
in  the  lament  over  Deborah  (Jubilees,  xxxll.  30;  K. 
Ii.  96). 

Of  all  the  Information  regarding  trees  the  most 
interesting  is  the  list  of  evergreens  given  in  Jubilees 
(xxi.  12;  K.  11.  76),  while  this  class  of  trees  is  also 
alluded  to  In  Enoch  (ill. ;  K.  ii.  237)  and  in  the 
Testament  of  Levi  (ix. ;  K.  ii.  468;  Lihv,  p.  59). 
Similar  catalogues  occur  in  the  Talmud  and  Mish- 
nah,  and  In  the  Greek  writings  on  agriculture.  The 
Book  of  Jubilees  mentions  the  following  as  appro- 
priate for  the  altar:  cypress,  juniper,  almond-tree 
(for  whicli,  following  Dillmann,  "acacia"  has  been 
suggested  as  an  emendation),  Scotch  pine,  pine, 




cedar.  Ciliciau  spruce,  palm  ('?),  olive-tree,  myrtle, 
laurel,  citron  (Citrus  medicn,  Risso),  juniper  (?  Ethi- 
opic  "arbot,"  for  which  Dillmann  conjectures  "ar- 
kot,"  apKo.'dog),  and  balsam. 

On  account  of  their  beauty  the  following  flowers 
are  mentioned  in  the  pseudepigrapha:  lily  (Test. 
Patr,  Joseph.  18;  K.  ii.  5U2),  rose  (Test.  Patr., 
Simeon,  6;  K.  ii.  464;  Enoch,  Ixxxii.  16;  K.  ii.  287; 
cvi.  2.  10;  K.  ii.  308  et  seq. :  "rubra  sicut  rosa"  and 
"rubrior  rosa  " :  it  is  also  mentioned  in  the  Apocry- 
pha, Mishnah,  Targum,  and  LXX.).  and  the  rose- 
laurel.  The  oleander  seems  to  be  intended  by  "the 
field  of  Ardaf  "  in  II  Esd.  (ix.  26;  K.  ii.  385)  (the  last 
letter  with  the  variants  "s,"  "d,"  "t,"  and  "b"). 
"Harduf"  ("hirduf,"  "hardufni")  is  a  borrowed 
word  even  in  the  .Mishnah,  and  shows,  together  with 
the  Arabic  "diflah,"  that  the  JV'mwni  Oleander,  Linn., 
came  from  Europe,  or,  more  exactly  (according  to 
O.  Schrader,  in  Hehn,  "  Kulturpflanzen,"  6th  ed.,  p. 
405),  from  the  Spanish  west.  The  plant  had  reached 
Greece  before  the  time  of  Dioscoridesand  Pliny;  and 
it  may  have  grown  wild  in  Palestine  by  the  end  of 
the  first  century  just  as  it  does  at  present;  it  is 
always  found  in  water-courses,  and  flourishes  from 
the  level  of  the  Ghor  to  an  altitude  of  3,280  feet  in 
the  mountains  (Post,  I.e.  p.  522).  To  such  a  region 
the  seer  of  II  Esdras  was  bidden  to  go,  there  to  sus- 
tain himself  on  the  flowers  of  the  field.  In  Sibyl- 
lines  (v.  46;  K.  ii.  206,  a  passage  originally  heathen) 
the  flower  of  Nemea,  akTuvov  (parsley),  is  mentioned. 

As  in  the  Bible  narrative,  thorns  and  thistles  ap- 
peared after  the  fall  of  man  (Apoc.  Mosis,  §  24 ;  K. 
ii.  522),  while  thorns  and  prickly  briers  are  men- 
tioned in  the  Sibyllines  (Preface,  24  et  seq. ;  K.  ii. 
184).  The  Biblical  "duda'im,"  mentioned  in  the 
Testament  of  Issachar  (i. ;  K.  ii.  478),  are  mandrakes, 
which  grow  in  the  land  of  Aram,  on  an  elevation,  be- 
low a  ravine.  Tithes  of  the  seed  are  mentioned  (Jubi- 
lees, xiii.  26;  K.  ii.  65);  while  according  to  Aris- 
teas  (§  145;  K.  ii.  17),  the  clean  birds  eat  wheat 
and  pulse.  Egypt  is  mentioned  (Sibyllines,  iv.  72; 
K.  ii.  202)  as  producing  wheat;  and  the  marrow  of 
wheat,  like  the  Biblical  "kilyot  hittah"  ("kidneys of 
wheat,"  Dent,  xxxii.  14),  is  spoken  of  in  Enoch  (xcvi. 
5;  K.  ii.  302),  while  II  Esdras  (ix.  17;  K.  ii.  384)  de- 
clares (R.  v.):  "Like  as  the  field  is,  so  is  also  the 
seed  ;  and  as  the  flowers  be,  such  are  the  colors  also." 
In  the  same  book  (iv.  31  etseq.  [R.  V.];  K.  ii.  357) 
occurs  also  an  argument  "de  minore  ad  mains," 
found  in  the  Bible  likewise:  "Ponder  now  by  thy- 
self, how  great  fruit  of  wickedness  a  grain  of  evil 
seed  hath  brought  forth.  When  the  ears  which  are 
without  number  shall  be  sown,  how  great  a  floor 
shall  they  fill!"  (comp.  the  "kal  wa-homer"  in  II 
Esd.  iv.  10,  end;  K.  ii.  355;  and  see  Schwarz,  "Der 
Hermeneutische  Syllogismus."  p.  82,  "Vienna,  1901). 
Lolium  (Ci^dviov)  is  mentioned  in  Apoc.  Mosis,  ^  16 
(K.  ii.  520).  Among  the  spices  and  condiments,  cin- 
namon is  described  as  obtained  from  the  excrement 
of  the  worm  which  comes  from  the  dung  of  the 
phenix  (Greek  Apoc.  Baruch,  vi. ;  K.  ii.  453),  and  is 
also  mentioned  in  Enoch,  XXX.  3,  xxxii.  1;  K.  ii.  256; 
Apoc.  Mosis,  ^29;  K.  ii.  524;  Vita  Adie  et  Evae,  § 
43;  K.  ii.  520.  Pepper,  spoken  of  in  Enoch  (xxxii. 
1 ;  K.  ii.  256),  is  new,  although  it  is  met  with  as 
early  as  the  Mishnah. 

Among  other  plants  mentioned  in  the  pseudepig- 
rapha are:  aloe- trees  (Enoch,  xxxi. ;  K.  ii.  256); 
balsam  {ib.  xxx.  2);  galbanum  {ib.;  Jubilees,  iii. 
27,  xvi.  24;  K.  ii.  45,  69);  sweet-calamus  and  saffron 
(Apoc.  Mosis,  I.e. ;  Vita  Ada?  et  Eva?,  I.e.);  costus-root 
(Jubilees,  xvi.  24;  K.  ii.  69);  ladanum,  and  similar 
almonds  (Enoch,  xxxi.  2;  K.  ii.  256);  gum-mastic 
(Enoch,  xxxii.  1,  xxx.  1 ;  K.  ii.  256;  myrrh  (Enoch, 
xxix.  2;  K.  ii.  256;  Jubilees,  xvi.  24;  K.  ii.  69); 
nard  (Jubilees,  iii.  27,  xvi.  24;  K.  ii.  45,  69; 
Enoch,  xxxii.  1;  K.  ii.  256;  Apoc.  Mosis,  §  29; 
K.  ii.  524);  nectar,  called  also  balsam  and  galbanum 
(Enoch,  xxxi.  1 ;  K.  ii.  256);  storax  (Jubilees,  iii.  27, 
xvi.  24;  K.  ii.  45,  69);  incense  (Enoch,  xxix.  2;  K. 
ii.  256;  Jubilees,  iii.  27,  xvi.  24;  K.  ii.  45,  69;  Test. 
Patr.,  Levi,  8;  K.  ii.  467). 

Aristeas  (§  63;  K.  ii.  10)  describes  pictorial  repre- 
sentations of  plants  as  decorations  on  state  furniture, 
including  garlands  of  fruit,  grapes,  ears  of  corn, 
dates,  apples,  olives,  pomegranates,  etc.  He  speaks 
also  (§  68,  p.  11)  of  the  legs  of  a  table  which  were 
topped  with  lilies,  and  (§  70;  K.  ii.  11)  of  ivy,  acan- 
thus, and  vines,  as  well  as  of  lilies  (§  75;  K.  ii.  11),  and 
of  vine-branches,  laurel,  myrtle,  and  olives  (^  79;  K. 
ii.  12).  Plant-metaphors  taken  from  the  Bible  and 
applied  to  Israel  and  Palestine  are:  vines  and  lilies 
(II  Esd.  V.  23  et  seq.;  K.  ii.  361)  and  the  vineyard 
(Greek  Apoc.  Baruch,  i. ;  K.  ii.  448). 

In  poetic  and  haggadic  interpretations  wood  shall 
bleed  as  one  of  the  signs  of  the  approaching  end  of 
the  world  (II  Esd.  v.  5;  K.  ii.  359;  Barnabas,  xii.  1), 
and  the  trees  shall  war  against  the  sea  (II  Esd.  iv.  13 
et  seq. ;  K.  ii.  356).  At  the  last  day  many  of  man- 
kind must  perish,  even  as  the  seed  sown  by  the  hus- 
bandman ripens  only  in  part  {ib.  viii.  41 ;  K.  ii.  381), 
although  every  fruit  brings  honor  and  glory  to 
God  (Enoch,  v.  2;  K.  ii.  237).  In  the  Greek  Apoca- 
lypse of  Baruch  (xii. ;  K.  ii.  456)  angels  bear  baskets 
of  flowers  which  represent  the  virtues  of  the  right- 
eous. In  the  sacred  rites,  palm-branches,  fruits  of 
trees  (citrons),  and  osier-twigs  are  mentioned  (Jubi- 
lees, xvi.  31 ;  K.  ii.  70). 

At  the  commandment  of  God  on  the  third  day  of 
Creation,  "immediately  there  came  forth  great  and 
innumerable  fruits,  and  manifold  pleasures  for  the 
taste,  and  flowers  of  inimitable  color,  and  odors  of 
most  exquisite  smell "  (II  Esd.  vi.  44,  R.  V. ;  K.  ii. 
367) ;  and  the  beauty  of  the  trees  in  paradise  is  also 
emphasized  {ib.  vi.  3;  K.  ii.  364).  The  tree  of 
knowledge  and  the  tree  of  life  appealed  powerfully 
to  the  fancy  of  the  pscudepigraphic  writers.  The 
former,  from  which  Adam  ate,  is  supposed,  on  the 
basis  of  other  Jewish  traditions,  to  have  been  either 
the  vine  (Greek  Apoc.  Baruch,  iv. ;  K.  ii.  451)  or  the 
fig  (Apoc.  Mosi.s,  §  21;  K.  ii.  522).  The  Book  of 
Enoch  (xxxii.  3  et  seq. ;  K.  ii.  256)  describes  the  tree 
of  knowledge  thus:  "Its  shape  is  like  the  pine-tree; 
its  foliage  like  the  locust-tree;  its  fruit  like  the 
grape."  The  tree  of  life  is  planted  for  the  pious  (II 
Esd.  viii.  52;  K.  ii.  382),  and  is  described  in  Enoch 
(xxiv.  3  et  seq. ;  K.  ii.  254)  as  fragrant  and  with  un- 
fading leaves  and  blossoms  and  imperishable  wood, 
while  as  in  the  accounts  in  the  Old  and  the  New 
Testament  its  fruit,  which  is  like  that  of  the  palm, 
gives  eternal  life  (Enoch;  II  Esd.  I.e.;  Test.  Patr., 
Levi,  18;  K.  ii.  471,  reads  "  tree  "  instead  of  "  wood  "). 




It  is  the  tree  of  paradise,  and  from  it  flows  the  heal- 
ing oil,  the  oil  of  life,  the  oil  of  mercy  (Vita  Adoe  et 
Eva",  §§  36,  41 ;  Apoc.  Mosis,  ^  9;  K.  ii.  518.  520). 

In  the  Mishnah  and  Talmud  :  The  Mishnah 

has  preserved  ouly  about  2'M  names  of  plants,  of 
which  about  180  are  old  Hebrew  and  forty  are  de- 
rived from  Greek  terms.  In  the  Talmudic  literature 
of  the  post-Mishnaic  period  100  names  of  plants  are 
found  in  the  Jerusalem  Talmud  and  175  in  the  Baby- 
lonian; about  twenty  of  these  names  are  of  Greek 
origin.  In  the  Mishnah,  Talmud,  Midrash,  and 
Targum  the  following  plants  are  mentioned  as  in- 
digenous to  Palestine  and  Babylon : 

[Abbreviations  :  B.  =  Babylonian  Talmud ;  Y.  =  Jerusalem 
Talmud;  M.  =  Mishnah;  Mldr.  =  Midrash  ;  T.  =  Tarfnim.  In 
the  following  table  the  name  of  the  botanical  family  Is  printed 
In  small  capitals.] 

Name  in  Mishnah. 
Talmud,  etc. 

Botanical  Name. 

Popular  Name. 


»<rjNn  Nn>Tin 

Allsma  Plantago  aqua- 
tica,  Linn. 

Water-  plan- 




Narcissus  poeticus, 
Linn.,  Narcissus    Ta- 
zetia,  Linn.,  and  vari- 



7DJ,    Bible,    M.;    NJDU, 
pj-M,  M.,  Y.,  B. 

Vitls  vlnifera,  Linn  — 


i^w    M         

Rhus  Coriarla,  Linn  — 

Pistacia      Tereblnthus, 
var.  Palsestlna,  Engl. 

Pistacia  vera,  Linn 

Pistacia  vera,  Linn 

reslu  of  >3iBDa,  M.,  Pis- 
tacia Lentiscus,  Linn. 


nVN,  Bible,  M.;  ndoo, 

T..  Y.,  B. 
nri33.  M..  Bible 

Pistachio -nut. 

T^DHD^O     M 


OOlS,  M.;  didS,  m.,  t... 



r|mn,  B.;  •'jDinn,  M... 

Nerium  Oleander,  Linn. 


01D>p,M.,  Y 

Hedera  Helix,  Linn — 



«lf,  M 

Arum  orlentale,  M.  Bleb. 

naiifn  Hi'?.  M 

Arum      Palaestinum, 

Colocasia    antiquonim, 



ori'^ir',  M.,  Y 



jnPN,  M.;  Njntan,  T., 

Y.,  B. 

Citrus  medlca,  Reiss — 



jSb-n,  M.;  nnnnxNC?), 

Leontice      Leontopeta- 
lum,  Linn. 



]jcij,   M.;    Njeu   ^S-'K'. 

pDOIS,  B. 
rccSn,  Bible,  M 

Cordla  Myxa,  Linu 

Anchusa     olBcinalls, 



noxj,  nSx,  M.;  Nmo,  B. 
(Dnop,   bud;    Nn-»D, 
B.,  blossom;  mjvaN, 
Bible,  M.;  NPiDO,  B., 

Capparis  spinosa,  Linn., 
and  varieties. 


Thorny  caper. 

tia-\\  M.,  Y 

I'toiifn  j^tiaT 

Blitum  virgatum,  Linn. 
Chenopodium,  Linn 

Beta  vulgaris,  Linn 


^nin,  M.;  N|iS'D,  B  — 


O'jijjS,    M.;    pjoSiDip, 
PMJ7D.  Y. 

N>Sipi  N|->-\\   B 

Shn,  M.,  B 

Atriplex    Tataricum, 
Linn.,  Atriplex  Hall- 
mus,  Linn. 

Salicomia        herbacea, 

Salsola,  Linn 


Glasswort  (see 
also   under 


Name  in  Mishnah, 
Talmud,  etc. 



PO'O,  B. 

N'lXllB',  B 

njyS,  Bible;   j^nrDOK 
Y.,  B.;  KTJ,  T. 

NDTM,  M.,  T.,  B 

D->r|i,  M.,  Y.,  B.,  Midr. 
IJJD,  B.  (not  Pvijo, 
despite  Kohut,"Aruch 
Completum,"  s.v.) 
(T'D'Ma.  N'">313,  M.?) 

n''33}?,  M.,  T.,  Midr.... 

■mt.    Bible,    M..    T.. 

Midr.;  K-\t'n,  B. 
y>n,  nxip,  M.;  [<|"»mc. 

T.,  Y.;  'nim'c,  NT^Ti 


pcSip.  M.;    jiD'Dpna, 

paioj«  (''^mo''?),  Y.; 
^3ij'n,  B. 

mis'  >vh^y,  M.;  pnSiy.Y 
(inn,  M.)  NnniD,  B., 

mtn,  M.;  NDn,  Y.,  B., 

d>Sj  mtn,  M 

Botanical  Name. 

Cistu.s   cretlrus,    Linn., 
cistus       ladanifrrus. 
Linn.,  and  otbem. 

Matricaria  rhamomlUa, 

Linn.,  and  Matricaria 

Artemisia  vulgaris, 

Artemisia  monusperroa, 

Del.,  and    Artemisia 

Judaica,  Linn. 
Ecliinops  splnosus, 

Linn.,    or     Echlnops 

vlscosus,  DC. 
Cynara  Scolymua,  Linn 

Cynara  Syrica,  Bolss., 
and  Cynara  Cardun- 
culus,  Linn. 

Centaurea  Calcltrapa, 


Clchorium   Endlvla, 


Popular  Name. 

bush,  rock- 



Echlnops  (?). 




Seed  of 


Nj''3ii8',T.,B.;  wn'mn 

(?),  B. 
pSianoD'N,   M.;    k-\''c 

Nnw,  B. 
IDiy  yy>  Bible.  M.;  ca?, 

M.;  pjii,  Y. 

nN,  Bible,  M.  ,B.;  ntin. 

If •'dSu,  NJ'Sar,  onip, 
Dn.ip,  B. 
tfna,  nna,  Bible,  M., 

T.,  Y.,  B.;  KmB***,  B.: 
PdSn,  Midr. 

nW3,  M.,  B.;  NDO,  B... 

j-nc.  T.,  Midr. 

PfiS,   M.,   B.;    n<Sj"Mj 

nodS,  B. 
ana,  M..  Y..  B 

Smn,  M.,  B 

pe"?,  M. 

-iinann,  M.;  p^pTana, 

lUlJ  (IDN  W  'j),  M., 

D'':'ntf',   M.;    iSnp,   B.; 

pDiSnp.  Y. 
na2P.  M.;  unaon,  B.: 
p-iujj,  Y. 

tlnctorius,  Safflower,  saf- 


Clchorium    dlvarica-  ( 

tum,  Schousb. 
Plcrls  SprengerianajPlcrts  or 

(Linn.),  Polr.,  or,       dandelion. 

Taraxacum,  Juss. 
Lacluca  Scariola,   var. ,  Lettuce. 

satlva  (Linn.),  Boiss. 

Lactuca  saligna,  Linn. 


Cupressus       sempervl-' Cypress. 

rens,  Linn, 
fruit   of    Plnus  plnea,  Pine. 

Plnus  Ualepensls,  MUl. 

Cedrus  Ubanl. 

Abies  Cillclca,  Ant.  and 


Cuscuta,  Linn 


Comus  mas,  Linn.,  and 
Cornus  Australia, 


Brasslca  Rapa,  Linn — 

Brasslca  oleracea,  Linn. 

Sinapis  alba,  Linn.,  and 
Slnapls  juncea,  Linn. 

Brasslca  nigra  (Linn.). 
Koch,  or  Slnapls  ar- 
vensis,  Linn.;  Slnapls 
ar\'ensls,  var.  turglda 
(Del.).  Asch.  and 
Schwelnf.,  and  var. 
AlUonll  (Jacqu.), 
Asch.  and  Schwelnf. 

Brasslca  oleracea,  var. 
boirytls.  Linn. 

Eruca  satlva.  I. am 

Aleppo  pine. 

Cedar  of  Leba- 



Lepidlum  sativum, 

Lepidlum  Chalepense, 
Linn.,  or  Erucarla 
Alepplca,  Gaertn.  (?). 


Cornel,  dog- 



Wild  mustard. 


Eruoa.  wild 
and  culti- 






Name  in  Mishnab, 
Talmud,  etc. 

Botanical  Name.        Popular  Name. 

h-\H.  >i;,  M.. 

D'SO'K,  D'2D.  M 

|UX.  D1CJ.  M.;  t<^i^s,  Y. 
B.;  Nr>n,  B. 

C13C0.  Y. 
nj-ij-i,  M 

,  Iberis    (Iberis   Jordan!, 'Candjrtuft. 

Boiss.,  Iberis  Taurica, 
I    DC,  ll)em    odorata,, 
j    Linn.). 
'Isatis  tinctoiia,  Linn. . .  Dyer's-wttad. 

,  Raphanussatlvus,  Linn.iRadlsh      (two 



M.;|Equl8etum,  Linn Scou ring-rush, 

olBcinarum,  Miltwaste  (?). 


I    Willd. 
Kirj,  B jPterls  aquilina,  Linn. . 

^tpr,  M.;  p3'^3'SiD,  T.lAdlantum    CaplUus-Ve 


neris,  Linn. 


(but  see 
Mentha  Pu- 
1  e  g  i  u  m  , 
Linn.,  penny- 
royal, under 

rJ3*iiT.  M.,  Y Scolopendrium  vulgare,  Hart's-tongue. 


DV1C,  M Roccella  tlnctoria,  Litmus. 


tvn,  B iLecanora    or    Sphiero-'Manna-lichen. 

I    thalliaesculenta,Nees.j 

nvnsij    (pi.),    M.,    Y.;  Fungus Fungus. 

N"<3'D,  B.  I 

D^nco.  yp-icc.  M.;iTuber Truffle. 

nSt\J7,  Y.;  K-nx,  B 


Cucumis    Chate,  Linn.,  Cucumber. 

and  Cucumis  sativus, 

Cucumis  Melo,  Linn 

p^vp,  Bible,  M.;   N^ap 

]^DD^^•::,  M..  T.,  Y. 
Midr.  I 

n'oas,  Bible,  M iCitrullus  vulgaris, 


nppD,  Bible,  M Citrullus       Colocynthis 

(Linn.).  Schrad. 
ny7i,   KM-tp,  M.;    N-\p,Lagenaria  vulgaris,  Ser, 
«3?-»p.  B. 

r'^^anp,  M.,  Y 

"Men  .-piT 

Roem.,  or  Luffa 
.figyptiaca.  Mill.  (?). 

Ecballium  Elaterium, 

inoS'K,  M.;  p1i^D,  Y . .  Corylus  Avellana,  Linn. 
B^Sa,   T..  Y.,   B.;  3'j-<D 

(pL),   Midr.    (Biblical 

proper  name  c-ia'). 


M. ;   NxciN 

O'JIB'JK  (?),  M. 

KCJ,  Bible;    'SJ,    M. 
p-MN.  M.,  T.,  B. 

"hyo  (pi.),  T.,  B.,  Midr. 

B.;  Quercuscoccifera,Linn., 
and  varieties  Quercus 
Lusitunica,  Lam., 
Quercus  Cerris,  Linn., 


Cyperus  Papyrus.  Linn., 
and  others. 
Y.  (Palestinian  Cyperus  esculentus, 
Llun.  (and  Cyperus 
longus,  Linn.,  Cyperus 
capitatus.  Vent.). 

Cyperus  rotund  us,  Linn. 

ynsc-N,  M.,  T.,  B. 
Y.,  Midr. 

PV.  V't'^SH,  M.;  N3'SiSx, 

P'-iU,  Bible,  M.;   NnM, 
B.;  nj;-^>,  M.  (?). 

D'J-i-j  (pi.).  M.;  JJB  (?), 


nw,  M..  Y.,  B 

im-i.  Bible,  M.  (rnii'  ?. 

Bible,  y.). 
KC"!  ND"?'n.  B 

ID^C,  M. 


Buxus  longiiolla,  Bolss. 

Ricinus  communis, 


Mesembryan  them  urn, 
LI  nn .,  or  A  izoon, 
Linn.  (?  corap.  Sall- 
cornia,  Linn.). 


Panicum       miliaceum, 


Oryza  satlva,  Linn 

Andropogon    Sorghum, 

Andropogon  Schoenan- 

thus,  Linn. 



Squirting    cu- 

A  com. 







Fig -marigold, 



Dunra.  gulnea- 


Name  in  Mishnab, 
Talmud,  etc. 





Botanical  Name. 

Popular  Name. 

(identical  with   2^'sn. 
M.,  Y.,  B.,  Midr.  >). 
njp,  Bible,  M.;  N'jp,  Y., 
B.;  DJ1B,  T. 

iSn,  pSin,  M. 

pjv,  M.,  Midr. 

nan,  Bible,  M.,  T.,  Y., 

B.,  Midr. 
PCD2,  Bible;  pcDO,  M.; 

N.-ijo,  T.,  B.;  naSu, 


Syic  rSnr,  M.;  'S^ac 

nSpp,  N-\s'n,  B. 
mijrc,    Bible,    M.; 
N.-i->yD,  T.,  Y. 

HTip,  M.;  KP'JS'C.  B. 

CynortonDactylon.Berm  uda- 
Linn.  I   grass,  scutoh- 


ArundoDonax,Linn.,  or  Persian  reed. 
Phragniites  com- 
munis. Trin. 

Eraprostis  cynosuroldes 
(Retz.),  Roem.  and 

Lollum  temuientum.  Bearded    dar- 
Llnn.  nel.  tares. 

Tritioum  vulgare,  Linn.  Wheat. 

Triticum  Spelta,  Linn..  Spelt. 

.(Egilops,  Linn.  (?) , 


pc"*,  Bible,  M.;  nj::i-«, 
T.,  B.,  Midr.;  iNj,  B. 

\-i2in,  B.  (?).. 

Dn'N,  M.,  Y 

Hordeum        distychum' Barley. 

and  Hordeum  vulgare, 

Hordeum    bulbosum, 

Linn.  (?). 


Punica  Granatum,  Linn. 


a^D-12,  M.,  Y.,  B.;  N:n<3i'i. 



.  Hypericum.  Linn St.  John's- 



Iris  PalaBstina,    Baker,  Iris. 

Iris  pseudacorus.' 

Linn.,  and  other?. 
Crocus  sativus,  Linn Crocus. 

pCD>,  B. 

njN,  Bible,  M.;  ntun,  B. 

ja^n  ('"N),  M.,  B.;  jjc, 
M.;  NP3X,  B.;  nfiv^jn 
{no^-i^,  M.). 


Jasminum  offlcinale, 


Juglans  regia,  Linn 


Juncus  or  Cyperus 



Reed  or  sedge. 


P'3?N,  M Lavandula    Stoechas,  Lavender  (?). 

njjjj,yj>'j,  M.;  Nnj''D  (?),  MenthasyIvestrls,Llnn.,  Mint. 

Y.  i    and  others. 

ntpv,  M.;  pjniD.B Mentha  Puleglum,  PennyroyaL 

j    Linu. 
3itN,  Bible,  M.;    Nnr,  Origanum  Maru,  Linn..  Marjoram. 

nnmc.  picrric,  B.    ;  I 

nu'D,  M.;  nrx,  Y.,  B.;  Thymus,  Linn.,  and  Sa-'Savory. 

>N!:'n,  NP-\3N,  B.         I    tureia.  Linn. 
n^mP'  M.,  Y.,  B iCalamintha.  Moench....  Calamlnt. 


]-\is.  Bible,  M.  ?;   'i>',  Laurus  nobilis,  Linn.  ^?) 

NJD1,  B. 

D1D-MP,  M.,  Y.,  B.,  Midr. 
P'DD;',  M 

Ncnn,  T.  (Dm,  Bible). 

]pSp,    m.;     unSiVatt', 

N^an,  B. 
nimjnj    (pi.),   M.; 

■"pipijn,  Y.,  B.;  S'Sa 

NaSc,  B. 
»Nia  'pipnin  (?) 

ttrODOH,  B. 
HVW,  B.... 

Lupinus  Termls,  Forsk. 
Lupinus   Palsestinus, 

Boiss.,   and    Lupinus 

ptlosus,  Linn. 
Retama       Raetam, 

(Forsk.),  Web. 
Trigonella    Fcenum- 

gntciim,  Linn. 
Melllotus.  Tourn 

.-ijn.  M.;  N,"jv-i,  T.,  B. 
(Bible,  vixpj,  ?). 

PCN.  M.;  •'XC'n.  B 

K'p-a,  M.,  Y 

Melllotus  (?),  Medlcago 

(?), Trigonella  (?), 

Trifollum  Vn. 
Medlcago  satlva,  Linn., 

Glycyrrhlza    glabra, 

Alhagl  Maurorum.  DC. 

Cicer  arletlnum.  Linn.. 
Vicla  satlva,  Linn 

Laurel,   bay- 




Sweet    clover, 

Medic,  or 
I'lover,  trefoil. 







Name  in  Misbnah, 
Talmud,  etc. 

nj'r-is,  M.;  Nirn,  B... 
ncny,    M.    (Bible); 

,   wnci'^D.  T.,  B. 

ViD,  Bible,  M.,  T.,  v.... 

ra'^n    ^id,  M.;  njnc^s 

Y.;  •'DJU,  Nr'^'DD. 

(V),  M.:  ]'-\in'>U". 
npicD  (variants 
nnic^D.  noiciD). 

->iDD,  M.;  NJ1!r''D,  Y 

w-iin  (Snn,  Bible) . . . . 
nctn,  M.;  npiSt,  Y... 
pp^1C,  M.;  Njia?u,  Y.. 

Botanical  Name. 

Popular  Name. 

NXcn,  B 

n-'jijr,  M — 

ann,  M.,  Y.  B 

D'D^Ss  (?) 

Vlcla  ErvlUa,  Linn Vetch. 

Lens  esculenta,  Moench.  Lentil. 

Vlgna  Sinensis  (Llnn.),[Bean. 
Endl.  (not  Phaseolus 
vulgaris,  Linn.;. 
Vlcla  Faba,  Linn.  (Faba  Straight  bean, 
vulgaris,  Moench.). 

Four  Indeter- 
minate varie- 
ties of  beans. 

Three  Indeter- 
minate varie- 
ties of  pulse, 
-  S  y  r  1  a  c 
N  P  D  1  D,  a 
variety  of 

Hairy  -  podded 





Aleppo  senna, 
or  senna. 

Phaseolus  Mungo,  Linn, 

n!2'ii\  Bible,  from  which 
comes  NP^nn  npj^'h, 

hcppN,  B 

D^DH  >JD  Spu'  r^p^'s'',  M.; 
•«im  JP''^,  Y.  (NPcaiN 

N3nNl,  B.  ?). 

>lSv,  M.;  niSn,  B.;  miSn, 

Sx3,  Bible,  M.;  NDCB",  B. 
D'CiDH  c'^sa,  M.  (I).. 

D'JIS^Tl  D''Ss3,  M 

SixSxa,  M.;  nSijSjb,  Y. 
ntf n3,  M.  (-I'xn,  Bible): 

of  op,  M.,T.,  Y.,  B.; 
■•pns,  T.,  Y.,  B. 
mi*  'U'nD,  M 

Name  in  Mlshnah, 
Talmud,  et*'. 

Lathyrus,  Linn 

Lathyrus  Clcera,  Linn.. 
Lathyrus  sativus,  Linn. 

Dollchos  Lablab,  Linn.. 
Cassia  obovata,  Collad. 

or   Cassia    acutifolia, 

Del.  (?) 
Ceratonia  Siliqua,  Linn. 

Prosopis  Stephanlana 
(Willd.),  Spreng. 

Two  varieties  of  Acacia, 

sap  of  Acacia  Nilotlca, 

Lemna  minor,  Linn 

Aloe  vera,  Linn.. 

Allium  Cepa,  Linn 

Allium  Ascalonicum, 

Diti",  Bible,  M.;  P''jcii:', 

M.;  ND1P,  NP'JDIP,  Y. 
3?nn  y:,  M 

}»>3Sn,  M 

Allium  Cepa,  Linn 

Allium  Porrum,  Linn.. 

Allium   curtum,  Bolss. 

and  Gain.  (?). 
Allium  sativum,  Linn. . . 

njtyvi',    Bible,    M.,   T.; 

pj^ip,  Y. 
"l?cn  T^yyw,  M 

Omithogalum,  Linn  — 
Lilium  candidum,  Linn. 
Fritlllaria,  Linn 


IPU'D,  M.;  NJP'3,  T.,Y., 

NJij-^n,    n']    Njijin 
[NP''cn  NPj''m. 

1D3,  Bible,   M.;    njun^ 
(?),  M. 

NJN1N,   NJN-\n,  B 

]DJ  irx,  M.,  D3V  (?). 
M.;  Njou  -\cy,  Y.,  B.; 
Ntp,  B. 

D-in,  Bible,  M.;  NDN,  T., 



Saint -John's - 
bread,  carob. 
(see  below). 







Summer  on- 



Star-of- Beth- 

FritUlary  (?). 



Loranthus  Acacise, 


Lawsonla  alba,  Linn — 

Malva     rotundifolia, 

Gossypium  herbaceum, 

Myrtus  communis, 



Common  mal- 
1  o w  and 




Botanical  Name. 


"\JtDn    Sid,    M.:    K^iD'Nelumblum   speclosum. 
N^^XD.'JiSY.onn?)     Willd. 


FraxlnuH  OrnuB,  Linn.. 

P-r.   Bible.   M.,  T.,   Y.,  Olea  Europa-u,  Ltnu 

B.,  Mldr. 

n-<'e,  M. 

-\3P,  Bible,  M.;  Spi,M.. 
,T.,  Y.,  B. 


D»«,  M.;  KP>«:X,  B 

NP'jSo,  B 


paSj,  M. 

nnnj?,  Bible;  t<37n, T. 
Y.,  B. 


nyn  313N,  M.;  untJCin,  Polygonum     avirulare 

Popular  Name. 




Phoenix    dactyllfera,  l)ati'-i>iiun. 


Papaver   Hha-aH,   Linn. 

opium  from  Papaver 
somnlftTum,  Linn., 
var.  glabniiii.  Bolss. 

Glaurium  cornk-iilatum. 

Plata  NACEiK. 

Platanus  orlentalls, 

Young  palmi. 
A    variety    of 

Common  pop- 


Oriental  plane- 

N'V">"'  N-iDin,  B. 

NrnciD,  Y.,  B. 


NC31,  M. 

HN^n    (n^'^T,  n'P),   M. 
Nn>11JT  N">p^v,  B. 

nsp,  Bible 

P>B'^8'S(B'),  M.  (?) 

pen  (pi.),  M.;  N1J3,  B. 
pBt'C,  M.,  Y.;  nO'lJ',  B. 

^pB'.  tiS  Bible,  M.,  T.; 

NlJ'Ii',  B. 

poncCN],  M.,  Y 

prjpDE-in,    M.;    ppc, 
M.   (?);   PvjiHN,   Y.; 

nu'D,  B.  (?). 

njD,    Bible,    M.;    N'jD. 

NJDN,  T..  Y.,  B. 

Linn.,  or  Polygonum 
e(4Uisetifonne,  Slbtb. 
and  Sm. 


Portulaca  oleracea, 


Cyclamen  Coum,  Mill., 
and  Cyclamen  lall- 
follum,  S.  et  8.  (?) 


Ranunculus  sceleratus. 
Linn.,  and  other  spe- 

Nlgella  saliva,  Linn 


Luteola  tlnctorla,  Web. 
Reseda  luteola,  Linn 



Round -leaved 


Crowfoot,  but- 

Nutmeg  -  flow- 


weed  (?). 


Zizyphus  lotus.  Lam. .Jujube,  and 
and  Zizyphus  spina-  Chrlst's- 
Chrisil,  Linn.  thorn. 

Zizyphus  vulgaris.  Lam. iCommon  Ju- 


Amygdalus    communis.  Almond. 

Persicavulgark,  Mill...  Peach. 
Prunusdomestlca,  Linn.  Plum. 


mn,  M.,  T.,  Y.,  B 

DjN,  p'^^ciaonp,  M  — 

D>>Da,  M.  (Y.) 

ni£3P,  Bible,  M.;  -\itn. 
T.,  Mldr.;  Cm,  'in) 
a'tt'3ij.'i  ^'-i  t<!i'^3n 
B.  ,        , 

pcno.    n?'D''7''D,  M.; 

p'^J-lDD'N,  Y. 

Nrcns,  B 

T\rn('iN),M.  [PVjccn, 

-\-\Ti>%  M.;  •e'S>o,  B.... 

PNID,  M.;  NP1D,  B. 

DJ-D.    M.;    NS'r3    (?). 

NJJ'O,  B. 

Rubus  sanctus,  Schreh.. 
or  Rubus  discolor, 
Willd.  and  Nees. 

Rosa,  Linn 

Pyrus  communis,  Linn. 

P'yrus  Syrlaca,  Bolss. (?) 

Malus  communis,  Desf.. 

Cydonia  vulgaris,  Willd. 

Sorbu."*.  Linn 

CratiFgus   Azarolus. 





Germanlca,  I  Medlar. 



Rublatlnctorum,  Linn., 

Rue,  and  Alep- 


Ruta  grnveolt-ns.  Linn., 
and  Uuta  Chalepensls,^     po  rue 
Linn.,     and     varieiyi 
bracteosa,  Bolss.  ' 




Name  in  Misbnata, 
Talmud,  etc. 

lairn  r^'Ps,  M..  ideo' 
tlcalwlihs->ar,  B.(?) 

."iDXCS,  Bible,  M. 

KPB^n.  n'^'j  Hs^-n,  B. 
nan;:,  Bible,  M.;  N.-a^N 
Kjiinn,  B. 

01CS1P,  M.;  Nce'ir,  T., 

pin,  Bible,  M.(T.,Y..B.) 

n'^n.-!  '3J?,  B 

IBK,  Bible,  NOCN,  T 

Botanical  Name. 

Pefranum  Harmala, 


Sallx    Safsaf.   Forsk., 
or  SalLx  alba,  Linn 

Sallx  (nigricans.  Fries.?) 

Populus   Eupbratica, 



Verbascum,  Linn 

Popular  Name. 


Sesamum  Indlcum, 


Solanum    coagulans, 

Solanum  nigrum,  Linn. 

Mandragora  of  ficina- 

rum,  Linn. 

I       Tamariscine^. 

(Srw,  Bible)  Nra,  B...!Tamarix     articulata, 
Vahl,  and  others. 

O'Kin,  Bible;   Nnn3>, 
T.;  pD'2D,  B. 


nj'jnnn,  M 

13DO.  M.,  Y..  B.;  -\i 

mr  '3 


OB-iS,  M.,  Y.,  B 

nnnjac    13D13,     M. 

pj>S'Dna>D,  Y. 
nn^Dn  ('n).m.;  m'j^j,  b 

HM-\3,  B.;  D3"\|"i,  M.  (?). 
]Ji3U,    M.;    N-«2i8',   Y.; 

D'Oie',  M.  (V). 
-\Kn\  M.;   011DP,  hniB, 

B.  (?) 

Harrael,  Syr- 
ian rue  or 
a  variety 
of  mullein 

Willow,  or 
w  h  i  t  e  w  1 1  - 

Black  willow. 

poplar  (3;'r, 
osier,  accord- 
ing to  Hai 
Gaon.  Salix 
Linn.  [?]). 

Mullein  (see 
Linn.,  under 



Nightshade  (?). 



nac  M. 

l^JICODK,  M..  Y 

J1D3,  Bible,  M.,  T.,  B.. 

r"D,  Mm  Mldr. 

nin,  M.,  Y.,  B.. 


fiber  of  Corchorus,  Corchorus. 


Eryngium  Creticum,  Button  snake- 
Lam,  root. 

Coriandrum  sativum.  Coriander. 

Biforatesticulata,  DC.(?) 

Coriandrum     tordylioi- 
des,  Boiss.  (?) 

Apium  graveolens.  Celery. 

Petroselinum    sativum.  Parsley. 
Hoflm.  I 

Ammi  majus,  Linn.,  Bullwort, bish- 
Ammi  copticum,  op' s-w e e d , 
Linn.,  and  Ammi  Vis-  Spanish 
naga,  Linn.  toothpick. 

Carum  Carui  Linn Caraway. 

Foeniculum     oflBcinale,  Fennel. 

A  variety  of  Ferula. 

Anethum  graveolens, 

Daucus  Carota,  Linn... 
Cumlnum   Cymlnum, 


Celtis  australis,  Linn. . . 

Morufl  nigra,  Linn., 
Ficus  Carlca,  Linn. 

nj^Kr,     Bible,    M.; 
K.-'rN.-i.  T.,  Y.,  B. 

nci">''2',  Bible,  M.,  Midr.;|Flcu8  Sycomorus,  Linn 
Krpir,  T.  I 

pam.n,  M.;  pair.  Y....  Capriflcus.  wild  varie- 
ties of  Ficus  Carica, 
Linn.,  variety  of  Fi- 
cus genuina,  Boiss., 
of  Ficus  rupestris, 
Uaussk.,  etc. 

Diajp,  M. Cannabis  satlva,  Linn., 

Kainp,  T ortlca  urens,  Linn. 




Southern  hack- 

Black  mul- 




Nettle  (?)  (see 
Tribulus  ter- 
restils,  un- 
der Zygo- 

Name  in  Misbnah, 
Talmud,  etc. 

NCJNT  ^mp. 

Ka  ix"\p,  corrupted 
N^ionp,  T.  <?). 

Botanical  Name. 


Avicennia  ofHcinalls, 
Linn.  (?). 


Tribulus  terrestris, 
Linn.,  or  Urtlca  urens, 

Popular  Name. 

Avicennia  (?). 

Land  -  caltrop, 
or  nettle. 

The  foreign  plants  mentioned  in  the  Tahnud  in- 
clude the  following,  although  the  Boswellia  was 
cultivated  in  Palestine  in  antiquity : 

Hebrew  Name. 

as'3    nj|i,    Bible;    'jp 

NCD13,  T. 
2::n,  M 

ryiDViJ,  M.;  •'Sipp,  Y.,  B 

t3tJ'ri(nB'i3),  M.;  N.-nr3 

nir,  Bible,  T.,  B.,  Midr, 

rjtap,     M.     (pcD^BN, 

psoSa);  DS'a,  Bible. 
njiaS,  Bible,  M.,  T.,  B. 


p:;jp,    Bible,    M.,    Y„ 

Midr.;  NDjip.pxm,  B. 

HDiSip,  M 

DO'DS,  B.  (readcD'D).. 

njaSn,  Bible,  M..  T.,  B. 
csra  ^e'Ni 

-nj  nSias',  M.,  Bible; 

KSavi*,  T. 
SdSd,  m.,  y.,  b 

DiSn,  M.;  NjnjN,  T.,  B.; 
from  this,  n\n'?n. 

Botanical  Name. 

Acorus  Calamus,  Linn. 
Amomum,  Linn 

Popular  Name. 

Sweet-flag,  cal- 



Amomum  Cardamo- 


Saussurea  Lappa,  Clarke 

(Aucklandia    Costus., 

Falconer ;   Glldemels-I 

ter    and    Hoffmann,! 

I.e.  p.  901). 
gum-resin    of    Commt-I 

phora  Abyssinica, 

Engl.,  Commiphora! 

Schimperi,  Engl.,  and 

Balsamodendron     Opo-  Balsam. 

balsamum,  Kunth., 

Commiphora  Opobal 

samum  (Linn.),  Engl, 
frankincense    of     Bos- 
wellia serrata,  Roxb., 

and  others, 
resin  of  the  dragon-tree. 

Calamus  Draco,  Willd 

(Dracaena  Draco, 

Linn.,  etc.). 
(Tlnnamomum  Zeylanl- 

cum,  Nees. 

KJNK',    B.;   from    this, 

bark  of   Cinnamomum 

Zeylanicum,  Nees. 
Dalbergia  Sissoo,  Roxb. 

Galbanum  from  Ferula 

galbaniflua,  Boiss.  and 

Myristica     fragrans, 

Houtt.,  and  others. 

Nardostachys  Jataman- 
si,  DC. 

Piper  nigrum,  Linn 

Scorodosma  (Ferula) 
Asafoetlda  (Linn.), 
Bentb.  and  Hook. 

Tectona  grandis,  Linn.. 

Zingiber  officinale. 




Ceylon  ebony. 


A  species  of 
nutmeg  and 
mace  from 
tbe  nutmeR- 


Black  pepper. 


The  following  are  names  of  briers  not  yet  identi- 
fied: -Nain,  mn,  Niyv  xaia,  n'jnvy,  }*ip.  Tradi- 
tion, comparative  philology,  and  botany  alike  fail 
to  furnish  any  aid  in  the  identification  of  the  follow- 
ing names  of  plants,  which  appear,  for  the  most 
part,  only  once: 

pN,  M.  (N.n>j-\%  Y.);  nvjTN,  M.  (not  lichens);  Ni>r''M,  Y.; 
NnDf\N,  B.  (not  St.-John's-wort);  piai,  M.;  pniSnSn  (pVnSn), 
M.;  N."i''^Dn,  Y.;  I'^r,  M.  (not  blossoms  of  the  (tiVtrapos); 
nS'C,  M.  (not  the  oak  or  the  ash);  nrs,  B. ;  nSnoo,  Y. ; 
\vy  nS;rr:,  M. ;  n^ama  (niflmD),  M. ;  n.-ti>d-id,  Y.  ;  nn'«j; 




(ni-cv).  (not  Ferboscum, mullein);  d^zz'  nxy,  M.;  hm'^i^d  (not 
(it\i<7<T6<t>v\\ov,  balm);  p^  nio  and  varieties;  Njta^B'D  and 
varieties;  njjS  mp  (not  Cosfiis  ^raWcus,  Linn.). 

Where  tradition  is  lacking  it  is  extremely  diffi- 
cult  to  identify  the   plant-names  recorded  in  the 
Mishnah  and  Talmud,  though  inferences  may  occa- 
sionally be  drawn   from   the   plants  mentioned  in 
connection  witli  a  problematical  term.     An  instance 
of   this  is  the  D''D'^3.  mentioned  together  with  the 
3<nn,  carob,  St.-John's-bread  (Ter.  ii.  4;  Tosef.  v. 
33  =  Yer.  'Orlah    ii.  62a;    Yer.  Bik. 
XJnidenti-    iii.  65,  13c;  'Uk.  i.  6),  and  which  oc- 
fied  curs  by  itself  (D'O'^Datr  J"':rin"' :  Tosef . , 

Names.  Ter.  vii.  37;  Yer.  Ter.  viii.  45,  68b; 
Sifra,  Shemot,  57a;  Hul.  67a).  This 
was  traditionally  explained  as  a  variety  of  bean 
("  Halakot  Gedolot,"  ed.  Hildesheimer,  547,  4,  where 
the  correct  reading  is  ■'^pa  =  TaSHBaZ,  iii.  11, 
^^pN2),  but  later  was  regarded  as  an  acorn.  The 
proximity  of  the  carob  suggested  Cercis  Siliqiias- 
trum,  Linn.  (Leunis,  "Synopsis,"  §  437,  14),  the 
Judas-tree,  on  which  Judas  Iscariot  is  said  to  have 
hanged  himself,  although  according  to  other  tradi- 
tions he  died  on  an  elder  or  a  jujube.  Pulse  is  called 
"false  carob,"  aypia  ^yXoKeparta  (Lenz,  "Botanik  der 
Griechen  und  Romer,"  p.  733;  Fraas,  "Synopsis," 
p.  65;  Post,  I.e.  p.  297).  It  is,  however,  to  \)g  identi- 
fied with  the  Prosopis  Stephaniana  (Willd.),  Spreng., 
which  belongs  to  the  same  family.  This  is  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  view  of  Ascherson,  who  was  sur- 
prised, while  in  the  oases,  by  the  similarity  of  the 
sweet,  well-flavored  pulp  of  the  fruit  of  this  tree 
with  that  of  the  St.-John's-bread  {ib.  p.  298). 

In    the     Geonic    Literature :     The   geonic 

period,  which  came  to  an  end  In  1040  (see  Gaon), 
saw  a  development  of  the  botanical  knowledge  of 
the  Babylonian  Jews,  as  is  evident  from  the  deci- 
sions of  the  Geonim  and  the  first  great  post-Tal- 
mudic-halakic  work,  the  "  Halakot  Gedolot "  (cited 
hereafter  as  "H.  G.").     The  chief  cultivated  plant 
that  is  mentioned  in  this  work  for  the  first  time  in 
Hebrew   literature  is  the  sugar-cane.      Other  im- 
portant trees,  plants,  and  fruits  mentioned  are  the 
following:  tree  and  fruit  of  the  Musa  sapientium, 
Linn.,  the  banana,  perhaps  also  a  variety  of   the 
Musa  paradisiaca,  the  plantain,  under  the  Arabic 
name  "mauz,"  derived  from  the  Sanskrit  ("H.  G." 
66,  19;  57,  5;  "Responsa  der  Geonim,  "ed.  Lyck,  No. 
45,  p.  18;  "Toratanshel  Rishonim,"  ii.  56;  "Shibbole 
ha-Leket,"  12b;  RaDBaZ,  ed.  FUrth,  No.  531,  a.v. 
"Hai";    "Bet  Yosef,"   Orah   Hayyim,  208;    L5w, 
"Aramaische    Pflanzennamen,"    p.    336);     Daucus 
Carota,  Linn.,  carrot,  ITJ  (also  in  Arabic  and  Syriac, 
"H.  G."  ed.  Hildesheimer,  60,  19;  ed.  Venice,  8.  b4; 
"E.^hkol,"i.  68,  10;  Post,  I.e.  p.  372;  L5w,  I.e.  p.  86); 
"'^131p,  Sinapis  arvensis,  Linn.,  a  variety  of  mustard, 
put  in  brine  in  Roman  fashion  ("H.  G."  ed.  Hildes- 
heimer, 72;   read  thus  instead  of  "i3J1D;  Post,  I.e. 
p.  76;  L5w,  I.e.  p.  178);   plums,  under  the  name  of 
^nxn,  like  the  Syrian  "  haha  "  ("  H.  G." 
The  ed.  Venice,  7,  cl5;  Law,  I.e.  p.  149); 

"Halakot    >3)0  ("H.  G."  ed.  Venice,  8,  b23;  lack- 
Gedolot.''    ing  in  ed.  Hildesheimer,  58,  28 ;  "  Esh- 
kol,"  i.  68,  ■•J10,  as  in  Syriac),  a  vari- 
ety of  bean  (in  this  same  passage  and  in  "H.  G."  ed. 
Hildesheimer,  547,  5,  also  ^^'p3,  Arabic  "  bakilta  ") ; 
1  X.— 6 

another  variety  of  bean  (L(iw,  I.e.  p.  245);  'p^J'^n 
("II.  G."  58,  4-5),  myrobaltm,  as  in  Syriac,  from  the 
Arabic  "halilaj,"  not  mentioned  again  until  tin-  time 
of  Asaph  ben  Berechiah,  but  used  later  in  all  the 
works  on  medicine  (Steinsciinoider,  "  Heilmittelnu- 
niender  Araber,"  No.  1997;  Liiw,  I.e.  p.  12'J);  KH'^C 
("  II.  G."  ed.  Venice.  8b.  21-22).  the  Aramaic  form  of 
the  mishnaic  DQC,  a  Persian  loan-word,  appearing 
again  in  Asjipli  ([..iiw,  I.e.  p.  373) ;  mJU  ( '0,  inarj^inal 
gloss  in  "H.  G."(('d.  Hildesheimer,  57.  6).  a  ground- 
fruit.  In  "  H.  G."  70,  last  line  =  "  Eshkol."  i.  68.  the 
Arabic  "hinnah"  is  used  for  the  Hiblical  "henna" 
(LOW,  I.e.  p.  212). 

Other  Arabic  and  Persian  names  of  plants  wliirh 
are  mentioned  in  works  of  the  Geonim  are:   JJTnc, 
hemp-seed  ("H.  G."  56,  20;   "i:sliko)."  i.  68,  with 
"resh,"  but  in  ed.  Venice,  7b,  rightly  with  "daiel  "; 
RaDBaZ,  ed.  FUrtli,  531,  s.v.  "Hai";  LOw,  I.e.  pp. 
211,  248);  33Dn.  Polypodium  ("  H.  G."  Ill,  5;  Lilw, 
I.e.    p.    268);    m^^,    Bransiea    JitijHi, 
Persian      Linn.,  turnip  ("H.  G. "72,21 ;  Mislmah. 
and  Arabic  Talmud,  nC?;  Low,  I.e.  p.  241);  nx;r 
Names.       D1DDK  ("H.  G."  ed.  Venice,  8c),  (Jry- 
mum  boMlieum,    Linn.,  basil;  n313V, 
pine-nuts  {ib.  ed.  Hildesheimer,  57,  8;  ed.  Venice, 
7d;  "Eshkol,"  i.  67);  XT01J("H.  G."  57,  end;  Hai, 
in  "Responsa  der  Geonim,  Kehillat  Shelomoh,"  ed. 
Wertheimer,  No.  9;  Harkavy,  "  Responsen  der  Geo- 
nim," p.  28  ;  L5w,  I.e.  p.  "286);   JD1D,   the  Arabic 
equivalent  of  D'PDyn  DJ^IK',  lily  (**H.  G."  70,  end); 
KQ^n   {ib.   646,   10).      A  number  of  Arabic  names 
of  plants  may  be  found  in  the  marginal  glosses  of 
the  Vatican  manuscript  of  the  "Halakot  Gedolot." 
as  "hasak,"  thorn,   gloss  on  >yr\  {ib.  160,  No.  36); 
JDBJ  (read  JDBJ3),  violet,  on  >^rD  {ib.  70.  No.  102; 
"Eshkol,"  i.- 68;  RaDBaZ,  i.  44  =  n^lK'1.  "Keneset 
ha-Gedolah,"  Orah  Hayyim,  204;  D^IK'1.  responsa, 
"Debar  Shemuel,"  No.  2;    {^^IK^V    Lehush,  Ora^i 
Hayyim,  216,  8);  p^KDII.  equivalent  to  the  Arabic 
"sil,"  on  p-in("H.  G."  92,  No.  29;  Harkavy.  I.e. 
p.  209). 

The  Geonim,  especially  Hai  Gaon  (see  Hai  ben 
Sherira),  prefer  to  give  their  explanations  in  Ara- 
bic. In  the  responsa  the  Harkavy  edition,  for  exam- 
ple, has  "  abnus,"  "  shauhat,"  "  sasam  "(p.  135 ;  Krauss, 
"LehnwOrter,"  ii.  46),  "abhul"  (p.  23;  "Responsa 
der  Geonim,"  ed.  Cassel,  p.  42a),  "anjudan  "  (p.  23). 
" babunaj  ''{ib.  p. 209), " sunbul  al-nardin"  (p.  29),  and 
"kurnub"  (ib.  p.  208).  In  his  commentary  on  the 
Mishnah  (Toharot)  Hai  Gaon  gives,  as  a  riile,  the 
Arabic  names  of  the  plants  side  by  side  with  the 
Aramaic  terms,  as,  for  example:  "isfunj,"  "asal." 
"thayyil"  (Harkavy,  I.e.  p.  22).  "jauz  buwa." 
"juliban,"  "harshaf,"  "hulbah"  (ib.  p.  23). 
"hiltith."  "haifa,"  "khiyar,"  "khayzuran."  "dar 
sini,"  "rajlah,"  "rumman,"  "za'faran."  "sadhab." 
"safarjal,"  "silk,"  "shuniz,"  "shaytaraj."  "fuU." 
"kitha'  al-himar,"  "kirtim,"  "kar'ah,"  "ka.^ib  al- 
bardi."  "kummathra,"  "mahruth,"  "na'na'." 

The  Arabic  names  of  plants  in  the  "  'Aruk  "  are 
drawn  almost  without  exception  from  geonic 
sources.  The  list  is  as  follows  (in  the  order  of  the 
Arabic  alphabet): 

Alam.  OJK  (this  and  'uyun  al-       Akak-lya,  nv.'^n. 
bakar,  8.U.  rpDC"^")-  ^°^"''  i>.\-n'a^  'a^   al™  »- 




Baklah.  rui^ji'rn  (111.  396a). 

Bakkam.  n£j3-\. 

Ballut,  cri*^. 

Bunduk,  |i-»jic. 

JlUauz."  NJ20  f'^JO. 

Juminalz,  t"SJ. 

Julban,  ^^E.  nc>J. 

5abb  al-muluk,  rvj3i3i. 

Parmal.  k">3S'. 

yulbah,  jrSp. 

5alfa,  r|Vn. 

Qimmls,  C'JiCN. 

Handakuk,  rvjijnj. 

^anzal.  -ijj3. 

khlnva',  X3'':'i^x,  ynoN. 

Khashkhash,  J'j-^d. 

Dar  stnl,    prj,-".  am.  p3t"n 

(HI.  161b.  428b). 
Dar  kisah,  nci'^'i"'. 
Rajlah,    n'^'J"*.  ruiSjiSn  (11. 

Zaghab  al-khlyar,    ?;•   nis'3 

■  rwp. 

Zarghun,  jdj  Va'  jna*. 

Za'rur,  n-ity. 

Zawan.  y:v. 

Safarjal,  2"-\o. 

Silk,  B'jiy'',  p^D  (1.  V9b). 

Summak,    jin    (also  s-v.  .--a 
y3XK,  No.  2  in  Paris  MS.). 

Slmslm,  =-j-:ir. 
Shajar  maryam,  no^-^' 
Shuh,  'mrN. 
?aKhir  al-adhnab,  a'jaip. 
Sanaubar,  pr  }";. 

•Af9,  NXDN. 

'L'kruban.  s^jani-'j:. 
Ghubalra'.  "cSia  (inrp. 
Fuji.  pjs. 

Farfahln.  r^JiSji'^n. 
Fustak,  pPD^D  is-v.  pD). 
Fukka',  ."v-\BD  (s.u.  pnc;). 
Faljan.  nyc- 
Fuwwah.  riNic. 
KakuUah.  ^iDi'D  (11.  241b). 
Karnabit,  ■>.-^3">."'. 
Karanful,  "^oio. 
Kutniyya,  rvr^"'. 
Kuikas,  opir'  (not  t]^'^). 
Kabar     (kifar),     I'-x,    Nmc 

(viil.  248). 
Karratb,  n^j'-^s. 
Karafs,  DD">3. 
Kuzburah.  ■>3DU  "^J. 
Kushut,  rw2. 
Kamah,  ]'<7y::j. 
Labsan,  poS. 
Na'na',  Krj3. 
N'il,  DCDS. 
Hindaba,  "a-'jn. 

For  a    proper  understanding  of    the   Talmudic 
writings  constant  reference  must  be  made  to  the 
traditions  of  the  Babylonian  schools,  preserved  in 
the  decisions,  commentaries,  and  compendiums  of 
the  Geonim  and  their  pupils.     Most 
Hai  Gaon.    Jewish  statements  about  plants  like- 
wise rest  on  such  traditions,  of  which 
the  greatest  number  is  preserved  in  the  writings  of 
Hai  Gaon.    Hehasalsokeptanumberof  old  Aramaic 
words  in  his  explanations,  such  as  ND'H,  radish; 
N^31p,  camomile;  NJKa^''n(N^a^3n[?]  ;  LOw.^.c.  pp. 
140,  309,  326;  Harkavy,  I.e.  p.  209).     R.  Hananeel 
BEN  Hushiel  preserved  a  considerable  amount  of 
botanical  information  from  geonic  sources,  and  this 
was  made  more  generally  known  by  the  "  'Aruk." 
For  example,  he  strikingly  describes  sago  as  "a 
substance  like  meal,  found  between  the  fibers  of  the 
palm"  (Kohut,  "Aruch  Completum,"  vi.  65a);  co- 
conuts as  coming  from  India  {ib.  vi.  10a) ;  arum  (S)"ip) 
as  a  plant  whose  roots  are  eaten  as  a  vegetable  with 
meat,  and  which  has  leaves  measuring  two  spans 
in  length  and  two  in  breadth  {ib.  v.  29a);  and  reeds 
as  growing  after  their  tops  have  been  cut  off  {ib.  iii. 
420b).    Mention  is  made  of  a  prickly  food  for  camels 
{ib.  ii.  180b),  as  well  as  of  castor-oil  and  its  use  {ib. 
vii.  19b).     Lupines  and  a  certain  other 
Hananeel     pulse,  he  declares,  do   not  grow  in 
b.  Hushiel.  Babylon  {ib.  vi.  229b).    He  is  unable  to 
describe  Peganum  Harmnla,  Linn.,  ac- 
curately, but  says  it  is  one  of  the  plants  used  for 
medicinal  purposes,  while  its  small,  blackish  seed, 
which  has  a  strong  and  unplea.sant  smell,  is  very  hot 
{ib.  viii.  19b),  in  the  technical  sense  of  the  Greek 
medical  writers;  it  is  mentioned  here  for  the  first 
time   in  rabbinical   literature  (Meyer.  "Gesch.  der 
Botanik,"  ii.  192;  comp.  Galen,  xii.  82:  "It  is  hot 
in  the  third  degree").     According  to  Sherira  Gaon, 
pU  seeds  are   hot,  and  therefore  the   seed-bearing 
onion-stalk  also  is  hot  (Kohut,  I.e.  v.  330a;  these 
are  the  first  traces  of  Greek  medicine  in  rabbinical 

literature).    Cedar-wood  becomes  moist  in  water,  but 

fig-wood   remains  dry  ("  Da'at  Zekenim,  Hukkat," 

beginning),  according  to  Saadia  Gaon, 

Saadia.  whose  translation  of  the  Bible  is  the 
chief  source  of  many  identifications 
of  Biblical  plants,  since,  where  definite  traditions 
were  lacking,  he  introduced  definite  Arabic  terms 
to  make  his  translation  readable  (Bacher,  "Die 
Bibelexegese,"  p.  6). 

In  conclusion,  a  few  more  botanical  details  from  the 
writings  of  the  Geonim  may  be  mentioned :  the  ac- 
curate differentiation  of  capers,  their  buds,  blossoms, 
fruit,  and  parts;  the  correct  explanation  of  "'aspara- 
gus "  as  the  tender  roots  of  cabbage,  not  asparagus 
(Harkavy,  I.e.  p.  196);  and  an  accurate  definition  of 
n'DIp  {ib.  p.  179).  Hai  Gaon  clearly  describes  the 
Cuscuta(e6.  p.  215;  LOw,  I.e.  p.  231)  and  the  heads  of 
camomile,  and  gives  a  brief  account  of  the  XK'01"13 
=  Arabic  "' giiubaira' "  (Harkavy,  I.e.  p.  28;  "Ke- 
hillat  Shelomoh, "  ed.  Wertheimer,  No.  9).  The  arti- 
choke is  also  well  characterized  by  Sherira  and  Hai 
when  they  say  that  the  spines  are  taken  off,  and  the 
inside  of  the  plant  iseaten(Abu  al- Walid,  Dictionary, 
115.  17;  392,  4  [ed.  Bacher] ;  D.  Kimhi,  "Miklol,"«.t!. 
lyiy).  One  geonic  writer,  probably  Hai,  identifies 
niyipD  ■^vith  the  eggplant,  but  for  historical  reasons 
this  can  not  be  accepted. 

In  the  geonic  period  Eldad  ben  Maiili  ha-Dani 
invented  his  "darmush"  for  pepper,  and  also  de- 
clared that  neither  thorns  nor  thistles  grow  in  the 
lands  of  the  Lost  Ten  Tribes  (D.  H.  Miiller,  "Die 
Kccensionen  und  Versionen  des  Eldad 
Eldad        ha-Dani,"  pp.  18,  68,  Vienna,   1892), 
ha-Dani.      which  devote  themselves  to  tlie  culti- 
vation of  flax  {ib.  p.  1).     To  the  same 
period  belongs  the  medical  work  of  Asaph  ben  Bere- 
CHiAii,  which  is  based  upon  the  Syriac  translation  of 
Dioscorides,  and  has  thus  preserved   many  Syriac 
names  of  plants.     Shortly  after  Asaph  came  Shab- 
bethai  Donnolo  (946),  who  was  primarily  a  writer 
on  medicine.     In  the  "Sefer  ha-Yakar."  ch.  iii.-iv., 
however,  he  enumerates  the  plants  that  improve  or 
injure  the  quality  of  honej'. 

The  list  of  thirty  varieties  of  fruit  given  by 
pseudo-Ben  Sira  is  noteworthy,  even  though  it  is 
borrowed  from  Greek  sources.  The  passage  is  dis- 
cussed by  Low  {I.e.  pp.  2  et  seq.)  with  reference  to 
Mas'udi  {ib.  p.  4;  see  also  Brull,  "Jahrb."i.  205). 
Even  before  Low,  Noldeke  had  suggested  that 
there  were  Arabic  recensions  of  the  passage  (LOw, 
I.e.  p.  417);  and  their  existence  is  evident  not  only 
from  Mas'udi  but  also  from  Tabari  ("  R.  E.  J."  xxix. 
201).  According  to  Stcinschneider  ("Hebr.  Bibl." 
1882,  p.  55),  the  thirty  varieties  of  fruit  are  mentioned 
as  Palestinian  also  by  Hayyim  Vital  in  Natan  Spira's 
"Sha'are  Yerushalayim,"  vi.  6,  end. 

In   the   Post-Geonic   Period  :     Information 

concerning  the  knowledge  of  plants  in  the  post- 
geonic  period  must  be  sought  in  the  translations  of 
the  Bible,  the  commentaries  on  the  Bible  and  Tal- 
mud, and  the  lexicons.  Here  it  will  be  sufficient 
to  mention  some  of  the  statements  of  R.  Gershom, 
the  'Aruk,  Rashi,  and  a  few  other  writers. 

In  the  commentaries  which  are  probably  correctly 
ascribed  to  him  R.  Gershom  ben  Judah  has  the 
oldest  foreign  words  (KOnigsberger,  "  Fremdsprach- 




liche  Glossen,  I.— R.  Gerschom  b.  Jehiida,"  1896; 
Brandin,  "Les  Loazim  de  R.  Geislioin,"  iu  "Publ. 
Ecole  iSationale  des  Cliartes,"  pp.  15  ct  scq.,  Tou- 
louse, 1898;  "R.  E.  J."  Nos.  83,  84,  85.  Braiuiiii 
consulted  the  mauuscripts  also;  but,  strangely 
enough,  he  has  not  the  gloss  13''D^D,  B.  B.  2b,  and 
this  is  also  lacking  in  Low's  aliihabctical  list  of  Gcr- 
shom's  foreign  words).  Braudiu  transcribes  the 
following  foreign  plant-names:  "aveine,"  wild  bar- 
ley ;  "  bayes,"  fruits  of  the  laurel ;  "  boso  "  (Italian), 
"bois,"  boxwood;  "cro,"  "crocu  orientel,"  salTron ; 
"honilon,"  hop;  "kmel"  ("ehmiel,"  Slavonic); 
"  kos,"  "  kost,"  costmary  ;  "  laSre  "  (Italian,  "  lasero  "), 
laserwort;  "lesche,"  sedge;  "lor,"  laurel ;  "molse," 
moss;     "ortyes,"     nettles;     "pores," 

R.  Ger-       leek;    "sape,"   fir-tree;    "sigle,"  rye; 

shorn.        "spicu,"     ear    of     corn,     spikenard; 

"  tel,"  linden-tree ;  "  ternure,"  ternage ; 

"tora,"  torus  (Menahem  b.  Solomon,  mn) ;    " wa- 

ranze,"  madder-root;  and  y^P  (<'"  pt^*  |*y,  Tamid 


The  linden  is  mentioned  here  for  the  first  time  in 
Jewish  literature.  Later,  npK  is  translated  "  linden  " 
iu  Germany  (Grlinbaum,  I.e.  p.  27),  and  Baruch 
Lindau  (1788)  renders  mt^X  by  "  linden."  The  only 
linden  that  Post  {I.e.  p.  8)  knows  in  Palestine  is  the 
Tilia  argentea,  Desf.,  the  Oriental  silver  linden, 
Avhich  grows  in  the  region  of  the  Amana.  No  linden 
is  mentioned  as  coming  from  Egyjit  (Ascherson  and 
Schweinfurth,  "Flore  d'Egypte*"  p.  53).  Nor  did 
the  Syrians  know  liow  to  translate  (pil'vpa,  the  name 
of  silver  linden;  the  Arabic  rendering  by  Berggren 
(in  a  manuscript  belonging  to  the  Deutsche  Morgen- 
landische  Gesellschaft)  is  "zihr  al-mahlab."  The 
word  "thore,"  mentioned  above,  also  is  of  interest, 
as  R.  Gershom  ben  Judah  is  the  oldest  source  for 
the  word. 

According  to  Gustav  Schlessinger,  Rashi  has  the 
following  French  names  of  plants: 

French  Name. 

Aloe's  (aloine).. . 
Aloisne,  aliilsne. 



ArisUilocbe  (?).. 

Arnica  (?) 












Cerfiiel,  cerfoll.. 




C  h  a  s  t  a  1  K  n  e . 



Clpoule,  ciboule, 




Corme,  cormier 





Wild  blite. 


Shallot,  clbol. 
Sorb,  service- 

French  Name. 


Croc,  groc. 



Erbe  felchiere  . . 
Erbe  sabonaire.. 


Espic,  spic 


Fasele,  faseole . . 
Fenocle,  fenoil.. 
Fenugrec,   fene- 




Geneivre,    geni- 



G  land 


crespigno  (?). 
Guesde,  waisde . 
lerre.  ere.  edre. . 

Jote,  jotte 

June,  ]onc 












Spelt,     [nard. 
Nard,     spike- 








Wild  vine. 







French  Nunie. 




Meiirlcr.   moll- 



Nesple,  niiple  . . . 





Osre,  osier 

Faille,  poile  fo- 
arre  {'<)■ 

Funis,  penlz 


I'erseche,  pre- 

Peupller,  pou- 


Plan(;on  (?) 


Porchallle,  por- 

Pore,  porele 



Prune,  prunler. . 

Pulpiet,  pour- 








11  o  B  e  -  c  n  m 
plon,  rnul- 






French  Name. 













rt'ittell,  roMiaii.. . 




Siilve<',  i-elvle. 





Sorbler,  cormier, 




ril,  Icil,  tel 




Tudel,  pecce 


Veranee,    va- 


Vice,  vece..,.. 
VIole,  viol^  . .. 

BpaiiUh  rnnin- 
iiille.   fcvur- 



u  luck  berry - 










Cluster   of 

flowers   or 



Most  of  the  "loazim"  of  the  Mahzor  Vitry,  ad- 
mirably discussed  by  Gustav  Schlessinger,  come 
from  Rashi.     Among  the  names  of  plants  arc: 









Eliandre   (for 

Erbe  felchiere 
Erbe  sabonaire 






Mire  (myrrhe) 


Pels  (pois) 






Rude  (rue) 


The  Arabic  names  of  plants  found  in  the  "  "Aruk" 

of  R.  Nathan  b.  Jehicl  have  already  been  given,  since 

they  are  derived  for  tlie  most  part. 

The  though  not  exclusively,  from  gconic 

'Aruk.       sources.      Ilis   vernacular  glosses,  in 

part  taken  from  Gershom,  are  better 

preserved   than    Rashi 's   foreign    words,    of   whicli 

twelve  are  lacking  iu  Kohut's  Italian  index. 

[In  the  following  list  the  references,  unless  otherwise  stated, 
are  to  Kohut,  "Aruch  Completum."] 

Albatro  (vl.  185a). 

Aloe  (i.  2.5'Jb). 

Aneto  (viil.  ~'4a). 

Appio  (iv.  341a;  "R.  E.  J." 
xxvii.  241). 

Armoracclo  (vll.  28b). 

Asparago  (iv.  l.'>8a). 

Assafetida  (error  for  "la- 

Atreplce  (v.  49b). 

Avellana  (11.  4~'a):  nocella  (vl. 
3()7b  ;  Menahem  b.  Solomon, 
"SekelTob,"  p.  xil.). 

A  vena  (see  segale). 

Balsamo  (vli.  84b). 

Bambagia  (vli.  2.'ib). 

Ba.>islllco  (Iv.  234b). 

Bieta.  bliti  (1.  T9b.  138b;  Sl- 
ponto  [hereafter  cited  as 
Sip.l  on  Kll.  i.  3;  not  "ble- 

Bosso,  busso  (I.  314a,  vl.  328a). 

Braslle    (vll.    STTb;    Sip.    on 

Kll.  II.  .'■)>. 
Canapa  (vll.  131a;  Sip.  on  Kll. 

V.  8:  "R.  E.  J."xxvll.246). 
Canella  (111.  I6lb). 
Cappero  (v.  374b,  vl.  421a,  vll. 

21a;  Sip.    on    Dem.    I.  1: 

Ma'as.  Iv.  6). 
Cardl  dom««tlcl  (vl.  90b:  Sip. 

on  Slieb.  Ix.  5;    comp.  car- 

(Inton-,  vl.  144 1. 
Cardo   (vl.    19(5a ;  "  R.   E.  J." 

xxvll.  248). 
Caretto,    not    corteccia     (111. 

Cerasa  (111.  5b). 
CIcen-hla.  cicercia    (III.  431b. 

vl.  3018,  b;  Sip.  on  Kll.  1.  !). 
CIcerl  (I.  22na:   Sip.  on  Kll. 

111.2;  Peah  III.  3). 
Clnnnmomo  (III.  3(6a). 
Colocasla  (v.  28b ). 




Coriandro,  culiandro  (Li.  239a. 

241b,  iv.   272a;    Meaahem, 

"Sekel  Tob."  p.  xii.;   Sip. 

on  Kil.  i.  2;  Sbeb.  ix.  1; 

"R.  E.  J."  xxvii.  245,  note). 
Conne  (French)  salvatico  (iv. 

Costo  (vil.  &la,  223b;  Sip.  on 

Kil.  i.  8). 
Cotogna  (til.  313a;  "R.  E.  J." 

xxvii.  24J5 :  Sip.  on  Kil.  1. 1). 
Crespino  (vi.  2U»a  ;  "  R.  E.  J."' 

xxvii.  216;    Menahem,  I.e. 

p.  xi.). 
Croco  orientale  (vi.  329b,  vli. 

D&ttile.  gloss  (vi.  32b). 
Eliotropio  <vi.  252b). 
Ellera.    edera    (iil.  472a,  vil. 

IKJb;  "R.  E.J."  xxvii.  247; 

Sip.  on  Kil.  V.  8). 
Erbaglaucio  lii.  290b). 
Fagiuolo,  fasolo  (vi.  301b ;  Sip. 

on  Kil.  i.  2). 
Fava,  faba,  faba   blanca  (vi. 

301b;  Sip.  on  Kil.  i.  1). 
Ferula  (viii.  19b). 
Finocchio,  fenuclo  (iv.  158a, 

viii.  61a;  "R.  E.J."  xxvii. 

245 ;  Sip.  on  Sheb.  ix.  1) . 
ForragRio  (i.  190a). 
Fungo  (iil.  lib.  vi.  318b;  **R. 

E.  J."  xxvii.  248). 
Galla  (iii.  431b). 
Garofano,    giroflo   (Iv.   301b; 

"R.  E.J."  xxvii.  242). 
Gelso  (il.  129b;  o'^'X  on  •'aSi'? 

hSkh  ;   Sip.  on  Sheb.  vti.  5 ; 

'D'^'X,  Ma'a.s.  i.  2). 
Glande  (v.  36a.  393a ;  vi.  104b) . 
Gomma  (ti.  378b.  vii.  122a). 
Indaco,  Indicum  (i.  172a;  Sip. 

on  Kil.  li.  5). 
Indivia    (error    for    "sena- 

Isopo  (vi.  2b ;  Sip.  on  Sheb. 

viii.  1). 
Lambrusco  (ii.  339b). 
Lasero  puzzolento  or  purulen- 

to  (Menahem.  I.e.,  ikjnSid), 

not  laserpitium  (iii.  421a). 
Lattuga  (iii.  364b  ;  "  R.  E.  J." 

xxvii.    243,     Kiya^,    NpioS; 

Menahem,  I.e. ;  Sip.  on  Kil. 

i.  2). 
Laudano  (error  for  "ladano") 

(v.  18b). 
Lauro  (vi.  2.56b ;   "  R.  E.  J." 

xxvii.  243). 
Legume  (vii.  83a ;  Sip.  on  Hal. 

♦Llsca  (vi.  7.5n). 
Lupino  (false  reading,  11. 362a, 

iv.  333a). 
Malva  (iil.  246b.  404b ;  vl.  391a; 

Sip.  on  Kil.  1.8). 
Marrobbio  (v.  oSb,  vlll.  245a  ; 

"R.  E.  J."  xxvii.  244 ;  Men- 
ahem, I.e.). 
Menu  (i.  l.Jla  ;  v.  181a.  ^9b  ; 

"R.  E.J."  xxvll.  243). 
Mora  (vlll.  291a). 
*Nervolo   (?.  vl.  30b;  ''hyy-\(i. 

Sip.  on    Kil.    1.  1;  iSiaij. 

Caleb  Afendopolo,  Kil.  16b  ; 

Kohut,     "Aruch     Comple- 

tum,"  ervolo  [?]. 
Nigella   (vli.   17.-)b.    lii.  306b; 

not  gloglio.  logllo,  but  ni- 
gella.   corn-campion,    con- 
fused with  darnel). 
Nocella  (see  avellana). 
Orlgano  (vl.  2b ;  Sip.  on  Sheb. 

vill.  1). 

0r20  (vii.  256b). 

Papavero  (vi.  410). 

Pastlnaca  (v.  346b). 

Pera    (i.   25a;    Sip.   on    Kil. 

Persica  (1.  242a). 
Pigna  (vi.  239b). 
Pilatro  (iii.  243b.  441b). 
Pisi  (pisello  ;  vi.  301b;  Sip.  on 

Kil.  i.  1). 
Polio  (iii.  248b  ;vl.  315b,  2b; 

Sip.  on  Sheb.  viii.  1). 
Porri  (iv.  342b;    "R.  E.  J." 

xxvii.  245;    Sip.   on   Sheb. 

vii.  1;  Kil.  i.  2). 
Procacchia,    porcacchia    (ill. 

395a,  iv.  263a,  vii.  253a  ;  Sip. 

on  Sheb.  ix.  1). 
Pmgua  (iii.  155a,  iv.  351b,  vl. 

294a  ;"R.  E.  J."  xxvii.  248); 

Ni'D  rzn-\si'h—  ti-f^^B  (vi. 

412a;  Mussafla,  Jujubes,  ac- 
cording toBuxtorf),'|i-ix''ic, 

\">''X^iO     (viii.    281a;    Ben 

Sira, "  Pflanzenuamen,"  3; 

Caleb    Afendopolo,     twice 

with   "  r."     Kohut,  I.e.  iv. 

263a,  is  incorrect) . 
Radice  (v.  361b  ;  Sip.  on  Kil. 

Ramolaccio  (see  armoracclo). 
Robbia    (vii.  175b;    Sip.    on 

Sheb.  v.  4,  N^n). 
cncn  (vi.  196a;  neither  ra- 

muccio  nor  rusco). 
Rosmarino  (iii.  410a;  "R.  E. 

J."  xxvii.  246). 
N^n.  N-\''n,  n'l  (111.  262a). 
Ruchetta   oruga  (i.  305a,  iv. 

34.5a    ("Ruca  di    Petro"; 

Sip.  on  Sheb.  i.  1). 
Ruta  (vi.  291b;    "R.   E.  J." 

xxvii.  246 ;  Sip.  on  Kil.  i.  8 ; 

Sheb.  ix.  1). 
Salvatico,  selvatico  (vi.  355b). 
Sanguine  (iii.  241b). 
Satureia    (iii.    511a;  v.  349b; 

vi.  2b,  173a). 
Segale  (n^P'^d,  Sip.  on  Kil.  1. 1), 

variant  reading,  avena  (vlll. 

13b;  NJM\  Menahem,  I.e.). 
Senazione    (Iii.    222a;    Caleb 

Afendopolo,      Kil.      17a, 

■*J«rx),  domestlche  and  fo- 

restiche  (vl.  210a),  not  sonco 

(comp.  "R.    E.  J."   xxvii. 

Sesamo  (viii.  109b). 
Sisimbrlo  (i.  297a,  vl.  2b ;  Sip. 

on  Sheb.  viii.  1). 
Sorbo  (vl.  185a;    see  "alba- 

tro,"  "R.  E.J."  xxvii.  218; 

Sip.  on  Dem.l.  1). 
Sorgo  (viii.  144a). 
Spelda,     espelta     (111.    168a; 

NX^'Dtt',  Menahem,  I.e.;  Sip. 

on  KU.  1.  1). 
Splcanardi  (v.  334b,  viii.  13a; 

"R.  E.  J."  xxvii.  242). 
Tartufo,  tartufolo   (vl.  318b; 

"R.  E.  J."  xxvii.  248). 
Vecda  (Hi.  221b.  iv.  »l,3b,  vl. 

liOlb;  Sip.  on  Kil.  I.  1). 
Zenzero  (ill.  .30.Ta  ;  "R.  E.  J." 

xxvii. 247;  >i3fr.  Sip.  on  Ur- 
iah 11.10). 
Zenzevero,    zenzlberl     (ii. 

Zizzanladl.  233)  Is  wrong,  even 

if  the  word  were  Italian ;  it 

Is  Aramaic,  however. 
Zizzlba  (?)  (III.  321b). 
Zucchero   (iii.  47.3a)  is  iriD. 

and  is  not  Italian. 







di  cavolo 




Meli  porcaroll 





E.-ipioa  vulpl 



In  the  twelfth  century  R.  Isaac  ben  Melchize- 
DEK  OF  SiPONTO  took  over  from  the  "  'Aruk  "  forty- 
one  Italian  names  of  plants  and  a  few 
R.  Isaac     Arabic  ones,  while  the  Greek  terms, 
Siponto.      such  as  Of/?.ic  and  ^v/.oKepara,  and  the 
following  Italian  words  occur  for  the 
first  time  in  his  work : 





Ciceri  llmpldl 



A  large  number  of  his  plant-names  still  await  iden- 
tification. Asparagus  proper,  which  has  erroneously 
been  supposed  to  be  mentioned  in  the  Talmud 
(Krauss,  "Lehnw5rter,"  ii.  93),  seems  to  occur  first  in 
Isaac'scommentary  onSheb.  ix.  1  as»'T13T="lDD^X, 
"sparagio"  (cited  in  "  Kaftor  wa-Ferah,"  107b,  Ber- 
lin; J1SDN,  corresponding  to.  the  Arabic  "  hilj'aun  " 
=  "asparagus";  see  Aldabi,  "Shebile  Emunah,"  p. 
75a;  Tobias  Cohen,  151a:  D'tOIB'  or  p'i5\T  is  wild 
asparagus;  j'lni',  the  cultivated  kind).  Isaac  is 
also  the  first  post-Talmudic  author  to  mention  the 
cornel  or  dogwood  (corniolo ;  Kpavia),  in  the  passages 
Peah  i.  5,  Ma'as.  i.  2,  where  he  rejects  the  view  that 
it  is  identical  with  Jis,  sumac. 

Maimonides  gives  the  names  of  plants  exclusively 
in  Arabic  in  his  commentary  on  the  Mishnah ;  and 
these  terms  have  been  discussed  by  LOw  in  his 
"Aramiiische  Pflanzennamen,"  on  the  basis  of  the 
Berhu  manuscripts  of  this  gloss.  In  his  medical  wri- 
tings likewise  Maimonides  follows  the  Arabic  phar- 
macology; for  instance,  ninety-one  vegetable  reme- 
dies are  mentioned  in  Ins  "  Dietetics  "  ;  but  these  be- 
long rather  to  the  history  of  medicine.  From  his 
"Moreh"  mention  may  be  made  of  the  story  of  the 
Nabatsean  cultivation  of  the  mandrake  and  althea 
("Moreh,"  French  transl.  by  Munk,  iii.  235),  the 
reference  to  indigo  (ib.  i.  392),  and  the  expression 
"like  a  locust-bean,"  meaning  "practically  worth- 
less" (ih.  1.  157).  Maimonides  has  won  a  lasting 
name  in  the  history  of  botany.  Even  after  Sprengel 
("Gesch.  der  Botanik,"  i.  178)  had  tried  to  identify 
the  plants  mentioned  in  the  mishnaic  tractate  Kila- 
yim,  basing  his  investigation  on  the  Latin  transla- 
tion of  the  commentary  of  Maimonides  in  the  edition 

of  the  Mishnah  by  Surenhuis,  Mayer 

Mai-  ("Gesch.  der  Botanik,"  iii.  220),  allu- 

monides.     ding  to  the  plants  mentioned  in  "'Uk- 

zin,"  declared  that  Maimonides  had 
given  his  interpretations  with  discrimination  and 
had  displaj'ed  an  unmistakable  knowledge  of  bot- 
any ;  but  that,  though  he  had  a  wide  acquaintance 
with  plants,  his  explanations  were  drawn  chiefly 
fiom  school  traditions,  and  were  not  the  result  of 
independent  investigation.  Proceeding  on  the  an- 
thropocentric  theory  of  the  universe,  Maimonides 
declares  in  his  introduction  to  the  Mishnah  that  trees 
and  plants  were  created  for  tlie  nourishment  or  heal- 
ing of  man,  even  though  in  some  cases  he  fails  to 
recognize  this,  or  has  never  known  it;  and  although 
the  uses  of  all  tiie  plants  on  the  earth  may  not  yet 
be  understood,  each  successive  generation  will  be- 
come acquainted  with  new  herbs  and  fruits  which 
will  prove  of  great  advantage  to  it. 




Of  the  later  halakic  writers  the  only  one  to  be 
mentioned  here  is  Estori  Fakiii  (flourished  in  the 
thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries), 
Estori       who  made  a  careful  geographical  and 
Farhi.        scientific    exploration    of    Palestine. 
His  remarks  on  plants  in  his  "  Kaftor 
wa-Ferah  "  may  readily  be  seen  in  the  third  index  of 
Luncz's  edition  of  that  work,  for  which  Low  ar- 
ranged the  data  in  their  proper  order.     The  com- 
ments in  Wiesner's  Hungarian  biography  of  Farhi 
(p.  31,  Budapest,  1896)  on  certain  botanical  notes  of 
the  hulakist  are  very  inadequate.  Farhi 's  statements 
regarding  shallots  and   onions  in   Syria  are  note- 
worthy, as  are  also  his  identification  of  Cordia  Myxa, 
his  accounts  of  Musa  and  Bndingan,  and  the  collo- 
quial Arabic  name  for  Pyrns  Syriaca  (Boiss.),  equiva- 
lent to  'OtJID^K,  which  explains  the  Syriac  KD'^DID 
(Low,  I.e.  p.  208). 

According  to  Buber("Sekel  Tob,"  Introduction, 
p.  xi.),  Menahem  b.  Solomon  (1139)  has  the  follow- 
ing names  of  plants  in  addition  to  the 
Menahem    list  already  quoted  from  the  "  'Aruk  " : 
b.  Solomon,  -jmn   KTlJ  on   NSOn;   'rVIIQ  "'mJ 
on  pj-'J-in;  nin  on  n-'-n  (probably  de- 
noting R.  Gershom's  "thora");  in^  on  n"'J03:   its 
resin  1031^;   'l^llp'V,  chicory  (see  Isaac  Siponto 
above);  iDHin  on   p^niH;  1PJ''12K'  on  01^. 

In  order  to  define  the  heterogeneous  plants  more  ac- 
curately, the  Karaite  Caleb  Afendopolo  of  Adria- 
uople  (end  of  the  15th  cent.)  arranged  an  alphabetical 
list  of  about  sixty  plant-names,  and,  following  Mai- 
monides  in  the  main,  tried  to  identify  the  plants  and 
explained  them  in  Arabic,  Turkish,  modern  Greek, 
and  Rumanian.     Of  this  list,  which  appeared  in  the 
appendix  to   "Adderet  Eliyahu,"  the 
Caleb        following   may   be    mentioned  as  of 
Afendo-      botanical  importance:    D'K'Un  he  re- 
polo,         gards  as  medlars,  called  also  nvt^'^on 
(Low,  I.e.  p.  114;    "R.  E.  J.  "xviii. 
112,  on  "nespole";    Joseph  Perles,   "Beitrage  zur 
Gesch.  der  Hebraischen  und  Aramilischen  Studien," 
pp.  135  et  seq.),  because  they  have  five  seeds.     He 
relates  that  the  banana,   T1XD,    was  described   by 
Japheth  ha-Levi  (953)  as  a  cross  between  the  date- 
palm  and   the  colocasia;    while    he    (Afendopolo) 
learned  from  the  Karaite  Joseph  ha-Kohen  that  it 
was  a  cross  between  the  date-palm  and  the  sugar- 
cane.    Joseph  told  him  also  that  the  colocasia  had  a 
rootstock  as  large  as  an  ox-hcad,  and  that  it  w^as  the 
daily  food  in  Egypt,  where  one  head  often  brought 
as  much  as  900  dirhems.     He  describes  the  cucum- 
ber {Cucumis  Chnte,  Linn.),  which  was  widely  cul- 
tivated in  Egypt,  as  very  long  and  as  thick  as  the 
finger  {ib.  vii.  17b).     The  "nabk"  {Zizyjihus  spina- 
Christi,  Linn.),  Christ's-thorn,  he  describes  as  sweet, 
and  as  large  as  a  hazelnut  (see  Post,  I.e.  p.  201), 
while  its  shell  was  half  red  and  half  green,  and  its 
kernel  was  like  that  of  an  olive  or  common  jujube. 
In  his  time,  as  at  present,  the  tree  was  very  common 
in  Egypt  (Ascherson  and  Schweinfurth,  I.e.  p.  59). 
Why  Afendopolo  ("Adderet  Eliyahu,"  Appendix,  p. 
16c)  uses  the  Hebrew  or  Aramaic  KVn  (L5w,  I.e.  p. 
225)  for  "  parsley  "  is  not  clear. 

In  connection  with  Afendopolo  two  older  Karaite 
lexicographers  may  be  mentioned,  David  b.  Abka- 

1IAM(A1-Fasi)and  Ali  b.  Sidalnmn,  in  whose  works, 

according  to  Pinsker's  extracts  ("Likkute  Kadmo- 

iiiyyol,"  pp.  206  d  hoj.),  the  fallowing 

David       names  of  plants  are  nieutiuned:  **^n- 

Al-Fasi      dal/'D'^nX.  sundalwoijd  ;  "  ma'atar"or 

and  Ali  b.    "  zaatur, "  aUN  .  "'  wisum  "  or  "  abnus," 

Sulaiman.    D'Dj!?N,  ebony  ; "  kamu."nn»<,  fuiiguB; 

"  ka/,ljarah,"*l3,  ctjriander ;  "saj,"lQl3; 

"khatmiyah,"  nioSn;  "zaarur"  or  "ansul,"  pvyj; 

"wars"  or  "nilular,"  mj;   "sa'atar"  (=  "zu'ular"). 

IQID;  "dulb,"pD-iy;  "  l.ianzal."  niypD;  "karfah"or 

"kist,"  nip;  "karnafal,"pD:p;  "  kuzah,"  "sliuniz," 

nvp  (Pinsker,  erroneously.  D'^JVa  ]nh:   ".salikhah." 

n^nt';  "sant,"  D't3L'';  "  jummaiz,"  nopt;';  "sharhin." 

"abhal,"  "saj,"  or  "siiiniasiiar," -i,-nn      "Henna" 

in  Pinsker,  I.e.  p.  212,  note  2,  is  an  error. 

BnJLiOGRAPHY  :  Gcorgi'  E.  Post,  Flora  of  .S)/r(a.  T'alfi^ine, 
and  Sinai  from  the  TauruK  (o  lian  Muhnmnuul,  niut  from 
the  Medi(erraui(Ui  Sea  to  the  Syrian  iJexi  rl,  Beirut,  1W«1; 
J.  Bornmullor,  Kin  Deitran  zur  Krnntni.Ks  <ler  flora  ron 
Surien  und  Paid.^tina  (In  Verhnnillruiurn  ilir  /.onlmiiiTh- 
IiotaniiiChcJi  GeitelUehaft  in  Wien.  inyHi;  l>-n|,i;irl  Kunck, 
Streifzlii/e  Durch  die  BihliMrhc  Flora,  Frt-ibiiru-lin-Brvls- 
gau,  1900.  with  a  complete  blbllograpby,  pp.  xl.  tt  ««</. 

E.  G.  H.  I.   Lo. 


the  second  century  c.k.  Like  T()(li»s(  Thcodorus)  the 
Roman,  his  probable  contemporary,  Plalon  s(jught 
to  inspire  his  persecuted  coreligionists  with  resigna- 
tion and  steadfastness,  reminding  them  tliat  others 
had  suffered  before  them  for  their  faith  and  liad  been 
ultimately  delivered.  "Hananiah,  Misiiael.  and 
Azariah,"  said  he,  "derived  courage  to  resist  Nebu- 
chadnezzar, at  the  risk  of  being  burned  "  (Dan.  iii. 
13),  from  the  Scriptural  assurance  (Dcut.  iv.  29), 
"If  from  thence  thou  slialt  seek  the  Lord  tiiy  God. 
thou  shall  find  him,  if  thou  seek  him  with  all  thy 
heart  and  with  all  thy  soul"  (Midr.  Teh.  xxviii.  1). 
Platon  construes  literally  the  Scriptuml  sjiying 
(Deut.  iv.  11),  "  Ye  came  and  stood  under  the  moun- 
tain." According  to  him,  Sinai  was  detached  from 
the  earth  and  suspended  in  the  air,  while  tiie  Israel- 
ites stood  under  it  (Cant.  R.  viii.  5;  comp.  Abdimi 
B.  Hamar). 

Bibliography:  Vogelsteln  and  RleRcr,  Oesch.  dcr  Judcn  in 
Rom.  1. 109  et  seq.,  176. 
E.  c.  S.   M. 

PLEDGES  :  The  law  against  taking  pledges  for 
debt  is  drawn  from  the  following  passages:  "No 
man  shall  take  the  mill  or  the  upper  millstone  to 
pledge :  for  he  taketh  a  man's  life  to  pledge  "  (Deut. 
xxiv.  6,  R.  v.),  "nor  [shall  he]  take  the  widow's 
raiment  to  pledge"  {i'Ij.  xxiv.  17.  R.  V.);  "And  if 
he  be  a  poor  man,  thou  shalt  not  sleep  with  his 
pledge:  thou  shalt  surely  restore  to  him."  etc.  (ib. 
xxiv.  12-13,  R.  V):  and  Ex.  xxii.  26  to  like  effect. 
The  "  taking  to  pledge  "  in  these  passages  is  under- 
stood as  meaning  a  seizure  to  secure  an  overdue 
debt,  not  the  taking  of  a  pledge  by  consent  at  the 
time  of  a  loan. 

The  oral  law  goes  in  its  interpretation  far  beyond 

the  letter  of  Scripture.     The  Mishnah  .says  (H.  M. 

ix.  13):  "He  wliotjikesamill  topledgc 

In  the       breaks  a  negative  conunand.   and  is 

Mishnah.     guihy  for  eacii  of  twoimplemcnt.s,  the 

lower  and  the  upper  millstone  [refcr- 

rinnto  Deut.  xxiv.  6];  and  this  applies  not  only  to 

a  mill,  but  to  any  implement  wherewith  life-giving 




food  is  made,  for  it  is  said,  '  he  taketh  man's  life  to 
pledge.'"  "One  does  not  distrain  the  goods  of  a 
widow,  whether  she  be  poor  or  rich  "  (referring  to 
ib.  xxiv.  17).  "He  must  return  the  pillow  for  the 
night,  and  the  plow  for  the  day;  but  if  the  debtor 
dies,  they  need  not  be  returned  to  the  heirs."  The 
seizure  in  this  way  is  of  use  to  the  creditor  only  to 
preserve  his  lien  and  to  prevent  the  debt  from  run- 
ning out  in  the  year  of  release.  Elsewhere  ('Ar. 
vi.  3),  on  the  occasion  of  an  execution  on  behalf  of 
the  Sanctuary,  but  as  a  rule  applicable  to  all  debts, 
the  Mishnah  reserves  to  the  debtor  (1)  food  for  thirty 
days;  (2)  clothing  for  a  year,  bed  and  bedding,  san- 
dals, and  phylacteries;  (3)  to  a  mechanic  his  tools, 
such  as  adzes  and  saws,  two  of  each  kind,  and,  ac- 
cording to  R.  Eliezer  also,  to  a  farmer  his  yoke  of 
beasts  for  the  plow,  and  to  a  carrier  his  ass.  But  ac- 
cording to  the  prevailing  opinion  (' Ar.  23b),  oxen  and 
asses  are  not  regarded  as  tools  and  are  not  exempt. 

There  is  a  discussion  in  the  Talmud  (Shab.  128a) 
as  to  what  should  be  done  in  the  case  of  a  man 
heavilj-  in  debt  and  clothed  in  a  robe  worth  2,500 
shekels.  Should  it  be  taken  from  him  and  clothing 
suited  to  his  position  given  him?  R.  Ishmael  an- 
swers, "All  Israelites  are  the  sons  of  kings,  and  no 
garment  is  above  their  rank."  From  these  passages 
in  Mishnah  and  Talmud  the  Shulhan  'Aruk  draws 
the  following  rules  (Hoshen  Mishpat,  97) : 

The  officer  of  the  court  can  not  seize  a  hand-mill, 
but  a  water-mill  is  landed  estate,  and,  without  being 
actually  seized,  is  treated  like  lands  (see  Appr.\ise- 
mext).     But  if  the  creditor  undertakes  to  remove 
parts  of  a  water-mill,  they  become  personalty  and  ex- 
empt.   Pans  and  pots  for  cooking,  a  knife  for  slaugh- 
tering, and  the  like,  are  "implements  for  life-giving 
food."      If    such  things  are  taken  to  pledge,  the 
creditor  must  return  them.     Accord- 
Further      ing  to  R.  Moses  Isserles,  such  tools  as 
Develop-     barber's  scissors  are  not  exempt,  nor 
ment.         are  beasts  of  the  plow.     Scissors  for 
cutting  are  clearly  exempt,  the 
grass  being  food.     If  a  man  has  five  hand-mills  in 
use,  none  of  them  can  be  seized ;  but  if  only  one  is 
in  use,  the  others  are  subject  to  seizure.     Food  itself 
is  subject  after  the  lawful  allowance  is  set  aside. 

The  officer  can  not  seize  a  garment  which  the 
debtor  has  on  his  body,  nor  the  ves.sel  from  which 
he  is  eating,  and  he  must  leave  a  couch  or  bench  to 
sit  upon,  and  a  bed  and  mattress  to  sleep  upon. 
Though  seizing  all  the  rest,  he  must  return  bed- 
clothes for  the  niglit,  and  tools  for  tiie  daytime.  It 
should  be  remembered  that  household  goods  are  not 
sold,  but  simply  held  as  security;  other  goods  are 
sold  after  the  lapse  of  thirty  days.  The  obligation 
to  return  household  goods  holds  even  when  the 
debtor  is  rich  in  lauded  estate. 

The  officers  who  arrange  satisfaction  say  to  the 
debtor:    "Bring   all   your    movuble   property,    not 
keeping  buck  as  much  as  one  needle." 
Exemp-     From  the  whole  they  set  aside  for  him 
tions  from   provisions  for  thirty  days  (as  a  "mid- 
Pledge,      dling   man,"  says  R.   Moses  Isserles, 
though  he  had  lived  like  a  poor  man 
before)  and  clothes  for  twelve  months,  excepting, 
however,   silken   garments  or  a  gold-embroidered 
turban;  .these  things  they  take  from  him,  and  give 

him  a  sufficient  supply  of  clothing  better  suited  to 
his  condition  (contrary  to  R.  Ishmael's  view).  They 
set  aside  also  bed,  mattress,  and  bedclothes,  but  these 
things  are  not  set  aside  as  exempt  if  they  are  the  prop- 
erty of  the  wife  and  children,  who  simply  keep  what 
they  have;  for  it  is  the  husband's  duty  to  support 
them.  Sandals  and  phylacteries  are  exempt.  A  me- 
chanic is  allowed  a  double  set  of  tools  (as  in  the 
Mishnah);  farm-  or  draft-animals  are  not  set  aside, 
nor  the  skipper's  ship  or  boat,  nor  the  professional 
scholar's  books.  The  creditor  has  priority  over  the 
wife's  right  of  maintenance,  but  he  can  not  seize  her  or 
her  children's  clothing,  nor  the  cloth  which  has  been 
dyed  for  their  use,  nor  the  shoes  bought  for  them,  even 
though  they  have  not  been  worn,  nor  books  bought 
for  the  children's  education.  According  to  some 
opinions,  the  finer  clothes  for  the  wife's  wear  on  Sab- 
baths and  festivals  are  not  exempt,  and  certainly'  gar- 
ments containing  gold  or  silver  clasps,  if  bought  by 
the  husband  for  the  wife,  are  subject  to  his  debts. 
Where,  however,  they  form  part  of  her  dowry  they 
are  exempt. 

The  allowances  named  above  are  to  be  set  aside 
from  either  land  or  personalty.  There  is  some  dis- 
pute as  to  whether  the  allowance  ("siddur")  is  to 
be  set  aside  where  the  debt  has  been  incurred  for 
wages  or  for  the  hire  of  beasts,  and  not  for  money 
or  property ;  also  as  to  how  far  the  debtor  can  waive 
the  allowance  when  contracting  a  loan.  But  the 
debtor  can  not  waive  the  exemption  of  "implements 
for  life-giving  food, "as  no  stipulations  can  be  made 
contrary  to  the  provisions  of  the  Torah.  However, 
the  Hoshen  Mishpat  closes  the  subject  with  a 
clause  which  might  defeat  all  these  humane  provi- 
sions: if  the  debtor  has  sworn  that  he  will  pay  the 
debt,  he  must  give  up  even  his  last  shirt — a  clause 
which  allows  the  parties  to  supersede  by  private 
arrangement  the  words  of  the  Law. 

Maimonides,    who   treats  of  exemptions  in    the 

"  Yad,"Malweh,  iii.,  says  nothing  about  the  debtor's 

oath  as  a  means  of  nullifying  clauses. 

Waiving-  either  in  written  or  in  oral  law,  made  in 
of  Rights,  favor  of  poor  debtors — an  oath  which 
the  creditor  might  have  forced  from 
him  as  a  condition  of  the  loan.  In  fact,  the  creditor 
may  not  be  allowed  to  accept  such  a  suicidal  fulfil- 
ment of  the  oath,  for  all  standards  acknowledge  the 
Scriptural  conmiandment  "thou  shalt  not  exact  of 
thy  brother  "  (Deut.  xv.  3,  Ilebr.)  as  forbidding  such 
harsh  measures  as  well  as  such  pressure  as  would 
drive  the  debtor  to  encroach  on  his  wife's  property. 

The  standards  agree  on  the  treatment  of  widow 
debtors.  Maimonides(/.r.)  says:  "  Whethera  widow 
be  rich  or  poor  you  can  not  take  her  goods  in  pledge, 
either  at  the  time  of  tin;  loan  or  by  way  of  execu- 
tion." This  leaves  really  no  way  of  enforcing  a  de- 
mand against  a  widow,  unless  she  have  real  estate 
or  ontstaiiding  loans,  and  the  rule,  if  fully  enforced,  I 
would  have  destroyed  the  credit  of  widow  traders.     I 

The  Mi.shnah  gives  tiie  measure  of  a  debtor's  ex- 
emptions in  dealing  with  the  demands  of  the  treas- 
urer of  the  Sanctuary,  as  shown  under  Esti.matk. 
Here  the  exemption  is  based  on  Lev.  xxvii.  8 
(Ilebr.):  "If  thy  I)rother  has  comedown"  (become 
poor),  etc.  (see  'Ar.  24a). 

B.  8.  L.  N.  D. 




Historical  View  :    In    ancient    Israel  every 

loan  was  an  act  of  charity.  Therefore,  if  the  cred- 
itor had  taken  a  garment  as  a  pledge  he  had  to  return 
it  before  nightfall,  whether  he  had  received  pay- 
ment or  not  (Ex.  xxii.  26-27;  Dout.  xxiv.  13-14). 
The  Talmud  (B.  M.  14b)  explains  this  to  include 
every  article  ■which  can  not  be  spared,  so  that  the 
garment  needed  during  the  day  must  be  returned 
before  morning,  and  the  garment  needed  at  night 
must  be  returned  before  nightfall.  Similarly,  the  law 
wliich  prohibits  the  taking  of  a  millstone  as  a  pledge 
{Deut.  xxiv.  6)  is  explained  as  applicable  to  every  ar- 
ticle which  is  as  necessary  as  a  millstone  (Sif  re,  I.e.  [ed. 
Friedmann,  p.  123a]).  Therefore  the  creditor  should 
not  make  any  use  of  the  pledge ;  and  he  is  responsible 
for  its  safety,  just  as  every  depositary  is  responsible 
for  things  held  in  trust  (Hoshen  Mishpat,  72). 

The  development  of  money-lending  among  the 

Jews  as  their  almost  exclusive  occupation,  which 

began  in  the  twelfth  century,  was  in 

Medieval     all  likelihood  the  consequence  of  the 

Times.  persecutions  during  the  First  Crusade 
(Honiger,  "'Zur  Gesch.  der  Juden  im 
Frilhern  Mittelalter,"  in  "Zeitschrift  fur  Gesch.  der 
Juden  in  Deutschland,"  i.  65-97,  136-151);  and  the 
laws  of  pawnbroking  became  more  and  more  detailed. 
This  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  the  charter  granted 
by  Henry  IV.  to  the  Jews  of  Speyer  and  Worms 
(1084-90)  does  not  mention  money-lending  as  an  oc- 
cupation of  the  Jews  at  all,  while  the  charter  of 
Frederick  II.  of  Austria  (1244)  devotes  nine  of  its 
thirty  sections  to  the  regulation  of  pawnbroking. 
This  negative  evidence  is  strengthened  by  the  fact 
that  in  the  ninth  century  the  anti-Jewish  writers 
Agobard  and  Amui.o,  who  were  so  bitter  in  their  de- 
nunciation of  the  Jews,  are  silent  on  this  point.  It 
remains  evident,  therefore,  that  loaning  money  on 
pledges,  as  money-lending  in  general,  has  been  the 
occupation  of  the  Jews  only  since  the  twelfth  century, 
when  St.  Bernard  of  Clairvaux  condemned  the  per- 
secution of  the  Jews,  saying  that  where  there  were 
no  Jews,  Christian  usurers  acted  much  worse 
(Migne,  "Patrologia,"  clxxxii.  567;  Aronius,  "Rc- 
gesten,"  p.  112;  Gratz,  "Gesch."  vi.  166;  Stobbe, 
"Die  Juden  in  Deutschland,"  p.  107). 

The  law  of  Frederick  II.  of  Austria  expressly 
permits  Jews  to  take  any  article  as  a  pledge,  without 
inquiring  into  the  right  of  possession  of  the  bor- 
rower; the  exception  to  this  is  that  bloody  or  wet 
garments  may  not  be  accepted,  for  in  such  a  case 
suspicion  of  robbery  is  reasonable.  On  the  "  Privile- 
gium  Fridericianum  "  were  based  such  later  laws  as 
that  i.ssuod  by  Ottocar  II.  of  Bohemia  in  1254,  the 
laws  of  Bela  IV.  of  Hungary,  of  the  dukes  of  Silesia 
and  Poland,  and  a  prohibition  against  lending  money 
on  sacred  objects  —  Pope  Gregory  I.  (590-604)  and 
Charlemagne  (806)  had  already  declared  that  such 
olijects  should  not  be  sold  to  Jews.  A  similar  pro- 
hibition is  found  in  a  law  issued  by  Philip  August 
of  France  (1206).  The  rabbinical  synods  of  the 
twclftii  and  thirteenth  centuries  adopted  the  same 
law,  evidently  because  of  the  excuse  which  the  dis- 
covery of  church  articles  in  a  Jewish  liouse  would 
give  for  riots  (Griltz,  "Gesch."  vi.  199).  This  prin- 
ciple is  often  repeated  in  legislations  of  the  four- 
teenth and  fifteenth  centuries. 

In  general,  legislation  concerning  the  Jews  recog- 
nized the  rabbinical  law,  even  in  dealings  between 
Jews  and  Christians ;  so  a  Jew  who  had 
Rabbinical  advanced  money  on  a  stolen  article  was 
Law.  entitled  to  recover  the  amount  he  liad 
loaned  on  it,  including  interest,  if  he 
could  swear  that  he  did  not  know  it  had  been  stolen. 
The  same  held  good  with  regard  to  8t(jlen  property 
which  had  been  bought.  This  law  is  explained  by 
the  Talmud  as  necessitated  by  the  needs  of  buBiness 
life  (pltJ^n  njpn  ;  B.  K.  11.5a;  Hoshen  .Mishpat,  857. 
1).  Various  German  laws  demanded  that  the  goods 
must  have  been  delivered  in  daytime  and  without 
any  secrecy  ("unveriiohlen  und  unverstohlen "). 
This  recognition  of  tlie  rabbinical  law  was  fiercely 
condemned  by  the  ecclesiastical  authorities — e.g.,  by 
the  Fourth  Lateran  Council  (1215)  and  by  various 
diocesan  synods— as  favoring  the  Jews  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  Christians,  who  were  compelled  by  law 
to  return  stolen  property  wliich  they  had  bought,  but 
without  any  prospect  of  indemnity.  The  "Privi- 
legium  Fridericianum"  (§  7),  and  a  great  many 
other  laws,  freed  the  Jewish  pawnbroker  from  re- 
sponsibility in  case  of  the  lo.S3  of  the  pledge  by  fire 
or  robbery,  or  in  any  other  way.  The  manner  and 
fact  of  loss,  however,  had  to  be  established  by  oath 
or  through  witnesses.  This  legal  enactment  is  in 
conflict  with  the  rabbinical  law  wliich  considers  the 
pawnbroker  as  a  depositary  (^Dt^'  1D1{J'),  i.e.,  re- 
sponsible in  case  of  death  or  theft  (Hoshen  MishpaJ, 
72,  2).  _ 

While  the  state  law  in  this  case  is  more  favorable 
to  the  pawnbroker  than  is  the  rabbinical  law,  in  re- 
gard to  the  unredeemed  pledge  it  is  more  favorable 
to  the  debtor.     The  rabbinical  law  declares  that  the 
pledge  is  forfeited  if  it  is  not  redeemed  on  the  day 
the  payment   falls   due  (Hoshen  Mishpat,  73,  13), 
though  some  authorities  demand  that  the  pledge 
shall  not  be  sold  until  thirty  days  after  payment  falls 
due  {lb.  3,  14).     The  "  Priviiegium  Fridericianum  " 
(t^  27),  however,  demanded  that  the  pledge  should 
be  kept  one  year  and  one  day.     This  stipulation  was 
adopted  in  many  places  up  to  the  fifteenth  century. 
The  privilege  of  lending  money  on  pledges  carried 
with  it  a  certain  obligation.     Thus  the  Augsburg 
law  declares  that  every  Jewish  money- 
Special       lender  is  bound  to  advance  money  on 
Regu-        a  pledge  to  the  extent  of  two-thirds  of 
lations.       its  value;  while  the  city  of  Wintertluir 
found   it   necessary   to   declare,   in   a 
charter  of  1340,  that  a  Jew  is  not  liable  to  i)unisli- 
ment  if  he  is  unable  to  lend  a  Ciiristian  the  sum  de- 
manded (Stobbe,  "Die  Juden  in  Deut.scliiand."  pp. 
\\%et  seq.).     The  Strasburg  law  of  1375  makes  it  the 
duty  of  the  Jews  to  lend  money  on  pledges  to  any 

In  the  frequent  anti-Jewish  riots  which  occurred 
from  the  twelfth  to  the  fifteenth  century  the  mob 
sacking  the  houses  of  the  Jews  often  took  the 
pledges,  and,  as  a  rule,  the  king  issued  quitclaims 
after  he  had  received  part  of  the  plunder.  This 
was  done  very  frequently  by  Charles  IV.,  after 
the  Black  Death  (1348-51).  A  typical  instance  is 
that  of  NOrdi.ikgen.  Under  these  circumstances  it 
is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  Jewish  law  at  that 
period  dealt  with  the  Christian  debtor  as  with  an 




enemy  in  war.  Thus  medieval  rabbis  decided  that 
if  a  non-Jew  loaned  to  a  Jew  money  on  a  pledge, 
and  then  lost  the  pledge,  and  a  Jew  found  it,  the 
latter  should  return  it  to  the  Jewish  debtor  (Hoshen 
Mishpat.  72,  38).  Similarly,  the  law  permits  a  Jew- 
ish creditor  to  keep  the  pledge  after  the  death  of 
the  Christian  debtor,  even  where  its  value  much  ex- 
ceeds the  amount  of  the  debt  (ib.  73,  40). 

The  Jewish  concern  with  pledges  is  especially 
connected  with  the  Italian  "monte  di  pieta,"  pawn- 
shops established  by  the  ecclesiastical  authorities  in 
the  fifteenth  century,  in  opposition  to  Jewish  money- 
lenders and  for  charitable  purposes.  The  name  is 
found  also  in  French  ("'mont  de  piete")and  in  Latin 
("mons  pietatis";  lit.  "mountain  of  charity");  it 
is  supposed  to  have  originated  from  the  use  of  the 
word  "monte  "  in  tlie  sense  of  "store  "  or  "stock  of 
goods,"  and  especially  with  regard  to  banking,  in 
the  sense  of  a  "  pile  of  coin." 

The  great  change  of  economic  conditions  in  the 
fifteentli  century  in  connection  with  the  troubles  in 
the  Church  created  among  the  mendicant  orders  an 
eager  desire  to  bring  themselves  into  prominence. 
The  Franciscans  were  especially  active  in  promoting 
schemes  for  economic  improvement. 
Monte        Barnabas  of  Terni   began  preaching 

di  Pieta.  against  money-lenders  in  Perugia,  and 
succeeded  in  forming  a  company  of 
citizens  who  furnished  money  for  a  loan-bank  which 
would  lend  at  a  lower  rate  of  interest  than  that 
charged  by  the  Jews.  This  first  "mountain  of 
piety  "  was  founded  in  1462,  and  others  followed 
very  soon  in  various  cities  of  Italy ;  that  in  Orvieto, 
1464,  was  sanctioned  by  Pope  Sixtus  IV.  Espe- 
cially active  was  the  Franci.scau  Bi^rnardinus  of 
Feltre,  who  worked  for  the  promotion  of  the  pop- 
ular pawnshops,  chiefly  in  order  to  create  an  oppor- 
tunity to  attack  the  Jews.  The  Dominicans,  jeal- 
ous of  the  success  of  the  Franciscans,  opposed  this 
movement,  claiming  that  the  exaction  of  even  a  low 
rate  of  interest  was  contrary  to  the  Christian  law ; 
while  the  Lateran  Council  (1512-17)  and  the  Council 
of  Trent  (1545-63),  as  well  as  various  popes,  declared 
for  the  Franciscans. 

But  in  Rome,  which  was  under  the  direct  govern- 
ment of  the  pope,  such  institutions  were  not  organ- 
ized. While  the  operations  of  tiie  loan-banks  inter- 
fered with  the  business  of  the  Jews,  they  were  not 
able  to  drive  the  Jews  to  abandon  mone^^-lending 
altogether;  and  therefore  a  special  law  was  passed 
by  the  "signoria"  of  Venice,  in  1547,  prohibiting 
money-lending  by  Jews  in  Padua.  In  Istri.\,  Jews 
who  had  lost  their  business  opportunities  elsewhere 
were  privileged  to  conduct  loan-banks.  So  in 
Pirano.  in  1484,  where  a  bank  was  founded  by  Moses 
Sacerdote  and  three  others;  it  continued  its  opera- 
tions until  1634,  when  a  monte  di  pietd  was  estab- 
lished and  their  privilege  was  witlidniwn.  In  Capo 
d'Istria,  Jewish  money-lenders  were  called  upon 
when  tlie  monte  di  pieti\  liad  become  bankrupt.  In 
1611  France  introduced  the  system,  but  tiiere  it  had 
no  anti-Jewish  purpose.  Since  the  middle  of  the 
eighteenth  century  the  restrictions  against  Jewish 
money-lenders  in  Italy  have  been  removed. 

In  the  fifteenth  century  tiie  business  of  the  Jews 
consisted  chiefly  in  pawnbroking,  as  Israel  Isserlein 

states  ("  Teruniat  ha-Deshen, "  part  i. ,  No.  309).  They 
dealt  with  all  classes  of  people,  even  with  princes 
and  kings.  King  Rupert  (1403)  pawned  his  silver 
to  Jews  (Stobbe,  I.e.  p.  240);  the  empress  Maria, 
widow  of  Maximilian  II.,  pawned  her 
In  silver  to  Mordecai   Meisel  (1578)  for 

Germany.  2,000  florins  ("Zeit.  filr  Gesch.  der  Ju- 
den  in  Deutschland,"  ii.  175).  From 
the  fifteenth  century  on,  however,  the  restriction  of 
money-lending  by  Jews  became  the  rule.  In  1530 
and  1544  respectively,  the  Reichstags  of  Augsburg 
and  Speyer  issued  strict  regulations  in  regard  to  ex- 
cessive rates  of  interest  and  other  abuses  (see  Josel 
OF  Roshei.m).  The  Landesordnung  for  Bohemia, 
1579,  restricted  the  monej'-lending  of  the  Jews  to 
pawnbroking  in  order  to  exclude  them  from  banking 
on  a  larger  scale  ("Zeit.  filr  Gesch.  der  Juden  in 
Deutschiand,"  ii.  173). 

The  Judenstattigkeit  of  PYankfort-on-the-Main, 
1614,  limited  the  rate  of  interest  for  loans  on  pledges 
to  8  i)er  cent ;  the  same  was  done  for  Fulda  in  1615 
{ib.  iii.  178).  How  precarious  this  business  was 
even  then  is  proved  by  Gliickel  von  Hameln,  who 
tells  in  her  memoirs  of  an  attempt  to  take  a  pledge 
from  her  father's  shop  by  force.  The  danger  in 
dealing  with  creditors  of  this  class  evidently  induced 
some  medieval  rabbis  to  permit  a  pawnbroker  to 
redeem  a  pledge  for  a  creditor  on  the  Sabbath  (Orah 
Hayyim,  325,  3). 

With  the  development  of  the  banking  business 
through  the  court  Jews  in  the  seventeenth  century, 
and  the  gradual  concession  of  economic  freedom, 
pawnbroking  among  the  Jews  became  rare,  and,  in 
fact,  in  recent  times,  disreputable  (see  also  Bank- 

Bibliography:  Slnilhan  'Anik,  JJnshen  Mishpat,  7^7,?; 
Zeitschrift  filr  Gesch.  der  J^ideJi  in  Deutschland^  i.  6.S-97. 
136-151;  Stobbe,  Die  Juden  in  Deutschland  Wilhrend  des 
Mittelalters,  pp.  112-131,  Brunswick,  1866;  Scherer,  Die 
Bechtsverhdltni.tse  der  Juden  in  den  Dentsch-Oesterreich- 
iVsc/ien  LUndern,  pp.  196-209.  211-216,  Leipsie,  1901;  Ceretti. 
Stnria  di  Monti  di  Pieta,  Padua,  17.52;  Ciscato,  GU  Ehrei 
in  Pad(nm.  pp.  48-67,  245-247,  Padua,  1901 ;  iVuora  Enciclo- 
pedia  Itnliana,  s.v.  Monte  di  Pietd  (where  further  literature 
is  quoted ) . 

PLEIADES  :  The  word  "Kimah,"  which  occurs 
in  three  passages  in  the  Bible  (Job  ix.  9,  xxxviii. 
31,  and  Amos  v.  8),  each  time  in  connection  witii 
Orion,  is  translated  by  the  Septuagint  once  by 
n?.Eta6n  (Job  xxxviii.  31);  and  Aquila,  who  repre- 
sents the  tradition  of  the  scribes,  gives  the  same 
rendering  in  Amos  v.  8,  being  followed  therein  by 
Synnnachus  and  Theodotion.  The  word  is  retained 
in  the  Targum,  which  indicates  that  it  was  then 
used  in  the  vernacular;  so  that  the  meaning  given 
the  term  in  the  Talmud  and  by  Aquila  may  be  ac- 
cepted as  correct.  Although  the  etymology  is  not 
altogether  certain,  it  may  be  assumed  that  "Kimali" 
is  connected  either  with  the  Hebrew  D13  =  "to 
heap  up,"  or  with  the  Assyrian  "kaniu"  =  "he 
bound"  (Dclitzsch,  in  "Proc.  Soc.  Bibl.  Arch." 
xii.  185). 

According  to  the  Talmud  (Ber.  58b),  this  cluster 
is  called  "  Kimaii  "  liecause  it  consists  of  about  100 
stars  CnD'3  =  HKOD).  The  constellation  i^  in  the 
nortliern  sky,  with  its  tail  to  tiie  west  of  the  Milky 
Way  (ib. ;  comp.  Pes.  94b).  For  tlie  most  impor- 
tant reference  to  the  Pleiades,  which  have  always 




attracted  attention  on  account  of  their  brilliancy  and 
number,  see  OuioN  (comp.  also  Jew.  Encyc.  ii.  249b, 
8.V.  Astuongmy). 

Bini.iOGRAPiiY  :  Sfhiiiparelli,  U Antronomia  nelV  Ajiticn  Tex- 
lamenti),  p.  79,  Milan,  mr.i ;   HastlnRs.  Diet.  Bible,  til.  896; 
Hainburfrer,  R.  D.  T.  ii.  W). 
K.  L.  B. 

PLESSNER,  ELIAS  :  German  rabbi ;  son  of 
Solomon  Plessnek;  born  Feb.  19,  1841,  at  Berlin; 
died  at  Ostrowo  March  30,  1898.  He  studied  at  the 
University  of  Berlin,  and  received  his  degree  as 
Ph.D.  from  the  University  of  Tiibingen  (1870).  In 
1871  he  was  appointed  "Stiftsrabbiner  "  at  Hanover, 
and  was  called  April  20,  1873,  to  the  old  community 
of  Rogasen  as  successor  to  Moses  Feilchenfeld.  In 
Sept.,  1885,  he  was  called  to  Ostrowo  as  successor  to 
the  late  I.  M.  Freimann,  remaining  there  until  his 

Plessner  rendered  great  services  to  homiletic  liter- 
ature by  publishing  the  following  works  by  his 
father:  "Sabbathpredigten,"  "Festreden,"  and 
"Nachgelassene  Schriften  "  (Frankfort,  1884).  His 
own  works  include:  In  German:  "Stellung  'und 
Bedeutungder  Israel itischen  Frau  bei  den  Hebraern  " 
(Ostrowo) ;  "  Der  Grabstcin  in  Seiner  HOheren  Bedeu- 
tung";  "Ezechiel  Landau  und  Moses  Mendelssohn." 
In  Hebrew:  "Matbea'  shel  Bcrakot "  ;  " 'Asa rah 
Ma'amarot";  "Dibre  Tanirurim  we-Tauhumim," 
Posen,  1871 ;  "She'elah  u-Teshubah  be-'Inyan  Bel.ii- 
rah,"  Berlin,  1889;  "Hitmannut  Kohen  Gadol,"  Ber- 
lin, 1895. 

s.  I.  Bro. 

PLESSNER,  SOLOMON:  German  preacher 
and  Jiible  commentator;  born  at  Breslau  April  23, 
1797;  (lied  at  Posen  Aug.  28,  1883.  Having  lost  his 
father  when  very  young,  Plessner  had  to  support 
his  mother  and  himself.  He  engaged  in  business, 
but  found  time  to  study  Hebrew,  rabbinics,  and 
German,  under  Wessely's  influence.  At  the  age  of 
seventeen  Plessner  began  to  study  Wesseiy's  He- 
brew translation  of  the  Apocrypha,  resolving  to  con- 
tinue the  translation  himself.  He  indeed  published 
at  Breslau  in  1819  his  Hebrew  translation  of  the 
Apocryphal  additions  to  the  Book  of 

Becomes      Esther,  under   the   title  "Hosafah  li- 

Eminent     Megillat/  Ester, "  with  a  literary-histor- 

as  a  ical  introduction.     At  the  same  time 

Preacher,     he    became    known    as    an   eloquent 

preacher.     Many  of  his  sermons  were 

published,  among  them  his  funeral  oration  on  the 

death  of  Abraham  Tiktin,  bearing  the  Hebrew  title 

"Zeker  Zaddik  li-Berakah  "  (Breslau,  1821). 

Plessner  through  his  sermons  was  recognized  as  a 
warm  defender  of  Orthodox  Judaism,  and  on  this 
account  was  congratulated  by  Akiba  Eger,  rabbi  of 
Posen.  Soon  the  conflict  arose  between  the  Ortho- 
do.x  and  Reform  Jews  concerning  the  introduction 
of  the  organ  into  the  synagogal  services.  Plessner 
naturally  fought  against  the  Reform  leaders;  and  as 
they  were  the  more  powerful  and  began  to  perse- 
cute him,  forbidding  him  through  the  police  to  de- 
liver any  sermon,  he  in  1823  settled  at  Fcstenberg, 
a  small  town  in  Silesia.  In  1825,  the  government  of 
the  province  of  Posen  having  issued  a  decree  for- 
bidding Talmudic  instruction  in  schools,  Plessner, 
at  Eger's  request,  summed  up  all  tlie  observations 

and  opinions  of  Christian  scholars,  beginning  with 
Jerome,    on   the   Talmud.      This   document,    pub- 
lished the  same   year  at  Breslau   un- 
His  Mem-    iler    the    title  "Ein   Wort  zu   Seiner 
oir  on  the    Zeit  oder  die  Autoritat  df  r  Judischen 
Talmud.      Traditionslehre,"   with  a  part  of  ii  in 
H.ljrcw   entitled  "'Edut  le-Yisruel," 
was  in   1826   presented   to  the  Poseu  govi-rnmont. 
Accompanied  with  a  petition  signed  by  the  presi- 
dents of  several  eonununities,  it  proved  eflicacious; 
and  the  anti-Taimudic  decree  was  revoked. 

In  1830  Plessner  removed  to  Berlin,  where  for  a 
short  time  he  was  a  teacher  in  the  normal  school. 
Although  possessing  all  the  knowledge  necessary 
for  an  Orthodox  rabbi,  lie  persistently  declined 
rabbinical  oflice,  preferring  freedom  of  speech.  He 
earned  a  livelihood  by  preaching  every  other  Satur- 
day in  the  Berlin  bet  ha-midrash,  continuing  at  the 
same  time  his  study  of  the  Apocrypha.  In  1h;j2  his 
"Nozelim  Min  Lebanon  "  was  published  in  Berlin. 
This  work  consisted  of  a  Hebrew  translation  of  a 
part  of  the  Apocrypha,  with  an  appendix,  entitled 
"Duda'im,"  containing  exegetical  notes,  verses  in 
Hebrew  and  German,  and  sermons  (see  Geiger, 
"Wiss.  Zeit.  Jiid.  Theol."  i.  204  et  xeq.).  The  fol- 
lowing year  he  was  invited  to  dedicate  the  new 
S3'nagogue  at  Bromberg,  for  which  occasion  he  com- 
posed poems  in  Hebrew  and  in  German,  which  were 
published  under  the  title  "Shirim  la-Hanukkat  Bet 
ha-Tefillah  "  (Berlin,  1834).  In  his  sermons  Ple-ssner 
adopted  the  expressions  of  the  most  eminent  Chris- 
tian preachers,  interspersing  his  sen- 
Removes  fences  with  verses  of  Schiller  and 
to  Goethe,  and  rejecting  the  derashic  or 

Berlin.       homiletic  interpretation  of  the  Bible. 
In  1834  he  began  to  publish  his  ser- 
mons in  yearly  volumes  under  the  general  title  **  Be- 
lehrungen  und  Erbauungen  "  (2d  ed.   Berlin,  1840. 
under    the    title  "Religi5se   VortrUge").     In    1838 
Plessner  published  his  "Dat  Mosheh  wi-Yehudit,"  a 
catechism  in  twelve  parts,  preceded  by  an  introduc- 
tion, on  the  nature  and  history  of  Jewisli  religious 
instruction.     His  oratorical  talent  is  particularly  ex- 
hibited in  his  "Mikra'e  Kodesh  "(Berlin,  1841).  a  col- 
lection of  holy-day  sermons  for  the  years  1835  to  1^39. 
A  powerful  party  of  antagonists  worrying  Plessner 
beyond  endurance  on  account  of  his  outspokenness, 
he  left  Berlin  and  settled  at  Posen  (1843).  where  he 
was  active  as  a  preacher  for  forty  years.     In  Posen 
Plessner  preached  chiefly  at  the  Neuschul.     During 
his  residence  in  that  city  he  publishfd  the  following 
works:  "  Shay  la-Mora  "  (Posen,  ls4t'.j,  poem  in  honor 
of  Moses Montefiore ;  "Shire Zimrah  "  (Berlin.  1859), 
poems  composed   on  the  occasion   of 
Settles  in    the  completion  of  the  publication  of 
Posen.        the  Talmud   by  the   Talmud   society 
Hebrat    Shas;    "Shire   Zimrah"    (•*. 
1865),  Hebrew  poems  eompo.sed  for  the  celebration 
of  the  one  hundred  and  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the 
foundation  of  the  society  of  niohelim. 

After  Plessner's  death  two  collections  of  his  ser- 
mouswere  published  at  Frank  fort-ont  he-Main:  "Sab- 
bathpredigten "  (1884)  and  "  Festpredigten  "  (1890). 

Bibliography:  Furst.  nOtl.  Jud.  III.  107:  H.  Hlrnrhf«'Id.  in 
Elii'5  PlessntT,  UihliKchis  uiul  Uohhiiiisrhfs  nus  Sn/omon 
I'hssncrs  yachlasac  ;  ZeitUn.  VilA.  I>o»l-Mftidrls  ]>.  271. 

g  M.  Skl. 




PLETSCH,  SOLOMON  :  German  physician  of 
the  fuurieeuth  aud  tiftceuth  centuries;  a  native  of 
Regensburg.  Pletsch  was  in  1394  appointed  city 
surgeon  of  Frankfort-on-the-Main  with  a  salary  of 
36  gulden  per  year.  Besides,  the  city  furnished  him 
with  six  ells  of  cloth  for  his  uniform,  which  was  of 
the  same  color  and  quality  as  that  of  the  Christian 
officials.  Thus  the  only  difference  between  Pletsch 
and  his  Christian  predecessors  and  successors  was 
in  the  form  of  the  oath,  the  former  taking  it  More 
Judaico.  In  the  letter  of  commission,  Pletsch 
bound  himself  to  treat  gratuitously  all  the  members 
of  the  council  with  their  servants  and  all  the  sick 
Jews  who  might  be  received  at  the  hospital,  and  to 
take  moderate  fees  from  the  citizens. 

Bibliography:  M.  Horovltz.  jadische  Aerztein  Frankfurt- 
am-Main,     P-    6,    Frankfort-on-the-Maln,    1886;     Landau, 
Gesch.  der  JUdischen  Aerzte,  p.  10"_',  Berlin,  1895. 
D.  M.  Sel. 

PLOCK  (PLOTZK)  :  Government  in  Russian 
Poland,  with  a  Jewish  population  (1897)  of  50,473 
(in  a  total  population  of  553,094),  which  is  the 
smallest  Jewish  population  of  any  government  in 
the  Pale  of  Settlement. 

The  most  important  of  the  district  towns  in  the 
government  of  Plock  are: 

Mlawa,  which  has  5,123  Jews  in  a  total  pop- 
ulation of  11,211  (1897).  R.  Jehiel  Michael  Sagalo- 
vich  (born  1862)  became  the  rabbi  of  the  community 
in  1894. 

Plock,  the  capital  of  the  government,  which  had 
only  about  6,000  inhabitants  in  1816  (when  it  came 
under  Russian  domination,  after  having  been  held  by 
Prussia  under  the  provisions  of  the  second  partition 
of  Poland  in  1793),  had  a  total  population  of  27,073 
in  1897.  Of  this  number  more  than  10,000  are  Jews. 
In  the  city  there  are  several  synagogues,  a  Talmud 
Torah  (founded  1868),  a  Gemilut  Hasadim  (founded 
1873),  and  a  well-equipped  hospital.  It  has  also  a 
Jewish  boys'  school  attended  by  more  than  one  hun- 
dred pupils.  Instruction  in  the  Hebrew  faith  is  im- 
parted to  Jewish  students  attending  the  local  gym- 
nasium by  A.  J.  Papierno,  a  prominent  Maskil  Avho 
has  resided  in  Plock  since  1870,  and  who  established 
a  library  there  in  1900. 

Owing  to  the  influence  of  the  Hasidim  the  Jewish 
community  of  Plock  frequently  changed  its  rabbis 
during  the  nineteenth  century,  and  the  term  of  sev- 
enteen years  during  which  R.  Azriel  Aryeh  Rakovski 
held  that  position,  which  he  resigned  in  1880,  was  con- 
sidered an  extremely  long  one.  Aryeh  L5b  Zunz  or 
Zuenz  also  was  rabbi  of  Plock  and  later  of  Praga,  but 
removed  to  Warsaw,  where  he  died  April  22,  1833. 
Since  1897  R.  Ezekicl  Libshitz  (l)orn  in  Rossienny, 
in  the  province  of  Kovno,  in  18G4),  son  of  R.  Hillcl 
Libshitz  of  Lublin,  and  who,  like  his  father,  is  a  Tal- 
mudi.stand  able  scholar,  has  been  the  rabbi  of  Plock. 

Przasnysz,  with  4,500  Jews  among  its  8,586  in- 
habitants; it  has  two  synagogues. 

Sierpce,  with  about  600  Jewish  families  among 
its  8,560  inhabitants.  The  Jews  of  Sierpce  are  bur- 
dened with  a  tax  of  68  rubles  which  they  have  to 
pay  annually  to  the  owner  of  the  town  on  account 
of  a  debt  said  to  have  been  contracted  by  a  certain 
David,  of  whose  origin  nothing  is  known  (''Ha- 
Meliz,"  1883,  No.  105). 

Bibliography  :  Brockhaus-Efron,  Entziklopedichcshi  Slo- 
var,  S.V.;  Ha-Melif,  1ST8.  No.  9;  1888.  No.  33;  1890,  No.  200; 
Ha-^cnrah,  1876,  No.  4  ;  1900.  No.  44  ;  Yevnin.  yahalat  'Ol-Ji- 
mim,  pp.  14-15.  Warsaw.  1882;  Walden,  Shem  h'a-OeduUm 
he-Hadash,  p.  80,  Warsaw,  1883. 
H.  K.  P.   Wl. 

PLOTKE,  JULIUS  :  German  lawyer  and  com- 
munal worker;  born  at  Borek,  province  of  Posen, 
Oct.  5,  1857;  died  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main  Sept. 
27,  1903.  Having  finished  his  studies  at  the  gymna- 
sium at  Krotoschin  and  the  University  of  Berlin,  he 
practised  law  in  Bockcnheim  from  1885  to  1888, 
when  he  entered  into  partnership  with  Councilor  of 
Justice  S.  Fuld  in  Frankfort-on-the-Main.  Plotke 
was  elected  to  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  Frankfort 
congregation,  and  participated  in  all  movements  for 
the  relief  of  his  oppressed  coreligionists,  being  a 
trustee  of  the  Jewish  Colonization  Association,  of 
the  Alliance  Israelite  Uuiverselle,  of  the  Ililfsverein 
der  Deutschen  Juden,  and  similar  organizations. 
He  wrote  various  pamphlets  and  articles  on  the  con- 
dition of  the  Jews  of  Russia  and  Rumania. 

Bibliography:  JlUUsche  Presse,  1903,  pp.  441-442;  Oester- 
reichische  Troc/ie»isr7iriff,  1903,  pp.  64*-649;  Jew.  Chron. 
Oct.  2, 1903,  p.  33 :  AUg.  Zeit.  des  Jud.  1903,  pp.  484-485. 

s.  D. 

PLOWING  :  No  description  of  the  plow  ("  maha- 
reshet ")  is  found  in  the  Bible ;  but  it  may  be  assumed 
with  certainty  that  the  implement  resembled,  on  the 
whole,  the  very  simple  plow  which  is  still  used  by 
the  fellahs  of  Palestine.  It  consists  of  a  long  pole 
with  a  wooden  crosspiece  at  the  lower  end,  and  a 
handle  parallel  to  the  latter  at  the  upper  end,  by 
means  of  which  the  plow  is  guided.  The  wooden 
foot  ends  in  an  iron  share,  slightly  convex  above,  be- 
ing 34  cm.  long  and  18  cm.  wide  at  the  back.  This 
point  has  to  be  sharpened  occasionally  (com  p.  I  Sam. 
xiii.  20).  Itisuncertain  whether  the  "et"  mentioned 
in  the  passage  just  cited  is  a  different  kind  of  plow 
from  that  described  above;  Fr.  Delitzsch  takes 
"  et "  to  be  the  plowshare,  which  cuts  the  furrows, 
while  the  plow  itself  casts  up  the  earth.  As  the 
fellahs  generally  do  not  remove  the  stones  from  the 
fiehls,  thinking  that  the  soil  thereby  retains  the 
moisture  for  a  longer  period,  that  kind  of  plow  is 
not  wholly  impractical,  since  it  may  readily  be 
drawn  through  the  stony  soil.  Moreover,  this  plow 
is  easily  used,  being  light  enough  to  be  lifted  out  of 
the  furrow  with  one  hand  and  to  be  replaced  in  the 
same  way.  Its  disadvantage  is  that  it  does  not  plow 
deeply  enough — only  about  8  to  10  cm. — the  laud 
being  therefore  neither  sufficiently  utilized  nor  prop- 
erly freed  from  weeds.  As  a  consequence  the  latter 
grow  rankly,  and  the  grain  requires  additional  han- 
dling before  it  can  be  used  or  brought  to  market. 

The  plow  was  drawn,  as  it  commonly  still  is  to- 
day, by  a  yoke  of  oxen,  and  on  light  soil  by  an  ass 
(Isa.  XXX.  24,  xxxii.  20);  but  the  yoking  together  of 
ox  and  ass,  which  is  not  seldom  seen  to-day,  was 
forbidden,  at  least  at  the  time  of  the  Deuterononiist 
(comp.  Deut.  xxii.  10).  The  ox  walks  in  front  of 
the  plow,  usually  in  the  yoke  which  is  attached  to 
the  beam.  To-day  the  yoke  is  fastened  to  the  neck 
of  the  animal  in  such  a  way  that  the  two  blocks  of 
wood  which  extend  on  each  side  of  the  neck  from 
the  yoke  downward  may  be  fastened  at  the  lower 
end  by  a  rope  and  the  ox's  neck  be  enclosed  in  a 




frame.  The  plower  liolds  in  liis  riglit  hand  tlie 
plow-handle  and  the  guiding-rope,  and  in  iiis  left 
the  ox-goad  ("malmad";  Judges  iii.  31;  I  Sam. 
xiii.  21).  To  one  end  of  the  latter  is  attached  an  iron 
point,  with  whicli  the  o.xen  are  goaded  to  quicken 
;heir  pace,  and  to  the  other  end  is  fastened  a  small 
ron  shovel  which  is  used  to  remove  the  earth  cling- 
ng  to  the  plowshare. 

In  ancient  times,  as  to-day,  it  was  doubtless  hardly 
uitlicient  to  plow  the  fallow  land  once  only,  but  it 
lad  to  be  gone  over  three  times.  The  first  plowing 
in  the  winter)  was  followed  by  a  second  (in  the 
spring),  and  a  third  (in  tlie  summer);  the  careful 
lusbandman  even  plowed  a  fourth  time  (late  in  the 
mmmer).  After  the  plow  had  turned  the  soil  over,  the 
atter  was  made  smooth  by  a  harrow,  which  perhaps 
consisted  merely  of  a  strong  board  or  a  roller  (Hos. 
c.  11;  Isa.  xxviii.  4). 

3iBi,ioGRAPHY :  Z.  D.  p.  V.  ix.  24  et  seq. 

K.    G.    II. 

PLUM.     See  Peach. 

W.  N. 

PLUNGIAN  :  Old  town  in  the  government  of 
Kovno,  district  of  Telshi,  Russia.  Among  the  ear- 
ier  rabbis  of  Plungian  were  Jacob  b.  Zebi,  a  resi- 
lent  of  Grodno,  who  gave  his  approbation  to  his 
,rounger  brother's  work,  "Ohole  Yehudah  "  (Jess- 
litz,  1719),  and  Dob  Bar,  who  in  1726  addressed  a 
lalakic  question  to  R.  Ezekiel  Katzenellenbogen  of 
\ltona  (responsa  "Keueset  Yehezkel,"  No.  7,  Al- 
;oua,  1732).  Its  most  prominent  rabbi  in  the  nine- 
;eenth  century  was  Jehiel  Heller,  who  died  there 
n  1861.  Ilillel  Libschitz  (b.  1844),  formerly  of  Su- 
ivalki  and  now  (1905)  rabbi  of  Lublin,  officiated  at 
Plungian  from  1878  to  1880.  Its  rabbi  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  present  century  was  Zebulon  Loeb 
Barit  (see  "Ha-Zefirah,"  1897,  Nos.  40,  56),  who  died 
n  1903. 

Other  prominent  men  who  came  from  or  were 
ictive  in  Plungian  were:  Zechariah  Plungian  or 
5imner  (d.  1715),  author  of  "  Sefer  Zekirah  "  (1st  ed. 
[^lamburg,  1709),  on  religious  ethics  and  folk-medi- 
cine, which  passed  through  many  editions;  Moide- 
;ai  b.  Joseph  (great-grandson  of  Mordecai  Jaffe 
""  Lebush  "]),  and  his  son  Joseph,  "  rosh  mediuah  "  of 
Plungian  in  the  eighteenth  century  (see  Jaffe 
family).  Mordecai  Plungian  (originally  Plungian- 
ski),  also  a  descendant  of  the  Jaffe  family,  and  one 
)f  the  most  prominent  Maskilim  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  was  born  at  Plungian  in  1814. 

A  record  of  the  proceedings  before  R.  Dob  Bar 
Jaffe,  dayyan  of  Plungian,  and  of  the  decisions  ren- 
lered  by  him,  is  preserved  in  the  New  York  Pub- 
lic Library.  Its  earliest  entry  is  dated  1856,  and  the 
latest  1881. 

The  population  of  Plungian,  which  is  mostly  Jew- 
ish, numbered  3,593  in  1873,  and  3,583  in  1897. 

Bibliography  :  Brockhaus-Kfron.  EntziklopedicheshiSlm^ar; 
F.isenstadt-Wiener,  Da'at  Kedosliiw,  pp.  34,  35,  St.  Peters- 
burg, 1897-98. 

H.  K.  P.    Wl. 

CAI (MARCUS):  Russian  Hebraist  and  autiior; 
born  at  Plungian,  in  the  government  of  Wilna, 
1814;  died  at  Wilna  Nov.  28,  1883.  He  was  a 
descendant  of  Mordecai  Jaffe,  author  of  the  "Lebu- 

shim."  Wliile  still  young  Plungian  became  a  Tai- 
mudist  of  high  repute.  After  a  couple  (if  years 
of  an  uniiapi)y  married  life  he  left  his  native 't(jwn 
and  settled  at  Troki.  where  lie  devoted  himself  en- 
tirely to  rabbinical  studies.  Soon,  however,  ]ut  was 
compelled  to  leave  tliat  place,  having  disj)leu8ed 
tile  ultra-conservatives  by  liis  more  or  less  advanced 
ideas.  He  then  went  to  Wilna,  where  he  earned  a 
scanty  livelihood  by  delivering  rabbinical  lectures, 
wiiich  were  greatly  appreciated  by  tlie  Talmiidists 
of  that  place.  In  the  meanwiiile  Plungian  devoted 
himself  to  secular  studies  also,  and  accjuired,  in 
a  relatively  short  time,  a  thorougli  knowledge  of 
several  European  languages  and  literatures.  This 
acquisition  procured  for  him  first  the  position  of 
teacher  in  a  higli  school,  and  in  1HC7  that  of  instruc- 
tor in  Talmud  and  religious  codes  in  the  rabbinical 
seminary  at  AVilna. 

Plungian  was  very  unhappy  in  his  old  age.  The 
rabbinical  seminary  was  closed  in  1873,  and  lie 
had  no  other  position  than  that  of  corrector  in  the 
printing-office  of  Romm,  which  he  had  held  since 
1869.  In  his  literary  career  he  had  the  misfortune 
to  displease  both  the  Orthodox,  who  accused  him  of 
heresy,  and  the  liberals,  who  regarded  him  as  a 
conservative;  hence  he  was  persecuted  liy  the 
former  and  repudiated  by  the  latter. 

Plungian  was  the  author  of  the  following  works: 
"Talpiyyot"  (Wilna,  1849),  on  the  hermeneutic 
rule  "Gezerah  Shawah  "  in  the  Babylonian  Talmud, 
explaining  the  logical  principles  upon  which  it  is 
based  and  criticizing  the  views  expressed  on  the 
subject  by  Rashi  and  the  tosafists;  "Kerem  li- 
Slielomoh"  (ib.  1851),  commentary  on  Ecclcsiastes, 
published  together  with  the  text;  "Ben  Porat  "  {ib. 
1858),  biography  of  Manasseh  ben  Porat,  with  ex- 
egetic  and  philological  dissertations;  "Shebet  Elo- 
ah"  (ib.  1862),  episode  of  the  eighteenth  century, 
with  arguments  against  the  blood  accusation ;  "Or 
Boker "  {ib.  1868),  three  critical  treatises  on  the 
Masorali  as  interpreted  in  the  Talmud ;  "  Kerem 
li-Shelomoh"  (ib.  1877),  commentary  on  Canticles, 
published  together  with  the  text. 

Plungian  left  several  works  in  manuscript, 
among  them  a  treatise  on  the  Hebrew  verbs  of  four 
letters,  partly  published  in  "Kerem  Hemed  "  (ix.); 
and  "Ma'amar  Mordekai,"  a  commcntar)-  on  all  the 
haggadot  found  in  ""En  Ya'akob."  In  addition 
Plungian  contributed  to  nearly  all  the  Hebrew  peri- 

BinLiOGRAPHY :  Ha-S^hahar,  xi.  tilo;  N.  Nathanson,  Sefat 
Kmet.  Warsaw,  1887:  Zeitlln,  Bibl.  Paot-MftuMs.  p.  U'T-'; 
Kerem  ffemed,  ix.  136 ;  Ha-Melvf,  1883,  Nos.  89.  91. 

n.  K.  I.   Bit. 

PLYMOUTH :  Seaport  in  the  county  of  Devon, 
England;  one  of  the  principal  ports  of  that  country. 
A  few  Jewish  families  were  living  there  in  1740. 
Among  the  synagogue  deeds  is  a  lease  of  a  garden, 
dated  1752,  the  signature  to  which  is  witnessed  by 
one  Jac.  Myer  Sherrenbek;  it  evidently  refers  to  the 
old  burial-ground  nt-ar  the  Citadel.  In  1762  the 
mayor  and  commonalty  leased  to  Samuel  Chapman 
a  plot  of  ground  for  ninety-nine  years;  and  one 
Chapman  executed  a  deed  of  trust  reciting  that  the 
lease  had  been  acquired  by  him  at  the  sole  exjicnso 
"of  the  said  J.  J.  Sherrenbek  and  Gumpert  Michael 




Emdon,  elders  of  the  Synagogue  of  the  Jews."  In 
the  same  year  £300  was  raised  on  mortgage  "to 
complete  the  buildings,  editices,  and  erections  now 
building  thereon,  and  which  is  designed  for  a  Jew- 
ish synagogue  or  place  of  worship  for  those  profess- 
ing the  Jewish  religion."  In  1786  this  lease  was 
surrendered,  and  a  new  one  was  entered  into  with 
live  leading  Protestant  citizens,  who  held  the  same 
in  trust  for  one  A.  Joseph.  Eleven  years  later  an- 
other lease  was  granted  to  the  following  three 
Jewish  holders:  Henry  Hart,  Joseph  Joseph,  and 
Samuel  Hart;  and  in  1834  the  freehold  of  the  syna- 
gogue was  transferred  to  other  trustees.  In  1868  a 
new  burial-ground,  adjoining  the  Christian  ceme- 
tery, was  acquired;  and  in  1873  the  congregation 
purchased  the  ground  on  which  the  synagogue 
house  now  stands. 

One  of  the  most  prominent  of  Plymouth  Jews 
was  the  late  Jacob  Nathan,  who  left  a  considerable 
sum  of  money  to  Jewish  and  Christian  local  chari- 
ties. Among  his  bequests  was  one  of  £13,000 
(§65,000)  to  found  and  maintain  a  Jewish  school 
for  the  poor.  This  school  was  established  in  1869, 
and  has  an  average  attendance  of  fifteen  scholars. 
Solomon  Alexander  Hart,  R.A.,  a  native  of  Plym- 
outh, bequeathed  £1,000  to  the  congregation,  and 
one  of  his  masterpieces,  "The  Execution  of  Lady 
Jane  Grey,"  to  the  corporation.  It  is  one  of  the 
chief  adornments  of  the  municipal  chamber. 

The  synagogue  in  Catherine  street  retains  its  an- 
cient features — a  latticed  women's  gallery,  a  beauti- 
fully carved  wooden  Ark,  antique  silver  sets  of 
bells,  and  old  brasswork.  It  has  a  membership  of  70. 
There  are,  besides  the  Jacob  Nathan  Day  School, 
two  Jewish  charities,  the  Ladies'  Hebrew  Benevo- 
lent Society  and  the  Sick  Visiting  Society.  There  are 
also  several  Jewish  social  institutions.  The  Jews  of 
Plymouth  number  about  300  in  a  total  population  of 
107,500.  Except  for  two  families,  the  present  (1905) 
Jewish  community  comprises  recent  settlers. 

Bibliography:  Jewish  Year  Book,  1904. 

POBYEDONOSTZEV.     See  Russia. 

L  H. 

DAH  LOB  ben  JOSEPH  :  Kussiaii  rabbi  and 
preacher ;  flourished  at  Pinsk  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
seventeenth  century;  died  in  Palestine,  whither  he 
went  before  1681.  He  was  the  author  of :  "Keneh 
Hokmah"  (Frankfort-on-theOder,  1681),  a  work 
consisting  of  seventeen  "derasliot"  on  penitence; 
"Derek  Hokmah"  (ib.  1683),  a  treatise  in  thirty-two 
sections  on  morals;  "Dibre  Hakamim  "  (Hamburg, 
1692),  a  work  in  two  parts:  the  first,  entitled  "  Da'at 
Hokmah,"  being  a  treatise  in  four  .sections  on  morals 
and  asceticism;  the  second,  "Mekor  Hokmah,"  con- 
taining notes  to  the  Shullian  'Aruk,  Orah  Hayyini, 
up  to  No,  240.  At  the  end  of  this  work  is  a  pam- 
phlet, entitled  "Solet  Belulah,"  containing  novella; 
on  the  Talmud.  Thirty-two  treatises  taken  from 
the  above-mentioned  works  were  published  in  one 
volume  by  Solomon  Pinkerle  under  the  title  "Kebod 
ijakamiiii "  (Venice,  1700). 

Bim.iOfjRAPHY:  Furst,  73i7/J.  J?(fMll.l08:  Nepl-Ghlrondl,  To/c- 
clot  (li'iUAe  YUsrael,  p.  189;  Steluschnelder,  Cat.  Bodl.  cols. 
I*i6- 1.%7. 


M.  Ski,. 

POCOCK,  EDWARD:  English  Christian  Ori- 
entalist and  theologian ;  born  at  Oxford  Nov.  8, 
1604;  died  there  Sept.  12,  1691.  He  studied  Orien- 
tal languages  at  Oxford  and  elsewhere;  was  chap- 
lain of  the  English  "Turkey  Merchants"  in  Aleppo 
from  1630  to  1636;  and  became  professor  of  Arabic 
at  Oxford  in  1636.  He  spent  the  period  from  1637 
to  1640  in  Constantinople,  and  on  returning  to  Eng- 
land in  1647  resumed  liis  professorship  of  Arabic  at 
Oxford;  he  became  professor  of  Hebrew,  also,  ia 
1649,  which  position  he  held  until  his  death,  al- 
though frequently  attacked  for  political  reasons. 
During  his  stay  in  the  East  he  collected  many  valu- 
able manuscripts,  among  them  one  of  the  Samaritan 

Among  Pocock's  works  may  be  mentioned 
"Porta  Mosis"  (Oxford,  1655),  a  translation  of  six 
sections  of  Maimonides'  commentary  on  the  Mish- 
nali  (Arabic  text  in  Hebrew  characters,  with  Latin 
translation).  This  was  tlie  tirst  book  printed  in 
Hebrew  characters  in  Oxford.  In  1657  was  pub- 
lished Walton's  polyglot  edition  of  the  Bible,  for 
which  Pocock  collated  manuscripts  of  the  Arabic 
Pentateuch  and  furnished  notes  explaining  the  dif- 
ferent Arabic  versions, 

Pocock  was  the  author  of  the  following  commen- 
taries: on  Micah  and  Malachi  (Oxford,  1677);  on 
Hosea  (ib.  1685);  and  on  Joel  (ib.  1691).  These 
commentaries  evidence  the  wide  extent  of  Pocock's 
knowledge  of  Hebrew  language  and  science,  rab- 
binical and  sacred, 

BiBMOfiUAPiiY :  Twells,  The  Life  of  Dr.  Edicartl  Pocock, 
London,  1"40;  Allil)one,   Diet,  of  British  and  Awerican 
Aiithors;   McClintock   and    Strong,    Cyc.;    Dictionary   of 
National  Biography. 
T.  F.  T.  H. 

PODIEBRAD,  DAVID:  Austrian  writer;  born 
in  1816;  died  Aug.  2,  1882.  He  received  his  educa- 
tion in  the  yeshibah  of  Prague  and  by  private  tui- 
tion. He  was  especially  interested  in  the  history 
of  the  Jews  in  Prague,  where  for  thirty  years  he 
occupied  the  position  of  secretar}'  of  the  hebra 
kaddisha.  He  collected  many  manuscripts  and  me- 
morials concerning  the  Jews  of  Prague.  He  pub- 
lished Benedict  Foges'  work,  "  Altertilmer  der  Prager 
Josefstadt,"  Prague,  1870,  which  was  based  mainly 
on  documents  collected  by  Podiebrad. 

s.  A.  Ki. 

PODIVIN.     See  Kostel. 

PODOLIA :  Government  in  southwestern  Rus- 
sia, on  the  Austrian  frontier  (Galicia).  It  is  a  center 
of  many  important  events  in  the  history  of  the  Rus- 
sian Jews.  Polish  and  Russian  documents  of  1550 
mention  Jewish  communities  in  Podolia,  but  from 
tombstones  discovered  in  .some  towns  of  the  govern- 
ment it  is  evident  that  Jews  had  lived  there  much 
earlier.  (For  the  earlier  historj^  see  Lithuania  and 
Russia;  for  the  sufferings  of  the  Jews  in  the  middle 
of  the  seventeenth  century  see  Cossacks'  Upkisino  ; 
for  the  revolt  of  the  I'kruinians  against  the  Jews  of 
Podolia  in  the  eighteenth  century  see  IlAiDAMArKS.) 
Ruined  by  persecutions  lasting  for  centuries,  Podolia 
became  the  breeding-place  of  superstition  and  re- 
ligious intolerance,  which  flourished  there  more  than 
in  any  other  place  within  the  Pale.  Owing  to  the 
extremely  impoverished  condition  of  its  Jews,  Shab- 




bethai  Zebi,  the  Frankists,  and  the  Hasidim  found 
in  Podolia  a  most  fertile  soil  for  the  spread  of  their 
doctrines  (see  Ba'al  Siiem-Tob;  Frank,  Jacou; 
Hasidim).  Podolia  was  annexed  to  Russia  at  the 
end  of  the  eighteenth  century.  Tlie  Jewish  popula- 
tion of  Podolia  in  1887  was  325,907— about  13  per 
cent  of  the  general  population  ;  the  Jews  still  live 
mostly  in  small  towns  and  villages.  The  capital  of 
Podolia  is  Kamenetz-Podoi^sk. 

Bibliography  :  Orshanskl,  Yevrci  v  Rossii ;  Bershadskl,  Li- 
tovi>kiye  Yevrci;  Litinski,  Korot  ha-Yehtuliin  tie-I'odolia 
(unreliable);  Vonkhod,  l»d7  ;  Hannover,  Yewen  Me^itlah. 

H.  R.  S.    HU. 

Podolia:   Population  (Census  of  1897). 



Bratzlav  (Braslavl) 











Total  In  Government- 











11. :« 


n.  R.  V.  R. 

POETRY.— Biblical :  The  question  whether 
the  literature  of  the  ancient  Hebrews  includes  por- 
tions that  may  be  called  poetry  is  answered  by  the 
ancient  Hebrews  themselves.  A  distinction  be- 
tween different  classes  of  writings  is  evident  in  such 
a  fact  as  that  the  section  II  iSam.  xxiii.  1-7  is 
designated  in  the  (later)  heading  as  "  the  last  words 
of  David,"  although  other  utterances  of  this  king 
are  reported  as  late  as  I  Kings  ii.  9 ;  it  is  not  known, 
however,  whether  the  words  of  David  cited  in 
II  Sam.  I.e.  are  called  his  "last  words"  on  account 
of  their  substance  or  of  their  form.  Again,  the  au- 
thor of  Ps.  xlv.  has  designated  it  as  a  "ma'aseh," 
i.e.,  "a  product";  and  this  expression  corresponds  in 
a  remarkable  degree  with  the  Greek  nuir/aig,  although 
he  may  have  applied  that  term  to  the  psalm  only  on 
account  of  its  contents.  But  that  the  ancient  He- 
brews perceived  there  were  poetical  portions  in  their 
literature  is  shown  by  their  entitling  songs  or  chants 
such  passages  as  Ex.  xv.  1  et  seq.  and  Num.  xxi.  17  et 
seq.  ;  and  a  song  or  chant  ("  shir  ")  is,  according  to  the 
primary  meaning  of  the  term,  poetry.  In  the  first 
place,  therefore,  these  songs  of  the  Old  Testament 
must  be  considered  if  the  (jualities  that  distinguish 
the  poetical  products  of  the  ancient  Hebrews  from 
their  oniinary  mode  of  literary  presentation  arc  to  be 

Characteristics  of  Ancient  Hebrew  Poetry:  (1)  An- 
cient Hebrew  poetry  contains  no  rime.  Although 
the  tirst  song  mentioned  above  (Ex.  xv.  1  et  seq.) 
contains  assonance  at  the  ends  of  the  lines,  as  in 
"anwehu"  and  "aromemenhu"  {ib.  verse  2),  such 
consonance  of  "hu"  (=  "him")  can  not  well  be 
avoided  in  Hebrew,  because  many  pronouns  are 
affixed  to  words.  Furthermore,  rime  occurs  only 
as  sporadically  in  Hebrew  poems  as  in  Shakespeare; 
e.g. ,  in  "  thing  "  and  "  king  "  at  the  end  of  the  second 

act  of  "  Hamlet."  There  is  no  poem  in  the  OKI  Tes- 
tament with  a  final  rime  in  every  line;  ultlioiigh 
Hellermann  ("  Versiich  hberdie  Metrik  derHebrfler," 
1813,  p.  210)  alludes  to  an  exception,  meaning  prob- 
al)ly  l^s.  cxxxvi.,  the  rime  throughout  whielj  poem 
consists  only  in  the  frecjuent  repetition  of  the  word 
"hasdo."  h.  Grimme  has  stJited  in  his  arti<lc 
"  Durchgereimte  Gedichte  im  A.  T."  (in  Barden- 
hewer's  "Bibl.  Studien,"  1901,  vi.  1,  2)  tliat  such 
poems  are  represented  by  Ps.  xlv.,  liv.,  and  Siraeh 
(Ecclus.)  xliv.  1-14;  but  lie  regards  the  consonance 
of  final  consonants  as  rime,  e.g.,  •'ozueA-  "  and  "ubiA  " 
(Ps.  xlv.  11),  while  rime  proper  demands  at  least  tlie 
assonance  of  the  preceding  vowel. 

(2)  The  empioymenl  of  unusual  forms  of  lan- 
guage can  not  be  considered  as  a  sign  of  ancient 
Hebrew  poetry.  In  the  sentences  of  Noah,  f.g..  ((Jen. 
ix.  2o-27)  the  form  "  lamo  "  occurs.     But  this  form. 

which  represents  partly  "laliem"  and 

Unusual      i^artly  "  lo,"  has  many  count(ri)arls  in 

Forms.       Hebrew    grammar,    as,   for   example, 

"  kemo  "  instead  of  "ke"  (Ex.  xv.  5, 
8) ;  or  "  emo  "  =  "  them  "  (ib.  verses  9, 15) ;  or  "  cmo  " 
=  "their"  (Ps.  ii.  3);  or  "elemo"  =  "  to  them" 
{ib.  verse  5) — forms  fount!  in  pas.sages  for  which  no 
claim  to  poetical  expressions  is  made.  Then  there 
are  found  " liayeto  "  =  "beast"  (Gen.  i.  24).  "osri" 
=:  "tying"  (ib.  xlix.  11),  and  "yeshu'alah"  = 
"salvation"  (Ps.  iii.  3)— three  forms  that  i)rf>bably 
retain  remnants  of  the  old  endings  of  the  nomina- 
tive, genitive,  and  accusj\tive:  "u(n),"  "i(n)," 
"a(n)."  Again,  in  Lamech's  words,  "Adah  and 
Zillah,  hear  my  voice;  ye  wives  of  Lamecli, 
barken  unto  my  speech"  (Gen.  iv.  23),  the  two 
words  "he'ezin  "  and  "imrali  "  attract  atti'ntion,  be- 
cause they  occur  for  the  first  time  in  this  passage. 
although  there  had  been  an  earlier  opportunity  of 
using  them.  "  He'ezin  "  =  "  to  barken  "  could  have 
been  used  just  as  well  as  its  synonym  "shama'" 
=  "to  hear"  in  Gen.  iii.  8,  10  et  seq.,  but  its  earliest 
employment  is  in  the  above-cited  pas.<yige  Gen. 
iv.  23.  It  occurs  also  in  Ex.  xv.  26;  Num.  xxiii. 
18  (a  sentence  of  Balaam);  Deut.  i.  4.'),  xxxii.  1; 
Judges  V.  3;  Isa.  i.  2,  10;  viii.  9;  xxviii.  2.1;  xxxii. 
9;  xlii.  23;  Ii.  4;  Ixiv.  3;  Jer.  xiii.  15;  IIos.  v.  1; 
Joel  i.  2;  Neh.  ix.  30  (in  a  prayer);  and  in  H  Cliron. 
xxiv.  19  (probably  an  imitation  of  Isa.  Ixiv.  3). 
Furthermore,  "  imrah  "  =  "  speech  "  might  have  been 
used  instead  of  the  essentially  identiail  "dabar"  in 
Gen.  xi.  1  et  seq.,  but  its  earliest  use  is,  as  stated 
above,  in  Gen.  iv.  23.  It  is  found  also  in  Deut. 
xxxii.  2,  xxxiii.  9;  II  Sam.  xxii.  31;  Isa.  v.  24, 
xxviii.  23,  xxix.  4,  xxxii.  9;  Ps.  xii.  7,  etc.;  Prov. 
XXX.  5;  and  Lam.  ii.  17.  In  place  of  "ailam"  = 
"man"  {Gen.  i.  26  et  seq.)  "enosh"  is  employed  in 
Deut.  xxxii.  26;  Isa.  viii.  1;  xiii.  7,  12;  xxiv.  6; 
xxxiii.  8;  Ii.  7.  12;  Ivi.  2;  Jer.  xx.  10;  Ps.  viii.  5, 
ix.  20,  X.  18.  Iv.  14,  Ivi.  2,  Ixvi.  12,  Ixxiii.  5.  xc. 
3,  ciii.  15,  civ.  15,  cxliv.  3;  Job  iv.  17;  v.  17:  vii. 
1,  17;  ix.  2;  x.  4;  xiii.  9;  xiv.  19;  xv.  14;  xxv.  4. 
6;  xxviii.  4.. 13;  xxxii.  8;  xxxiii.  12,  26;  xxxvi.  25; 
II  Chron.  xiv.  10  (comp.  the  Aramaic  "enash"  in 
Dan.  ii.  10;  Ezra  iv.  11,  vi.  11).  For  a  systematic 
review  of  similar  unusual  forms  of  Hebrew  gram- 
mar and  Hebrew  words  occurring  in  certain  por- 
tions of  the  Old  Testament  see  E.  KOnig,  "Stilis- 




tik, "  etc. ,  pp.  277-283.  Such  forms  have  been  called 
"dialectus  poetica"  since  the  publication  of  Robert 
Lowth's  "  Prtelectiones  de  Sacra  Poesi  Hebraeoruni," 
iii.  (1753);  but  this  designation  is  ambiguous  and 
can  be  accepted  only  in  agreement  with  the  rule  "  a 
parte  potiori  lit  denominatio " ;  for  some  of  these 
unusual  forms  and  words  are  found  elsewhere  than 
in  the  "songs"  of  the  Old  Testament,  as,  e.g.,  the 
"hayeto"  of  Gen.  i.  24  mentioned  above,  which  was 
probably  preferred  as  an  archaic  form  in  the  solemn 
\itterance  of  God,  while  in  the  following  sentences 
of  the  narrator  (verse  25)  the  ordinarj'  form  "  hayyat " 
is  used. 

Again,  these  unusual  forms  and  expressions  do 
not  occur  in  all  songs  (comp.  Num.  xxi.  17  et  seq. 
and  II  Sam.  iii.  33  et  seq.),  and  there  are  several  of 
the  Psalms  that  have  none  of  these  peculiarities,  as, 
for  instance,  Ps.  cxlix.,  although  the  opportunity 
to  use  them  existed.  The  present  writer  is  of  opin- 
ion that  the  use  of  these  peculiar  forms  of  expres- 
sion is  connected  more  with  the  tastes  of  a  certain 
(earlier)  period,  when  unusual,  archaic,  and  dialectic 
forms  were  chosen  to  embellish  the  diction.  The  fact 
that  "he'ezin"  occurs  also  in  II  Chron.  xxiv. 
19  is  explainable  likewise  on  the  theory  that 
poetico-rhetorical  expressions  later  became  compo- 
nent parts  of  common  speech,  as,  for  example, 
"hammah"  =  "glowing  one,"  a  rare  expression  in 
Biblical  Hebrew  for  the  sun  (Isa.  xxiv.  23,  etc.),  but 
one  which  is  frequently  used  in  this  sense  in  the 
Mishnah  (Ber.  i.  2;  iii.  5,  etc.). 

(3)  Not  even  the  "parallelismus  membrorum"  is 
an  absolutely  certain  indication  of  ancient  Hebrew 
poetry.     This  "  parallelism  "  is  a  phenomenon  no- 
ticed  in   the   portions  of   the  Old  Testament  that 
are    at   the    same    time    marked    fre- 
Parallel-     quently  by  the   so-called   "dialectus 
ism.  poetica";  it  consists  in  a  remarkable 

correspondence  in  the  ideas  expressed 
in  two  successive  verses;  for  example,  the  above- 
cited  words  of  Lamech,  "Adah  and  Zillah,  hear  my 
voice ;  ye  wives  of  Lamech,  barken  unto  my  speech  " 
(Gen.  iv.  23),  in  which  are  found  "he'ezin"  and 
"imrah,"  show  a  remarkable  repetition  of  the  same 
thought.     See  Parallelism  in  Hebrew  Poetry. 

But  this  ideal  eurythmy  is  not  always  present  in 
the  songs  of  the  Old  Testament  or  in  the  Psalter, 
as  the  following  passages  will  show :  "  The  Lord  is 
my  strength  and  song,  and  he  is  become  my  salva- 
tion "  (Ex.  XV.  2).  "Saul  and  Jonathan,  the  beloved 
and  the  lovely,  in  life  and  in  death  they  were  not 
divided"  (H.  P.  Smith,  in  "International  Commen- 
tary," on  II  Sam.  i.  23).  "Ye  daughters  of  Israel, 
weep  over  Saul,  who  clothed  you  in  scarlet,  and  tine 
linen  "  {ib.  24).  "  And  he  shall  be  like  a  tree  planted 
by  the  rivers  of  water,  that  bringeth  forth  his  fruit 
in  his  .season"  (Ps.  i.  3;  comp.  ib.  ii.  12);  "I  laid  me 
down  and  slept;  I  awaked  ;  for  the  Lord  sustained 
me.  I  will  not  be  afraid  of  ton  thousands  of  people, 
that  have  set  themselves  against  me  round  about" 
{ib.  iii.  6-7  [A.  V.  5-6] ;  see  also  ib.  iv.  7  et  seq.,  ix.  4 
et  seq.).  Julius  Ley  ("Leitfaden  der  Hebraischen 
Metrik,"  1887,  p.  10)  says  therefore  correctly  that 
"the  poets  did  not  consider  themselves  bound  by 
parallelism  to  such  an  extent  as  not  to  set  it  aside 
when  the  thought  required  it."     This  restriction 

must  be  made  to  James  Robertson's  view  ("The 
Poetry  of  the  Psalms,"  1898,  p.  160):  "The  distin- 
guishing feature  of  the  Hebrew  poetry  ...  is  the 
rhythmical  balancing  of  parts,  or  parallelism  of 
thought. " 

(4)  The  poetry  of  the  ancient  Hebrews  is  not  dis- 
tinguished from  the  other  parts  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment by  rhytiun  based  on  quantity, 

Q,uantita-  though  in  view  of  Greek  and  Roman 
tive  poetry  it  was  natural  to  seek  such  a 

Rhythm,  rhythm  in  the  songs  and  Psalms  of  the 
Old  Testament.  William  Jones,  for 
example  ("Poeseos  Asiaticae  Commentarii,"  ch.  ii., 
London, 1774),  attempted  to  prove  that  there  was  a 
definite  sequence  of  long  and  short  syllables  in  the 
ancient  Hebrew  poems;  but  he  could  support  this 
thesis  only  by  changing  the  punctuation  in  many 
ways,  and  by  allowing  great  license  to  the  Hebrew 
poets.  However,  on  reading  the  portions  of  the 
Old  Testament  marked  by  the  so-called  "dialectus 
poetica"  or  by  parallelism  {e.g..  Gen.  iv.  23  et  seq.) 
no  such  sequence  of  long  and  short  syllables  can 
be  discovered ;  and  Sievers  ("  Metrische  Untersuch- 
ungen,"  1901,  §53)  says:  "Hebrew  prosody  is  not 
based  on  quantity  as  classical  prosodj''  is." 

(5)  Hebrew  poetic  form  is  based  on  accent.  Al- 
though Hubert  Giimme  recognizes  this  fact,  he  is  in 
danger  of  recurring  to  the  view  that  quantitative 
meter  may  bo  found  in  ancient  Hebrew  poetry,  hav- 
ing recently  formulated  his  rules  in  his  "Metres  et 
Strophes"  (1901,  pp.  3  et  seq.) and  in  "Psalmenpro- 
bleme  "  (1902,  pp.  4  et  seq.).  Nivard  Schloegl  ("Ec- 
clesiasticus,"  1901,  p.  xxi.)  also  adopts  this  view. 
Although  both  admit  that  the  Hebrew  poet  regarded 
the  accented  syllables  as  the  chief  syllables  of  the 
line,  they  hold  that  these  syllables  contained  a 
certain  number  of  morte,  only  a  certain  number  of 
which  could  occur  between  two  accented  syllables. 
This  view  is  too  mechanical,  in  the  present  writer's 
opinion ;  and  Sievers  also  says  {I.e.  §  81) :  "  Grimme's 
morae  are  more  than  questionable." 

Gustav  Bickell  holds  that  the  poetical  rhythm  of 
the  Hebrews  consisted  in  the  regular  succession  of 
accented  and  unaccented  syllables,  saying  distinctly : 
"The  metrical  accent  falls  regularly  upon  every  al- 
ternate syllable"  ("Z.  D.  M.  G."  1881,  pp.  415,  418 

et  seq.).      This   statement,    however, 

Bickell's     does  not  agree  with  the  nature  of  He- 

Recon-       brew  poetry  as  it  actually  exists,  as  has 

struction.    nowhere  else  been  more  clearly  proved 

than  in  Jacob  Ecker's  "Professor 
Bickell's  '  Carmina  Veteris  Testamenti  Metrice, '  das 
Neueste  Denkmal  auf  dom  Kirchhof  der  Hebra- 
ischen  Metrik  "  (1883).  Ecker  shows  in  this  pam- 
phlet that  Bickell  removed  or  added  about  2,600  syl- 
lables in  the  Psalms  in  order  to  obtain  the  "regular 
succession  of  accented  and  unaccented  syllables." 
As  illustrating  the  shortcomings  of  Bickell's  view  it 
may  be  pointed  out  that  he  holds  that  the  poetic 
pcjrtions  of  the  Book  of  Job  are  composed  in  cata- 
lectic  iambic  tetrameters;  hence  he  transcribes  Job 
xxxii.  6  as  follows:  "Ca'ir  ani  lojamim,  V'attem 
sabim  jeshi.shim;  'Al-ken  zachalt  vaira',  Mechav- 
vot  de'i  et'khem  " — i.e.,  he  adds  the  word  "  zabim," 
and  suppresses  the  afTormative  "i  "  of  "zahalti,"  al- 
though the  "^  "  distinguishes  this  form  from  that  of 




the  second  person  singular  feminine;  hence  it  is  not 
surprising  tliat  Sievers  says  (Z.c .  §55):  "I  can  do 
uotiiing  further  with  Bicliell's  system." 

Mostscliolars  now  hold  that  the  Hebrew  poet  con- 
sidered only  the  syllables  receiving  the  main  accent, 
and  did  not  count  the  intervening  ones.  !^xamples 
contrary  to  this  are  not  found  in  passages  where 
forms  of  the  so-called  "dialectus  poctica  "  are  iised, 
as  Ley  holds  in  his  "GrundzUge  des  Hhythmus, 
des  Vers-  und  Strophenbaues  in  der  Hebraischen 
Poesie,"  pp.  99,  116;  and  the  present  writer  has 
proved  (in  his  "Stilistik,"  etc.,  p.  833,  for  example) 
that  the  choice  of  "  lame  "  instead  of  "  lahem  "  favors 
jn  only  a  few  passages  the  opinion  that  the  poet  in- 
tended to  cause  an  accented  syllable  to  be  followed 
by  an  unaccented  one.  Such  passages  are:  Gen. 
ix.  26 ;  Ps.  xliv.  4,  Ixvi.  7 ;  Job  xxiv.  17, 
Accentual  xxxix.  4;  and  Lam.  i.  19.  Ley  has  not 
Rhythm,  noted  that  the  choice  of  "  lanio  "  dis- 
turbs the  mechanical  succession  of  un- 
accented and  accented  syllables  in  the  following  pas- 
sages: Deut.  xxxii.  33,  35;  xxxiii.  2;  Ps.  ii.  4;  xxviii. 
8;  xliv.  11;  xlix.l4;  Iv.  20;  Ivi.  8;  Iviii.  5,8;  lix.  9; 
Ixiv.  6;  Ixxiii.  6,  10,  18;  Ixxviii.  24,  66;  Ixxx.  7; 
Ixxxviii.  9;  xcix.  7;  cxix.165;  Prov.  xxiii.  20;  Job 
iii.  14;  vi.  19;  xiv.  31;  xv.  28;  xxii.  17,  19;  xxiv. 
16;  XXX.  13;  Lam.  i.  22;  iv.  10,  15  (for  other  exam- 
ples see  KOnig,  I.e.  pp.  333  et  seq.).  Hence  most 
scholars  now  hold  that  the  rhythm  of  Hebrew  poetry 
is  similar  to  that  of  the  German  "Nibelungenlied" 
— a  view  that  is  strongly  supported  by  the  nature 
of  the  songs  sung  to-day  by  the  populace  of  modern 
Palestine.  These  songs  have  been  described  by  L. 
Schneller  in  his"Kennst  Du  das  Land?"  (section 
"Musik")in  the  following  words:  "The  rhythms 
are  manifold;  there  may  be  eight  accents  in  one 
line,  and  three  syllables  are  often  inserted  between 
two  accents,  the  .symmetry  and  variation  being  de- 
termined by  emotion  and  sentiment."  Not  less 
interesting  are  G.  Dalman's  recent  observations  in 
Palestine.  He  says:  "Lines  with  two,  three,  four, 
and  five  accented  syllables  maj'  be  distinguished, 
between  which  one  to  three,  and  even  four,  unac- 
cented syllables  may  be  inserted,  the  poet  being 
bound  by  no  definite  number  in  his  poem.  Occa- 
sionally two  accented  syllables  are  joined  "  ("Palas- 
tinischer  Diw^an,"  1901,  p.  xxiii.). 

Such  free  rhythms  are,  in  the  present  writer's 
opinion,  found  also  in  the  poetry  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment. Under  the  stress  of  their  thoughts  and  feel- 
ings the  poets  of  Israel  sought  to  achieve  merely  the 
material,  not  the  formal  symmetry  of  correspond- 
ing lines.  This  may  be  observed,  for  example, 
in  the  following  lines  of  Ps.  ii. :  "Serve  the  Lord 
with  fear"  (" 'Ibdu  et-Ynwii  be-yir'ah,"  verse  11), 
"  rejoice  with  trembling  "  ("  we-gilu  bi-re'adah,"  ib.). 
Tills  is  shown  more  in  detail  by  KOnig,  I.e.  p.  334; 
and  Cornill  has  confirmed  this  view  ("  Die  Metrischen 
StQcke  des  Ruches  Jeremia,"  1901,  p.  viii.)  by  say- 
ing: "Equal  length  of  the  several  stichoi  was  not 
the  ba.sic  formal  law  of  Jeremiah's  metric  construc- 
tion. "  Sievers  is  inclined  to  restrict  Hebrew  rhythm 
by  various  rules,  as  he  attacks  (i.e.  §§  52,  88)  Budde's 
correct  view,  that  "a  foot  which  is  lacking  i-n  one- 
half  of  a  verse  may  find  a  substitute  in  the  more 
ample  thought  of  this  shorter  line  "  ("  Haudkomnien- 

tar  zu  Hiob."  p,  xlvii.).  Furthermore,  the  verse  of 
the  Old  Testament  poetry  is  naturally  iambic  or 
anapeslic,  as  the  words  are  accented  on  one  of  tlic 
final  syllables. 

A  special  kind  of  rhytiim  may  be  ol)Rerved  in  the 
dirges,  called  by  the  Hebrews  "kinot."  A  whole 
book  of  these  elegies  is  contained  in  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, the  first  of  them  beginning  thus:  "  IIow  duth 
the  city  sit  solitary— that  was  full  of  people— Ijow 
is  she  become  as  a  widow — she  that  was  great 
among  the  nations — and  princess  among  the  prov- 
inces—how is  she  become  tributary!"   (I^im.  i.  1). 

The  rhythm  of  such  lines  lies  in  the 

The  fact  that  a  longer  line  is  always  fol- 

Dirges.       lowed   by  a  shorter  one.     As  in   the 

hexameter  and  pentameter  of  Latin 
poetry,  this  change  was  intended  to  symbolize  the 
idea  that  a  strenuous  advance  in  life  is  followed 
by  fatigue  or  reaction.  This  rhythm,  which  may 
be  designated  "elegiac  measure,"  occurs  also  in 
Amos  V.  2,  expressly  designated  as  a  kinah.  The 
sad  import  of  his  prophecies  induced  Jeremiah  also 
to  employ  the  rhythm  of  the  dirges  several  times  in 
his  utterances  (Jer.  ix.  20,  xiii.  18  et  seq.).  He  refers 
here  expressly  to  the  "mekonenot"  (the  mourning 
women)  who  in  the  East  still  chant  the  death-song 
to  the  trembling  tone  of  the  pipe  (ib.  xlviii.  36  et 
seq.).  "Kinot"  are  found  also  in  Ezek.  xix.  1 ;  xxvi. 
17;  xxvii.  2;  xxxii.  3  et  seq.,  16,  19  et  seq.  This 
elegiac  measure,  being  naturally  a  well-known 
one,  was  used  also  elsewhere,  as,  for  example,  in 
Ps.  xix.  8-10.  The  rhythm  of  the  kinah  has  been 
analyzed  especially  by  Budde  (in  Stade's  "Zeit- 
schrift,"  1883,  pp.  399  etseq.).  Similar  funeral  songs 
of  the  modern  Arabs  are  quoted  by  Wetzstein  (in 
"Zeitschrift  fur  Ethnologie,"  v.  298  et  seq.),  as,  e.g. : 
"O,  if  he  only  could  be  ransomed!  truly,  I  would 
pay  the  ransom!  "  (see  Kftnig,  I.e.  pp.  315  et  se^.). 

A  special  kind  of  rhythm  was  produced  by  the 
frequent  employment  of  the  so-called  anadiplosis,  a 
mode  of  speech  in  which  the  phrase  at  the  end  of 
one  sentence  is  repeated  at  the  beginning  of  the 
next,  as,  for  instance,  in  the  passages  "  they  came  not 

to  the  help  of  the  Lord  [i.e.,  to  protect 

Ana-        Yhwh's  people],  to  the  help  of  the 

diplosis.      Lord   against    the  mighty "   (Judges 

v.  23;  comp.  "zidkot"  [il>.  11a]  and 
"  nilhamu  "  \ib.  19a-20a,  b]),  and  "  From  whence  shall 
my  help  come?  ]SIy  help  cometh  from  the  Lord" 
(Ps.  cxxi.  lb-2a,  K.  V.).  Many  similar  passages 
occur  in  fifteen  of  the  Psalms,  cxx.-cxxxiv..  which 
also  contain  an  unusual  number  of  epanalepses,  or 
catch-words,  for  whicii  the  present  writer  has  pro- 
posed the  name  "  LeittOne."  Thus  there  is  the  repe- 
tition of"shakan"in  Ps.  cxx.  5.6:  of  "shalom" 
in  verses  6  and  7  of  the  same  chapter;  and  the  catch- 
word "yishmor"  in  Ps.  cxxi.  7.  8  (all  the  cases  are 
enumerated  in  KOnig.  I.e.  p.  302).  As  the  employ- 
ment of  such  repetitions  is  somewhat  suggestive  of 
the  mounting  of  stairs,  the  superscription  "shir 
ha-ma'alot,"  found  at  the  beginning  of  these  fifteen 
psalms,  may  have  a  double  meaning:  it  may  indicate 
not  only  the  purpose  of  these  songs,  to  be  sung  on  the 
pilgrimages  to  the  festivals  at  Jerusalem,  but  also 
the  peculiar  construction  of  the  songs,  by  which 
the  reciter  is  led  from  one  step  of  the  inner  life  to 




the  next.  Such  graduated  rhythm  may  be  observed 
elsewhere ;  for  the  peasants  in  modern  Syria  accom- 
pany their  national  dance  by  a  song  the  verses  of 
which  are  connected  like  the  links  of  a  chain,  each 
verse  beginning  with  the  final  words  of  the  prece- 
ding one  (Wetzstein,  I.e.  v.  292). 

Alphabetical  acrostics  are  used  as  an  external  em- 
bellisliment  of  a  few  poems.  The  letters  of  the 
alphabet,  generally  in  their  ordinary  sequence,  stand 
at  the  beginning  of  smaller  or  larger  sections  of  Ps. 
ix.-x.  (probably),  xxv.,  xxxiv.,  xxxvii.,  cxi.,  cxii., 
cxix.,cxlv. ;  Prov.  xxxi.  10-31 ;  Lam. 
Acrostics,  i.-iv. ;  and  also  of  Sirach  (Ecclus.)  li. 
13-29,  as  the  newly  discovered  He- 
brew text  of  this  book  has  shown  (see  Acrostics, 
and,  on  Ps.  xxv.  and  xxxiv.  especially,  Ilirsch  in 
"Am.  Jour.  Semit.  Lang."  1902,  pp.  167-173).  Al- 
phabetical and  other  acrostics  occur  frequently  in 
Neo-Hebraic  poetry  (Winter  and  Wiinsche,  "  Die 
JiidischeLiteraturseit  Abschlussdes  Kauons,"  1894- 
1896,  iii.  10).  The  existence  of  acrostics  in  Bab}'- 
lonian  literature  has  been  definitely  proved  (II. 
Zimmern,  in  "Zeitschrift  fiir  Keilschriftforschung," 
1895,  p.  15);  and  alphabetical  poems  are  found  also 
among  the  Samaritans,  Syrians,  and  Arabs.  Cicero 
says  ("De  Divinatione,"  II.,  liv.)  that  the  verse  of 
the  sibyl  was  in  acrostics;  and  the  so-called  "Orac- 
ula  Sibyllina"  contain  an  acrostic  in  book  8,  lines 

A  merely  secondarj'  phenomenon,  which  distin- 
guishes a  part  of  the  poems  of  the  Old  Testament 
from  the  other  parts,  is  the  so-called  "accentuatio 
poetica";  yet  it  calls  for  some  mention,  because  ii 
has  been  much  slighted  recently  (Sievers,  I.e.  ^  248, 
p.  375).  Although  not  all  the  poetical  portions  of 
the  Okl  Testament  are  marked  by  a  special  accentu- 
ation, it  is  noteworthy  that  the  Book  of  Job  in  iii. 
3-xlii.  6  and  the  books  of  Psalms  and  Proverbs 
througiiout  have  received  unusual  accents.  This 
point  will  be  further  discussed  later  on. 

Correct  in.sight  into  the  rhythm  of  the  poetry  of 
the  Old  Testament  did  not  die  out  entirely  in  Jew- 
ish tradition;   for  Judah  ha-Levi  says  (in  his  "Cu- 
zari,"ed,  in  Arabic  and  German  by  II. 
Survivals    Ilirschfeld,  1885-87,  ii.,  §§  69  ct  seq.): 
of  '' '  Hodu  le-Yawii  ki-tob  '  [Ps.  cxxxvi. 

Rhythm.  1]  maybe  recited  'empty  and  full' 
in  the  modulation  of  '  le'oseh  nifla- 
'ot  gedolot  lebaddo '  "  (verse  4),  meaning  that  an 
"empty  "  line  of  the  poem  maybe  modulated  in  the 
same  way  as  a  "  full  "  line,  the  rhythm  consequently 
not  being  dependent  on  a  mechanical  correspondence 
of  the  number  of  syllables.  It  is  true  that  Josephus 
says  that  Moses  composed  the  song  in  Ex.  xv.  2 
et  seq.  kv  e^afitrpu  r(5vw("Ant."  ii.  16,  §  4),  but  he 
probably  found  mere  superficial  resemblances  to 
hexameters  in  the  rhythm  of  Hebrew  poetry.  The 
same  holds  good  of  the  statements  of  Jerome  and 
other  Christian  writers  (Kcinig,  I.e.  pp.  341  ct  nfq.). 

Division  of  the  Poetical  Portions  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment According  to  Their  Contents :  («)  First  may  Ik; 
mentioned  poems  that  deal  principally  with  events, 
being  epic-lyric  in  character:  the  triumphal  song 
of  Israel  delivered  from  Egypt,  or  the  Sea  song 
(Ex.  XV.  1-18);  the  mocking  song  on  the  burning 
of  Heshbon  (Num.  xxi.  27-30) ;  the  so-called  Swan 

song  of  Moses  (Deut.  xxxii.  1-43);  the  song  of  Deb- 
orah (Judges  v.);  the  derisive  song  of  victory  of 
the  Israelitish  women  ("  Saul  hath  slain,"  etc. ;  I  Sam. 
xviii.  7);  Hannah's  song  of  praise  {ib.  ii.  1-10); 
David's  song  of  praise  on  being  saved  from  his  ene- 
mies (II  Sam.  xxii.);  Hezekiah's  song  of  praise  on 
his  recovery  (Isa.  xxxviil.  9-20);  Jonah's  song  of 
praise  (Jonah  ii.  3-10);  and  many  of  the  Psalms, 
e.g.,  those  on  the  creation  of  the  world  (viii.,  civ.), 
and  on  the  election  of  Israel  (xcix.,  c,  cv.).  A  sub- 
division is  formed  by  poems  that  deal  more  with  de- 
scription and  praise:  the  so-called  Well  song  (Num. 
xxi.  17  et  seq.);  the  song  of  praise  on  the  uniqueness 
of  the  God  of  Israel  (Ps.  xcv.,  xcvii.);  and  those 
on  His  eternity  {ib.  xc);  His  omnipresence  and 
omniscience  {ib.  cxxxix.);  and  His  omnipotence 
{ib.  cxv.). 

{b)  Poems  appealing  more  to  reason,  being  essen- 
tially didactic  in  character.  These  include:  fables, 
like  that  of  Jotham  (Judges  ix.  7-15,  although  in 
prose);  parables,  like  those  of  Nathan  and  others (II 
Sam.  xii.  1-4,  xiv.  4-9;  I  Kings  xx.  39  et  seq.,  all 
three  in  prose),  or  in  the  form  of  a  song  (Isa.  v. 
1-6);  riddles  (Judges  xiv.  \'^etscq.;  Prov.  xxx.  11 
et  seq.);  maxims,  as,  for  instance,  in  I  Sam.  xv.  23, 
xxiv.  14,  and  the  greater  part  of  Proverbs;  the 
monologues  and  dialogues  in  Job  iii.  3  et  seq. ;  com- 
pare also  the  reflections  in  monologue 

Didactic     in    Ecclesiastes.     A  number  of    the 

Poems.  Psalms  also  are  didactic  in  character. 
A  series  of  them  impresses  the  fact 
that  Ynwii's  law  teaches  one  to  abhor  sin  (Ps.  v., 
Iviii.),  and  inculcates  a  true  love  for  the  Temple  and 
the  feastsof  Yhwh  (Ps.  xv.,  Ixxxi.,  xcii.).  Another 
series  of  Psalms  shows  that  God  is  just,  although  it 
may  at  times  seem  different  to  a  short-sighted  ob- 
server of  the  world  and  of  history  ("  theodicies": 
Ps.  xlix.,  Ixxiii. ;  comp.  ib.  xvi.,  Ivi.,  Ix.). 

(r)  Poems  that  portray  feelings  based  on  individ- 
ual experience.  Manj'  of  these  lyrics  express  joy, 
as,  e.g.,  Lamech's  so-called  song  of  the  Sword  (Gen. 
iv.  23  et  seq.);  David's  "last  words"  (II  Sam.  xxiii. 
1-7) ;  the  words  of  praise  of  liberated  Israel  (Isa. 
xii.  1-6);  songs  of  praise  like  Ps.  xviii.,  xxiv., 
cxxvi.,  etc.  Other  lyrics  express  mourning.  First 
among  these  are  the  dirges  proper  for  the  dead,  as 
the  kinah  on  the  death  of  Saul  and 

Lyrics.  Jonathan  (II  Sam.  i.  19-27);  that  on 
Abner's  death  {ib.  iii.  33  et  seq.) ;  and 
all  psalms  of  mourning,  as,  e.g.,  the  expressions  of 
sorrow  of  sufferers  (Ps.  xvi.,  xxii.,  xxvii.,  xxxix.), 
and  the  expressions  of  penitence  of  sinners  (ii.  vi., 
xxxii.,  xxxviii.,  Ii.,  cvi.,  cxxx.,  cxliii.). 

{d)  Finally,  a  large  group  of  poems  of  the  Old 
Testament  that  urge  action  and  are  exhortatory. 
These  may  be  divided  into  two  sections:  (1)  The  poet 
wishes  something  for  himself,  as  in  the  so-called 
"signal  words  "  (Num.  x.  S'tetseq.,  "Arise,  Ynwir," 
etc.);  at  the  beginning  of  tiie  Well  song  (ib.  xxi.  17  e^ 
seq.,  "ali  be'er  ");  in  the  daring  request,  "Sun,  stand 
thou  still"  (Josh.  X.  12);  in  Habakkuk's  prayer 
("  tefillah  "  ;  Hab.  iii.  1-19) ;  or  in  psalms  of  request  for 
help  in  time  of  war(xliv.,  Ix.,  etc.)  or  for  liberation 
from  prison  (cxxii.,  cxxxvii.,  etc.).  (2)  The  poet  pro- 
nounces blessings  upon  others,  endeavoring  to  move 
God  to  grant  these  wishes.     To  this  group  belong 





the  blessing  of  Noah  (Gen.  ix.  25-27),  of  Isaac  (ib. 
xxix.  28etseg.),and  of  Ja.coh{ib.  xlix.  3-27);  Jethro's 
congratuhitiou  of  Israel  (Ex.  xviii.  10);  the  blessing 
of  Aaron  (Num.  vi.  24-26)  and  of  Balaam  (ib.  xxiii. 
7-10, 18-24;  xxiv.  5-9, 17-24) ;'  farewell  (Dent. 
xxxiii.  Ictseq.);  the  psalms  that  begin  with  "Ashre  " 
=  "Blesised  is,"  elc,  or  contain  this  phrase,  as  Ps.  i., 
xli.,  Ixxxiv.  5ciseq.,  13,  cxii.,  cxix.,  Cxxviii. 

It  was  natural  that  in  the  drama,  which  is  in- 
tended to  portray  a  whole  series  of  external  and  in- 
ternal events,  several  of  the  foregoing  kinds  of  poems 
should  be  combined.  This  combination  occurs  in 
Canticles,  which,  in  the  present  writer's  opinion,  is 
most  correctly  characterized  as  a  kind  of  drama. 

The  peculiar  sublimity  of  the  poems  of  the  Old 
Testament  is  due  partly  to  the  liigh  development 
of  monotheism  which  finds  expression  therein  and 
partly  to  the  beauty  of  the  moral  ideals  which 
they  exalt.  This  subject  has  been  discu.ssed  in  a 
masterly  way  by  J.  D.  Michaelis  in  the  preface  to  his 
Arabic  grammar,  2d  ed.,  pp.  xxix.  et  seq.,  and  by 
Kautzsch  in  "  Die  Poesie  und  die  Poetischen  Biicher 
des  A.  T."(1902). 

The  more  recent  comparative  study  of  the  history 
of   literature  has  brought  out  the  interesting  fact 
that  the  poetic  portions  of  the  several  literatures 
date  from  an  earlier  time  than  the  prose  portions. 
This  fact  was  even  recognized  by  the  Romans,  as  is 
shown  by  several  sentences  by  Strabo  and  Varro 
that  have  been  collected  by  E.  Norden  in  his  work 
**  Antike  Kunstprosa,"  1898,  p.  32.     It  therefore  cor- 
responds to  the  general  analogy  of  the 
Relative     history  of  literature  that  the  poetic 
Age         narrative  of  the  battle  of  the  Israelites 
of  Poetry,    against  the  northern  Cauaanites,  which 
is  usually  called  the  song  of  Deborah 
(Judges  V.  1  et  seq.),  is  held  by  modern  scholars  to 
be  an  earlier  account  of  this  historic  event  than  the 
prose  narrative  of  the  battle  (found  ib.  iv.  14  et  seq.). 
Modern  scholars  generally  agree  on  this  point  in  ref- 
erence to  the  relative  antiquity  of  prose  and  poetry. 
Wellhausen  says  expressly :  "  We  know  that  songs 
like  Josh.  x.  12  et  seq.,  Judges  v. ,  II  Sam.  i.lQet  seq. , 
iii.  33  et  seq.,  are  the  earliest  historical  monuments" 
("Prolegomena  zur  Geschichte  Israels,"  viii.  2). 

But  now  a  new  question  has  arisen  as  to  the  rela- 
tion between  prose  and  poetry  in  the  Old  Testament, 
which  calls  for  brief  discussion  in  the  final  section 
of  this  article. 

How  much  of  the  Old  Testament  is  to  be  included 
under  poetry?    This  is  the  most  recent  question  re- 
garding the  Old  Testament  poetry ;  and  several  schol- 
ars are  inclined  to  answer  that  the  entire  Hebrew 
Bible  is  poetry.     Hence  the  following  points  call  for 
examination :  (a)  Can  the  prophetic  books  be  con- 
sidered as  poetry?    Setting  aside  the  many  modern 
exegetes  of  the  Old  Testament  who  have  gone  so  far 
as  to  discuss  the  meters  and  verse  of  the  several 
prophets,  it  may  be  noted  here  nierel}' 
Extent  of    that    Sievers    says   {I.e.   p.   374)  that 
Poetry       the  prophecies,  aside  from  a  few  ex- 
in  the  Old    ccptions  to  be  mentioned,  are  eo  ipso 
Testament,  poetic,   i.e.,  in   verse.     But   the  fact 
must  be  noted,  which  no  one  has  so 
far  brought  forward,  namely,  that  every  single  ut- 
terance of  Balaam  is  called  a  sentence  ("  mashal  " ; 
X.— 7 

Num.  xxiii.  7,  18;  xxiv.  8.  15,  20,  23).  while  in  the 
prophetic  books  tliis  term  is  not  applied  to  the 
prophecies.  There  "  masiial  "  is  used  only  in  the 
Book  of  Ezekiel,  and  in  an  entirely  different  sense, 
namely,  that  of  figurative speecli  or  allegory  (Ezek. 
xvii.  2,  xxi.  5,  xxiv.  3).  This  fact  seems  to  show 
that  in  earlier  times  prophecies  were  uttered  more 
often  in  shorter  sentences,  while  subsefiuently,  in 
keeping  with  the  development  of  Hebrew  literature, 
they  were  uttered  more  in  detail,  and  the  sentence 
was  naturally  amplified  into  the  discourse.  This 
view  is  supiiorted  by  Lsa.  i.,  the  first  pro|)hecy 
being  as  follows:  "Banim  giddalti  we-romamti," 
etc.  There  is  here  certainly  such  a  symmetry  in 
the  single  sentences  that  the  rhythm  which  lias  been 
designated  above  as  the  poetic  rhythm  must  be 
ascribed  to  them.  But  in  the  same  chapter  there 
occur  also  sentences  like  the  following:  "Arzekem 
shemamah  'arekem  serufot-esh;  admatekem  le-neg- 
dekem  zarim  okelim  otah  "  (verse  7),  or  this,  "  When 
ye  come  to  appear  before  me,  who  hath  reijuired 
this  at  your  hand,  to  tread  my  courts?"  (verse  12). 
In  the  last  pair  of  lines  even  the  translation  suffi- 
ciently shows  that  each  line  does  not  contain  three 
stresses  merely,  as  does  each  line  of  the  words  of 
God  (verses  2b,  3a,  b).  Hence  the  present  writer 
concludes  as  follows:  Although  the  prophets  of 
Israel  inserted  poems  in  their  prophecies  (lsa.  v.  1 
et  seq.),  or  adopted  occasionally  the  rhythm  of  the 
dirge,  which  was  well  known  to  their  readers  (Amos 
v.  2  et  seq. ;  see  above),  their  utterances,  aside 
from  the  exceptions  to  be  noted,  were  in  the  freer 
rhythm  of  prose.  This  view  is  confirmed  by  a  sen- 
tence of  Jerome  that  deserves  attention.  He  says  in 
his  preface  to  his  translation  of  Isaiah :  "  Let  no  one 
think  that  the  prophets  among  the  Hebrews  were 
bound  by  meter  similar  to  that  of  the  Psalms." 
Finally,  the  present  writer  thinks  that  he  has  proved 
in  his  pamphlet  "  Neueste  Prinzipien  der  Alltesta- 
mentlichen  Kritik,"  1902,  pp.  31  et  seq.,  that  even 
the  latest  attempts  to  find  strophes  in  Amos  i.  2  et 
seq.  are  unsuccessful. 

(b)  Some  scholars  have  endeavored  to  include  in 
poetry  the  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament 
also.  Sievers  includes,  besides,  the  prologue  and 
the  epilogue  of  the  Book  of  Job.  The  first  line  is  as 
follows:  "  There  was  a  man  in  the  land  of  Uz.  whose 
name  was  Job,"  the  Hebrew  text  of  which  has,  ac- 
cording to  Sievers,  six  stresses;  the  next  line,  which 
may  be  translated  "and  that  man  was  perfect  and 
upright,  and  one  that  feared  God  and  eschewed  evil." 
contains,  according  to  the  same  writer,  eight  stresses. 
The  next  line  has  also  six  stresses,  but  then  follow 
lines  with  4  -f  3,  3  +  3,  3,  4,  6,  4  +  3.  4  -f  3  stresses. 
However,  the  form  of  these  lines  is  not  such  as  to 
justify  one  in  removing  the  barrier  that  exists  by 
virtue  of  the  differences  in  the  very  contents  of  the 
prologue,  the  epilogue,  and  the  dialogues  of  the 
book,  between  i.  1  et  seq.,  xlii.  7  et  seq. ,  and  iii.  3-xlii.  6. 
This  view  is  furthermore  confirmed  by  the  remark- 
able cireum.stance,  alluded  to  above,  that  not  the 
entire  Book  of  Job,  but  only  the  section  iii.  3-xlii. 
6,  has  the  special  accentuation  tliat  was  given  to  the 
entire  Book  of  Psalms  and  the  Proverbs.  Further- 
more, Jerome,  who  knew  something  of  Jewish  tra- 
dition, says  explicitly  that  the  Book  of  Job  is  writ- 




ten  in  prose  from  the  beginning  to  iii.  2,  and  that 
prose  is  again  employed  in  xlii.  7-17. 

Sievers,  finally,  has  made  the  attempt  (I.e.  pp.  382 
et  seq.)  to  show  that  other  narrative  portions  of  the 
Old  Testament  are  in  poetry.  The  lirst  object  of 
his  experiments  is  the  section  Gen.  ii.  4b  et  seq.,  "In 
the  day  that  the  Lord  God  made  the  earth  and  the 
heavens,"  etc.  He  thinks  that  the 
Sievers'  Hebrew  text  has  lines  of  four  stresses 
Views.  each ;  but,  in  order  to  prove  this  state- 
ment, even  at  the  beginning  of  verse 
4b,  he  is  forced  to  regard  the  expression  "be-yom" 
as  an  extra  syllable  pretixed  to  "  'asot."  He  is  also 
obliged  to  strike  out  the  word  "  ba-arez  "  at  the  end  of 
verse  5a,  although  it  has  just  as  much  meaning  as  has 
the  word  "  'al  lia-arez  "  at  the  end  of  verse  5c.  Then 
he  must  delete  the  words  "  but  there  went  up  a  mist 
from  the  earth,  and  watered  the  whole  face  of  the 
ground  "  (verse  6),  which  contains  not  four,  but  six 
stresses.  He  adds  in  explanation  :  "  They  do  not  fit 
into  the  context,  as  has  long  since  been  recognized." 
This  refers  to  the  view  (Holzinger,  in  "K.  H.  C." 
1898,  ad  loc.)  that  "ed"  in  Gen.  ii.  6  can  not  mean 
"mist,"  because  this  "ed"  is  said  to  "water,"  while 
mist  merely  dampens  the  ground.  But  the  meta- 
phorical expression  "to  water"  is  used  instead  of 
"  to  dampen  "  just  as  "  ed  "  is  used  in  Job  xxxvi.  27, 
and  there  are  no  grounds  for  the  assertion  that  the 
statement  made  in  verse  6  does  "not  fit  into  the 
context."  On  the  contrary,  verses  5a  and  6  corre- 
spond in  the  same  way  as  do  5b  and  7.  Sieveis 
attempts  similarly  to  construct  other  lines  of  four 
stresses  each  in  Gen.  ii.  4b  et  seq. ;  but  perhaps 
enough  has  been  said  to  show  that  his  experiments 
do  not  seem  natural,  and  can  not  extend  the 
boundaries  of  poetry  be3'ond  those  recognized  here- 

Bibliography  :  For  the  bibliography  of  the  earlier  works  deal- 
ing with  the  various  questions  in  connection  with  Old  Testa- 
ment poetry,  Ed.  K6nig,  Stilistik,  Elietorik,  Poetik,  1900,  pp. 
305  et  seq.:  E.  Sievers,  Metrische  Untertnichinnjen :  I.  Stu- 
dien  zur  HehjUifchen  Metrik,  1901 ;  Nlvard  Schloegl,  Eccie- 
Kia.<<ticti.f  (rrrix.  12-xliT.  IG)  Ope  Ai'tis  MetricfeinFormam 
Oriuinalem  Redactu.^,  1901 ;  Canticum  Canticnriim  Hehra- 
ice,  1902;  Hubert  Grimme,  Psalmenprnbleme,  1902.  pp,  1-19. 

E.  G.  H.  E.    K. 

Didactic  :    The  oldest  form  of  didactic  poetry 

is  mnemonic  verse,  which  was  often  used  in  post- 
Biblical  Hebrew  even  after  the  didactic  poem  was 
fully  developed.  Among  the  oldest  examples  of 
didactic  poetry  are  mnemonic  strophes  on  calendric 
topics  and  Ma.soretic  rules.  Soon,  however,  the 
circle  widens  and  all  poetry  is  absorbed  in  the 
didactic  poem.  In  a  general  view  there  are  first  to 
be  considered  calendric  calculation  and  everything, 
connected  with  it. 

On  conjunction  and  the  leap-year  there  are  works 
— sometimes  mnemonic  strophes,  sometimes  longer 

poems — by    the    following     authors: 

Calendric     Jose  al-Naharwani  ("  Kerem  Heined," 

Verses.       ix.  41-42;  comp.  Harkavy,  "Studien 

und  Mitteilungen,"  v.  116),  Saadia 
Gaon  (see  Steinschneider,  "Cat.  Bodl."  cols.  2170 
etseq.;  Berliner,  in  supplenient  to  "Mafteah,"  p. 
15),  Simson  of  Sens  and  Elijah  b.  Nathan  (Stein- 
schneider, "Cat.  Berlin,"  .section  ii.,  p.  73),  Abraham 
ibn  Ezra  (Kobak's  "Jeschurun,"  iv.  222),  Profiat 
Diiran   ("Mu'aseh   Efod,"   notes,  p.  44),  Moses  b. 

Shem-Tob  b.  Jeshuah,  David  Vital  (Steinschneider, 
"Jewish  Literature,"  p.  244),  and  Eliab  b.  Matti- 
thiah  (Ben Jacob,  "Ozar  ha-Sefarim,"  p.  578,  No. 
567).  Two  anonymous  authors  (Steinschneider, 
"Cat.  Berlin,"  section  ii.,  p.  72;  Profiat  Duran,  I.e. 
notes,  p.  45)  wrote  about  the  quarter-day;  and  Elia- 
kim  ha-Levi  wrote  verses  on  the  determination  of 
the  feast-days  (Steinschneider,  "Cat.  Berlin,"  section 
ii.,  p.  73). 

Philology  and  the  sciences  related  to  it  occupy  a 
large  space  in  the  history  of  didactic  poetry.  Gram- 
mar was  treated  by  Solomon  ibn  Gabirol  in  a  didactic 
poem  of  400  metrical  lines,  but  only  a  part  of  it, 
ninety-eight  lines,  has  been  preserved  (the  latest, 
critical  edition  is  that  of  Egers  in  the  "Zunz  Jubel- 
schrift").  Ibn  Gabirol  was  followed  by  many 
others,  as  Elijah  Levita  ("Pirke  Eliyahu,"  first 
printed  in  1520),  Moses  Provencal  ("Be-Shem  Kail- 
mon,"  Venice,  1597),  A.  M.  Greiding  ("Shinih  Ha- 
dasliah,"  first  ed.,  Zolkiev,  1764),  Abraham  Gemilla 
Atorgo  (date  uncertain;  see  Steinschneider,  "Cat. 

Munich,"    Nos.   241-242).      The  col- 
Grammar  :    lection  of  words  with  the  "  left  sin  " 
Mne-         ("  sin  semolit "),  which  perhaps  Joseph 
monic        b.    Solomon   was  the   first   to  make, 
Verses.       was  worked  over   by  Hayyim  Caleb 

(Bcnjacob,  I.e.  p.  578,  No.  569),  by 
Aaron  Hamon  (in  Isaac  Tshelebi's  "Semol  Yisrael," 
Constantinople,  1723),  and  by  Moses  Pisa  ("Sliirah 
Hadashah  "  and  "  Hamza'ah  Hadashah,"  first  printed 
in  "Shir  Emunim,"  Amsterdam,  1793).  The  enig- 
matic poem  of  Abraham  ibn  Ezra  on  the  letters- 
'  A  ,n  ,N  is  well  known;  around  it  has  collected  a 
whole  literature  of  commentaries  in  rime  and  in 
prose.  A  didactic  poem  on  prosody  by  an  anony- 
mous writer  has  been  published  by  Goldbium  ("]\Ii- 
Ginze  Yisrael,"  i.  51).  Of  Masoretic  didactic  poems, 
the  well-known  one  on  the  number  of  letters  of  the 
alphabet  in  the  Biblical  books  is  by  some  attributed 
to  Saadia  Gaon ;  by  others,  to  Saadia  b.  Joseph 
Bekor  Shor  (see  Steinschneider,  "Cat.  Bodl."  col. 
2225).  A  didactic  poem  on  the  accents  was  written 
by  Jacob  b.  Meir  Tarn  (Kobak's  "Jeschurun,"  vol. 
v.),  and,  later,  one  by  Joseph  b.  Kalonymus.  who 
devoted  a  special  poem  to  the  accents  in  the  books 
n  D  Nt  i.e..  Psalms,  Proverbs,  Job  (see  "Ta'ame 
Emet,"  ed.  Berliner,  Berlin,  1886). 

The  halakic  sciences,  religious  law,  and  Talmudic 
jurisprudence  have  employed  the  poets  even  more 
than  has  the  linguistic  sciences.  Ilai  Gaon  treated 
in  metrical  verse  of  property  and  oaths  according 
to  Talmudic  law  ("Sha'are  Dine  Mainonot  we- 
Sha'are  Shebu'ot,"  ed.  Halberstam,  in  Kobak's 
"Ginze  Nistarot,"  iii.  30  et  seq.).  An  anonymous 
writer  produced  the  whole  of  Hoshen  Mislipat  in 
verse  ("'En  Mishpat,"  1620);  Mordecai  b.  Hillel 
("Hilkot  Shehitah    u-Bedikah,"   commentated    by 

Jolianan  Treves,  Venice,  c.  1545-52), 
Halakic  Israel  Najara  ("Shol.iate  ha-Yeladin," 
Poems.       Constantinople,     1718),    David    Vital 

(supplement  to  "  Seder  Berakah,"  Am- 
sterdam, 1687),  and  many  others  versified  the  regu- 
lations concerning  shehitah  and  bedikah ;  an  anony- 
mous writer  (perhaps  Mordecai  b.  Hillel)  versified 
the  whole  complex  system  of  dietary  regulations 
(Benjacob,  I.e.  p.  45,  No.  877);   another  anonymous 




author  worked  over  the  treatise  Hullin  (Moses  Ha- 
bib,  "Darke  No'am,"  Venice,  154G;  Steiiisehneider, 
"Cat.  Bodl."  col.  3538.  a.v.  "Shem-Tob  ibn  Fala- 
quera");  and  Isaac  b.  Abraham  Hayyot,  the  whole 
"Yoreh  De'ah "  ("Penc  Yizhak,"  Cracow,  1591). 
Saul  b.  David  elaborated  the  thirty-nine  principal 
kinds  of  work  forbidden  on  the  Sabbath  ("Tal 
Orot,"  Prague,  1615);  Elijah  b.  Moses  Loanz,  the 
Sabbath  regulations  in  general  (in  "Zeniirot  u-Tush- 
bahot,"  Basel,  1599);  and  Abraham  Samuel,  the 
whole  Mishnah  treatise  on  the  Sabbatli  ("Shirat 
Dodi,"  Venice,  1719).  The  Shulhan  'Aruk  in  its 
entirety  found  a  reviser  in  Isaac  b.  Noah  ha-Kohen 
("Sefer  ha  Zikkaron,"  n.d.,  n.p.). 

Here  belong  also  a  large  portion  of  the  halakic 
piyyutim  (see  Dukes,  "Zur  Kennlniss  der  Neuhe- 
brilischen  KeligiOsen  Poesie,"  pp.  42  et  seq.)  and  the 
general  and  special  Azharot.  In  this  connection, 
too,  should  be  mentioned  the  didactic  poems  on  the 
Mishnah  treatises  of  the  Talmud.  Of  these,  per- 
haps the  first  was  composed  by  Sa'id  al-Damrari 
(Steinschneider,  "Cat.  Berlin,"  section  ii.,  p.  8);  the 
same  material  was  treated  of  by  Isaac  Samora; 
while  Saadia  b.  Danan  in  his  didactic  poem  on  this 
subject  brings  in  the  separate  sections  of  the  trea- 
tises (in  Gavison,  "'Omer  ha-Shikhah,"  pp.  123  et 
seq. ). 

The  philosophical  didactic  poem  is  also  very  well 
represented.     Levi  b.  Abraham  b.  Hayyim  wrote 
1,84()  lines  ("Batte  ha-Nefesh  weha-Lehashim  " ;  see 
Benjacob,  I.e.  p.  90,  No.  693)  on  the  "seven  kinds 
of  wisdom"  ("sheba'  hakamot");    Solomon  b.  Im- 
manuel  da  Piera  translated  Musa  b.  Tubi's  philo- 
sophical   didactic    poem   in   metrical 
Philosophic  verse  ("Batte  ha-Nefesh,"  ed.  Hirsch- 
Poems.       feld,    Ramsgate,  1894);    Abraham   b. 
Meshullam  of  Modeua  wrote  in  rime 
a   commentary   on    philosophy   (see   Michael,    "Or 
ha-Hayyim,"  No.  187;    "Bi'ur  le-Hokmat  ha-Pilo- 
sofia    ba-Haruzim ");     Anatoli     (Seraiah     ha-Levi) 
wrote  on  the  ten  categories;  another  poem  on  the 
same  subject  is  printed  in  "Kobez  'al  Yad  "   (ii., 
"Haggahot,"    p.    10);    Shabbethai    b.  Malkiel    in- 
cluded the  four  forms  of  syllogism  in    four   lines 
(Steinschneider,  "Cat.   Leyden,"  p.    218);  and  the 
"thirteen    articles    of     faith"    exist    in    countless 
adaptations.     Mattithiah  Kartin  versified  the  "Mo- 
reh  Nebukim"  (Steinschneider,  "  Ilebr.  Uebers."  p. 
428);  Mordecai  LOwenstamm,  the  "Behinat  'Olam" 
("Shire  ha-Behinah,"  Breslau,  1832).     The  Cabala, 
too,  received  attention,  as  witness  the  adaptations 
of  the  ten  Sefirot.     Of  other  sciences  only  medicine 
need  be  mentioned.     A  didactic  poem  on  the  con- 
trolling power  of  the  twelve  months  is  attributed 
to  Maimonides  (Steinschneider,  "Cat.  Berlin."  sec- 
tion i.,  p.  39);  Solomon  ibn  Ayyub  translated  Avi- 
cenna's  didactic  poem  on  medicine  in  metrical  verse 
(Steinschneider,  "  Hebr.  Uebers."  p.  700);  Al-Harizi 
was  the  author  of  a  metrical  dietetic 
Poems  on    thesis  ("Refu'ot  ha-Gewiyah,"  first  in 
History      "Likkute   ha-Pardes,"  Venice,  1519). 
and  Dietetic-ethical    mnemonic   verses  by 

Medicine.     Shem-Tob     ibn     Falaqucra     likewise 
are  well  known  ("Iggeret  Hanhagat 
ha-Guf  weha-Nefesh " ;    see  Steinschneider,    "Cat. 
Munich,"  No.  49). 

History  also  was  frequently  the  subject  of  didac- 
tic poems.  Tlie  historical  piyyiiUm  should  hardly 
be  mentioned  here;  at  un  early  date,  however, 
a  certain  Saadia,  about  wliotn  notiiing  dctlnitc  is 
known,  compost-d  a  learned  history  in  rime  (Zunz, 
"  Z.  G. "  p.  71) ;  Falaquera  was  tiie  author  of  a  "  Megil- 
lat  haZikkaron,"  of  whicii  only  the  title  is  known; 
to  Simon  b.  Zemah  Duran  is  attributed  the  author- 
ship of  a  didactic  poem  on  tlie  chain  of  tradition 
(Steinschneider,  "Cat.  Bodl."  col.  2602);  and  M<.s<-8 
Rieti's  masteri)iece  "Mikdash  Me'at"may  also  be 
mentioned,  although  it  is  not  strictly  a  didactic 
poem.  Poets  wrote  about  games  also,  especially  on 
chess,  e.g.,  Abraham  ibn  Ezra  (.see  Steinschneider, 
"Schach  bei  den  .Juden,"  Berlin.  1878);  and  there 
have  not  been  wanting  those  who  vfrsified  all  the 
books  of  the  Bible.  This  was  not  done.  Iiowever, 
for  didactic  purposes;  and  such  prodiictions  do  not 
belong  to  the  class  of  poetry  of  whicli  this  article 

See,  also,  Fable;  Polemics;  Provehbs. 

J.  H  B. 
Lyric:  Lyric  poetry  being  essentially  tlie  ex- 
pression of  individual  emotion,  it  is  natural  that  in 
Hebrew  literature  it  should  be,  in  the  main,  ilevo- 
tional  in  character.  Post-Biblical  lyrics  are  confined 
within  a  small  scale  of  human  feeling.  Love  for  God 
and  devotion  to  Zion  are  the  predominant  notes.  The 
medieval  Hebrew  poet  sang  less  frequently  of  wine, 
woman,  and  the  pleasures  of  life,  not  because  the 
Hebrew  language  does  not  lend  itself  to  these  topics, 
but  because  such  ideas  were  for  many  centuries  in- 
congruous with  .lewish  life.  Yet  there  is  no  form 
of  lyric  poetry  which  has  been  neglected  by -the 
Hebrew  poet.  Ode  and  sonnet,  elegy  and  song  are 
fairly  represented,  and  there  is  even  an  adequate 
number  of  wine-songs. 

Secular  poetry  in  Hebrew  literature  may  be  said 
to  date  from  the  middle  of  the  tenth  century.  In 
the  time  of  Samuel  ha-Nagid  (d.  105.'))  it  had  already 
attained  a  degree  of  perfection.  Still  it  is  ditlicult 
to  find,  in  that  early  period,  lyric  poetry  which  is 
not  devotional,  or  non-devotional  poetry  which  is 
not  didactic  or  gnomic  in  character.  Perhaps  the 
earliest  secular  lyric  poem  is  the  wlne- 
In  Spain,  song  ascribed  to  Solomon  ibn  Gabirol 
(1021-70).  said  to  have  been  written 
against  a  niggardly  host  who  placed  water  instead 
of  wine  before  his  guests.  The  first  great  [>oet  to 
give  prominence  to  non-devotional  lyric  poetry  was 
Moses  ibn  Ezra  (1070-1139).  who  devoted  srvt-rak 
chapters  of  his  "Tarshish  "  to  the  praiseof  wine  and 
music,  friendship  anil  love.  The  secular  lyrics  of 
his  more  famous  contemjiorary  Judah  ha-Ix-vi 
(1086-1142)  are  mostly  occasional  poems,  such  aa 
wedding-songs,  panegyrics,  and  the  like.  Abnihan* 
ibn  Ezra  (1092-1167)  wrote  a  number  of  beautiful 
poems  of  a  personal  character,  but  they  belong  to  the 
epigrammatic  rather  than  to  the  lyric  class  ot  litera- 
ture. Judah  al-Hari/i  ( 11 6r>- 12:^0),  though  the  first 
poet  of  note  to  devote  himself  entirely  to  secular 
poetry,  is  more  of  a  sjitirist  than  a  lyrist.  Of  the 
fifty  chapters  of  which  his  "Tahkemoni"  consists 
the  twenty-seventh  is  the  only  one  which  sings  the 
praise  of  "wine.  The  rest  are  satires,  didactic  or 
gnomic  in  character. 




The  true  ring   of  non-devotional   l\Tic   poetry, 
however,  is  not  to  be  found  in  Hebrew  literature 
until  the  time  of  Immanuel  of  Home  (1265-1330). 
He  united  in  himself  the  warm  imagination  of  the 
Orient  and  the  erotic  spirit  of  Italy. 
Immanuel    In  a  style  more  Uexible  even  than  that 
of  Rome,     of  Harizi  he  gives  utterance  to  pas- 
sionate   love   with   such   freedom    of 
expression  that  the  Rabbis  thought  it  justifiable 
to   forbid  the  reading  of  his  "Mahberot"  on  the 

From  Immanuel  there  is  a  stretch  of  almost  three 
centuries  before  another  great  lyric  poet  is  met  with. 
Israel  b.  Moses  N.\jara  is  imiversally  acknowledged 
to  be  one  of  the  sweetest  singers  in  Israel.  He  is, 
however,  more  of  a  devotional  poet,  and  his  right  to 
be  included  here  comes  from  the  fact  that  he  sings 
of  God  and  Israel  in  terms  of  love  and  passion.  In 
fact,  he  is  so  anthropomorphic  in  his  expressions 
that  Menahem  di  Lonzano  condemned  him  for  it. 
Nevertheless  the  latter,  though  of  a  serious  turn  of 
mind,  indulged  in  lighter  compositions  when  the 
occasion  presented  itself.  His  poem  for  Purim 
(" 'Abodat  Mikdash,"  folio  74,  Constantinople)  is 
one  of  the  best  wine-songs  in  Hebrew  literature. 

From  Najara  two  centuries  pass  before  true  lyric 
poetry  is  again  met  with.  This  is  a  period  of  transi- 
tion in  Hebrew  poetrj*.  The  Hebrew  bard  had  just 
begun  to  come  under  the  influence  of  European  lit- 
erature, and  as  yet  had  had  no  time  to  assimilate 
what  he  had  absorbed  and  strike  out  in  a  way  of  his 
own.  The  drama  is  introduced  into  Hebrew  litera- 
ture in  the  works  of  Solomon  Usque,  Joseph  Penso, 
and  Moses  Zacuto.  Yet,  though  the  form  in  which 
these  poets  threw  their  compositions  is  dramatic, 
the  temperament  is  lyric  in  all  of  them.  For  the 
same  reason  Moses  Hayyim  Luzzatto  must  be  re- 
garded as  one  of  the  best  lyric  poets  of  the  eighteenth 

The  success  which  Wessely's  "Songs  of  Glory" 
("Shire  Tif'eret")  met  gave  rise  to  a  great  number 
of  imitators,   and  almost  every  one 
Wessely .     who  could  write  verse  essayed  the  epic. 
But  soon  this  German  school  was  over- 
shadowed  by  the  Russian  lyric  school,  of  which 
Abraham  Dob  Bar  Lebensolm  and  his  son  Micah 
were   the  acknowledged   leaders.     From   that  day 
until  now  the  palm  has  been  held  by  the  Russian 
poets.     With  the  exception  of  Joseph  Almanzi  and 
Samuel  David  Luzzatto  of  Italy,  and  Meir  Letteris 
and  Naphtali  Herz  Imber  of  Galicia,  all  the  more 
eminent  modern  Hebrew  poets  belong  to  Russia. 

Judah  Lob  Gordon,  though  decidedly  a  greater 
master  of  Hebrew  than  his  preceptor  Micah  Leben- 
sohn,  can  not  be  assigned  to  an  exalted  position  as  a 
lyric  poet.  As  a  satirist  he  is  supreme;  as  a  lyrist 
he  is  not  much  above  the  older  and  is  far  below  the 
younger  Lebensolm.  The  most  fiery  of  all  modern 
lyrists  is  undoubtedly  Aba  K.  Schapira.  Z.  H. 
Mane  is  sweeter,  M.  M.  Dolitzky  is  more  melodious, 
D.  Frischman  is  more  brilliant,  and  N.  H.  Imber 
sounds  more  elemental ;  but  Schapira  has  that  power 
which,  in  the  language  of  Heine,  makes  his  poetry 
"a  fiery  pyramid  of  song,  leading  Israel's  caravan 
of  affliction  in  the  wilderness  of  exile."  Of  living 
poets  the  nearest  to  approach  him  is  11.  N.  Bialik 

and  A.  Libushitzky,  though  neither  has  yet  arrived 
at  maturity.  See  Dr.\ma,  Hebrew;  Epic  Poetry; 
PiYYVT;  Satire. 

Bibliography  :  Pelltzsch,  Zur  Geach.  dcr  Jlldischen  Poesie ; 
Stelnschnelder,  Jcwisli  Literature. 
J.  I.   D. 

DECAI  (^called  also  Pavieti) :  Italian  Talmudist 
and  writer  on  religious  ethics;  born  at  Asti,  Pied- 
mont; flourished  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth 
centuries.  His  only  known  work  is  "  Kizzur  Reshit 
Hokmah "  (Venice,  1600;  Cracow,  1667;  Amster- 
dam, 1725;  Zolkiev,  1806),  an  abridgment  of  the 
"  Reshit  Hokmah "  of  Elijah  de  Vidas.  It  is  in- 
tended to  teach  an  ascetic  and  ethical  life. 

Bibliography:  Furst,  Ditil.  Jud.  li.  32-23;  Benjacob,  Ozar 
ha-Scfarim.  p.  542,  No.  42. 
D.  S.    O. 

POGORELSKY,  MESSOLA  :  Russian  physi- 
cian and  writer;  born  at  Bobruisk  March  7,  1862; 
educated  at  the  gj-mnasium  of  his  native  town  ;  stud- 
ied medicine  at  the  Universitj-  of  St.  Vladimir  in 
Kiev,  where  he  was  graduated  in  1890.  In  the  same 
3'ear  he  was  appointed  government  rabbi  at  Kher- 
son, a  position  which  he  held  until  1893.  Pogorel- 
sky  is  a  prolific  writer  on  medical  and  on  Jewish 
subjects.  Among  his  treatises  of  interest  to  Jewish 
readers  are:  "Circumcisio  Ritualis  Hebra;orum" 
(written  in  German  and  published  at  St.  Petersburg, 
1888);  "Yevreiskiya  Imena,  Sobstvennyya,"  on 
Jewish  names  in  Bible  and  Talmud,  published  in 
the  "Voskhod"  and  in  book-form  {ib.  1893);  "O 
Sifilisye  po  Biblii  "  (Zara'ath),  on  syphilis  according 
to  the  Bible  {ib.  19()0);  "Ob  Okkultismye,"  occult 
science  according  to  Bible  and  Talmud  (ib.  1900). 

His  medical  essays  have  appeared  in  "  St.  Peters- 
burger  Medicinische  Wochenschrift,"  "  Russkaya 
Meditzina,"  and  other  Russian  periodicals. 

H.  r.  J.  L.  La. 

POGROMT.     See  Russia. 

POIMANNIKI.     See  Russia. 

POITIERS  :  French  city ;  capital  of  the  depart- 
ment of  Vienne.  In  1236  the  Jews  of  Poitiers  and 
the  adjacent  country  were  harried  by  the  Crusaders, 
although  Pope  Gregory  IX.,  in  a  letter  to  the  bishop, 
strongly  condemned  their  excesses.  Four  years 
later  (1240)  Nathan  ben  Joseph  engaged  in  a  debate 
with  the  Bishop  of  Poitiers.  Alphonse  de  Poitiers, 
yielding  to  the  demands  of  the  Christian  inhabit- 
ants, ordered  the  expulsion  of  the  Jews  from  the 
city  (1249)  and  the  cancelation  of  all  debts  due  them 
from  the  Christians.  He  was  not  disdainful  of  their 
knowledge  of  medicine,  however;  for  when  he  was 
attacked,  in  1252,  with  a  serious  affection  of  the 
eyes  he  called  in  a  celebrated  Jewish  physician  of 
Aragon,  named  Ibrahim.  In  1269  he  compelled  all 
Jews  remaining  in  his  dominions  to  wear  the  badge 
of  the  wheel  on  tlieir  garments.  In  1273  the  coun- 
cil of  Poitiers  forbade  landed  proprietors  to  make 
any  contracts  with  the  Jewish  usurers,  and  ordered 
Christians  generally  not  to  lend  money  to  the  Jews 
or  to  borrow  from  them,  except  in  cases  of  extreme 
necessity.  In  1296  all  Jews  were  expelled  from  the 
city  by  Philip  the  Fair. 




Bibliography:  Boutarlc.  St.-Louis  et  Alptwnite  de  PnUicr», 
p.  87  ;  Depplng,  Les  Juif»  dniis  le  Mmien  Ave,  pp.  128-130 ; 
Gross,  Gallia  Judaicn,  p.  ti3;  Salffe,  Lex  Juifx  (In  Lnnoxie- 
doc,  pp.  22.  26 ;  Ibn  Verga,  Shebet  Ychudah,  p.  114  ;  R.  E.  J. 
i.  230,  Hi.  216,  vi.  83. 
G.  S.    K. 

POITOU  :  Ancient  province  of  France.  Several 
Jewish  communities  wore  founded  there  in  the 
twelfth  century,  notably  those  of  Niort,  Bressuiie, 
and  Thenars  (department  of  Deux-Sc^vres),  Chatel- 
lerault  (Vienne),  and  Mortagne  and  Tyfauges(La 
Vendee).  About  the  year  1166  the  scholars  of  the 
province  took  part  in  the  synod  convened  at  Troyes 
under  the  auspices  of  R.  Tarn  and  KaSIIBaM.  In 
1236  Pope  Gregorj-  IX.  interfered  in  behalf  of  the 
Jews  of  Poitou,  then  persecuted  by  the  Crusaders. 
Alphonse  de  Poitiers  displayed  great  severity  in  all 
his  dealings  with  the  Jews.  In  1249  he  expelled 
them  from  Poitiers,  Niort,  St.  -  Jean  -  d'Angely, 
Saintes,  St.-Maixent,  and  Rochelle,  and  five  years 
later  lie  released  the  Christians  from  all  interest  due 
to  Jews.  In  1267  Jews  were  forbidden  to  take  part 
in  public  functions  or  to  build  new  synagogues.  A 
poll-tax  was  imposed  on  them  in  1268,  and  they  were 
obliged,  under  pain  of  imprisonment,  to  declare  the 
exact  value  of  their  possessions,  whether  personal 
property  or  real  estate.  Alphonse  exacted  with  the 
utmost  rigor  the  payment  of  the  taxes  he  imposed 
on  them,  and  disregarded  the  measures  taken  in  their 
behalf  by  the  Bishop  of  Toulouse.  In  1269  he  com- 
pelled them  to  wear  the  badge;  but  in  1270  he  ex- 
empted the  Jew  Mosset  of  St.-Jean-d'Angely  and 
his  two  sons,  on  the  payment  of  a  sum  of  money, 
from  the  obligation  of  wearing  this  badge  before 
All  Saints'  day.  In  the  same  year  he  appointed  the 
Dominican  prior  of  Poitiers  and  a  secular  priest 
chosen  by  the  royal  councilors  to  conduct  an  inves- 
tigation of  usury  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Poitiers.  He 
ordered  that  every  Christian  should  be  believed  upon 
oath  in  regard  to  any  sum  less  than  six  sols;  the  in- 
quisitors were  to  pronounce  upon  cases  not  involving 
more  than  one  hundred  sols,  while  cases  involving 
greater  amounts  were  to  be  referred  to  the  decision 
of  the  sovereign.  In  1296  the  Jews  were  expelled 
from  Poitou,  Philip  the  Fair  exacting  in  return  from 
the  Christians,  who  benefited  by  the  expulsion,  a 
"fuage"  (hearth-tax)  of  3,300  pounds.  In  1307  a 
question  was  raised  regarding  the  rent  of  a  house 
and  lands  situated  at  Chatillon-sur-Indre,  which  had 
formerly  belonged  to  the  Jew  Croissant  Castellon, 
called  the  "Poitovin,"  the  son  of  Bonfil  de  Saint- 

The  Jews  of  Poitou  were  persecuted  in  1320  by 
the  Pastoureaux,  and  in  1321  were  accused  of  having 
poisoned  the  springs  and  wells.  Only  one  scholar 
of  Poitou  is  known— R.  Isaac,  mentioned  as  a  com- 
mentator on  the  Bible  (Zunz,  "Z.  G."  p.  89). 

Bibliography:  Depping,  LesJuifn  dans  le  Mnyen  Aae,  PP- 
88,  12^t ;  Dom  Valssete,  Histnire  Geiu-rale  de  Lauquednc,  ill. 
510,  513;  (iiiillauine  de  Nanpis,  Confun/aho,  p.  78;  Malvezin. 
HM.  des  Jiiifs  de.  Bordeaux,  pp.  4.5-46;  R.  K.  J.  il.  44  :  ill. 
216;  vi.  8;?;  ix.  138;  xv.  237,  244  ;  Saisre,  Lcs  Juifgdu  Langxu- 
dnc,  pp.  20,  26 ;  Gross.  Gallia  Judaica.,  pp.  451  et  seq. 
G.  S.  K. 

POLA.     See  Istri.\. 

POLACCO,  VITTORIO:  Italian  jurist  of  Po- 
lish descent;  born  at  Padua  May  10,  1859.  Since 
1884  he  has  been  professor  of  civil  law  at  the  Univer- 

sity of  Padua.  His  cliicf  works  are:  "  Delia  Divl- 
sione  Operata  da  Ascendenti  Fra  Di.sccndentj."  Pad- 
ua, 1884;  "Delia  Dazione  in  Paguininto,"- vol.  i., 
ih.  18HH;  "Contro  il- Divorzio."  ib.  1892;  "  L»i  Ques- 
tione  del  Divorzio  c  gli  Israeliti  in  Ituliu,"  ih.  1894; 
"Le  Ohbligazioni  nel  DiritU)  Civile  Italiuno,"  ib. 
1898.  He  has  also  contriliuted  numerous  articles  on 
legal  topics  to  the  "Archivio  Giuridico,"  the  "Atli 
della  R.  Accademia  di  Scienzc,  Lettere  ed  Arti"  of 
Padua,  the  "  Atti  del  R.  Istituto  Veneto."  and  other 

fe.  H.    II.    K. 

POLAK,  GABRIEL  JACOB  :  Talinudist  and 
bil)li()grai)iicr;  born  .June:!,  IHo:^;  died  May  14,  1869. 
at  Amsterdam,  where  he  was  i)rincipal  of  a  .scliool. 
He  was  the  author  of  the  following  works,  all  pub- 
lished in  Amsterdam  :  "  Bikkure  ha  Sinuiiili  "  (1H44). 
a  Dutch  and  Hebrew  almanac  for  t lie  year  .')604  ;  "  I)i- 
bre  Kodesh "  (1845),  a  Dutch-Hebrew  dictionary; 
"Ilalikot  Kedem"  (1847).  a  collection  of  Hebrew 
poems;  "Ben  Gorni"  (1851),  a  collection  of  essiiyg; 
"Sha'ar  Ta'ame  Sifre  Emet"  (1858),  an  introduction 
to  a  treatise  on  the  accents  in  the  books  of  Job  and 
the  Psalms;  a  valuable  edition  of  Ik'dersi's  work 
on  Hebrew  synonyms,  "Hotem  Toknit"  (1865);  a 
biography  of  the  poet  David  Franco  Mcndes  and  his 
contemporaries,  in  "Ha-Maggid,"  xii. ,  and  "  .Meir 
'Enayim,"  a  descriptive  catalogue  of  the  libniries  of 
Jacobsohn  and  Melr  Rubens,  a  work  of  great  bib- 
liographical value. 

Polak's  editions  of  the  rituals  are  noted  for  their 

Bibliography  :  Furst.  Bihl.  Jud.  lil.  109;  Roest,  Cat.  Roten- 
thai.  Dibl.  pp.  940-943;  Zeitlln,  Kiryat  Sefer,  Jl.  rr.i. 
s.  M.  L.  B. 

POLAK,  HENRI:  Dutch  labor-leader  and  poli- 
tician; born  at  Amsterdam  Feb.  22,  1868.  Till  his 
thirteenth  year  he  attended  the  school  conducted  by 
Halberstadt,  a  well-known  teacher  of  Jewish  mid- 
dle-class boys,  and  afterward  learned  from  his  uncle 
the  trade  of'diamondcutting.  In  is87  and  lHS8and 
again  in  1889  and  1890  he  lived  in  London,  wlicre 
he  became  interested  in  socialism.  Returning  to 
Holland,  he  became  attached  to  the  Socimil  Demo- 
cratische  Bond,  which  he  left  in  1893  on  accr>unt  of 
its  anarchistic  principles.  With  Troelstra  and  Van 
der  Goes  he  founded  the  periodical  "  De  Nieuwe 
Tijd."  In  1894  he  became  one  of  the  twelve  found- 
ers of  the  Sociaal  Democratische  Arbeiders  Partij 
(S.  D.  A.  P.);  in  1898  he  became  a  member  of  its 
committee;  and  since  1900  he  has  been  its  cliairman. 

On  Nov.  7,  1894,  on  the  occasion  of  a  strike  in 
the  Dutch  navy-yards,  a  confederation  was  formed 
of  different  parties,  with  a  central  committee  of 
which  Polak  was  chosen  chairman.  In  Jan..  1^'95. 
he  was  appointed  chairman  of  the  Algemeene  Neder- 
landsche  Diamantbewerkers  Bond  (A.  N.  D.  B.). 
which  union  had  its  origin  in  that  strike.  Since 
then  he  has  been  editor-in-chief  of  the  "  Weckblad." 
Polak  gave  up  his  trade  of  diamond-cuttinpand  de- 
voted himself  to  the  organization  of  the  A.  N.  D.  B.. 
which  is  considered  the  greatest  and  best-organi.'.ed 
union  in  the  Netherlands.  Besides  many  minor 
strikes  Polak  has  directed  seven  important  ones,  and 
has  succeeded  in  obtaining:  (1)  the  abolition  of  the 




truck  system ;  (2)  an  advance  of  the  rate  of  wages 
from  50  to  200  per  cent:  ami  (3)  tlie  shortening  of 
the  working-day  from  twelve  to  nine  hours.  The 
A.  N.  D.  B.  strives  to  raise  the  moral  and  intellectual 
status  of  its  members  hy  arranging  lecture  courses 
and  by  maintaining  a  library.  It  includes  nine  sec- 
tions of  the  diamond  industry,  with  a  membership  of 
7,rj00— 4,500  Jews  and  3.000"ciiristians.  It  is  with- 
out any  political  tendency  ;  and  since  1900  it  has  had 
a  building  of  its  own,  and  its  own  printing-office 
with  twenty-five  employees. 

Polak  is  a  member  of  tiie  committee  for  statistics 
(since  1900),  chairman  of  the  Kamer  van  Arbeid 
(since  1900),  member  of  the  municipality  (since 
1902),  and  chairman  of  the  Alliance  Uuiverselle  des 
Ouvriers  Diamautaires  (since  1903).  He  has  a  great 
predilection  for  history.  Besides  some  brochures 
for  socialistic  projjaganda  Polak  has  translated  S. 
and  B.  Webb's  "History  of  Trade  Union"  ("Ge- 
schiedenis  van  het  Britsche  Vereenigingsleven," 
Amsterdam,  1900)  and  "Theorie  en  Praktijk  van  het 
Britsche  Vereenigingsleven,"  ih.  1902.  He  is  corre- 
spondent of  the  '•  clarion,"  " Neue  Zeit,"  "Mouve- 
nient  Socialiste,"  and  other  papers. 

8.  E.  Sl. 

POLAK,  HERMAN  JOSEF  :  Dutch  philolo- 
gist; born  Sept.  1,  lb>44,  at  Leaden;  educated  at  the 
university  of  that  city  (Ph.D.  1869).  From  1866  to 
1869  he  tiiught  classics  at  the  gymnasium  of  Leyden  ; 
from  1873  he  taught  history  at  that  of  Rotterdam; 
and  from  1882  he  was  conrector  and  teacher  of  clas- 
sics there.  In  1894  lie  was  appointed  professor  of 
Greek  at  GrOningen  University. 

Polak  is  a  member  of  the  Roj^al  Academy  of 
Sciences  and  of  the  Maatscliappij  voor  Letterkunde 
of  Leyden.  Besides  his  doctor's  dissertation  "  Ob- 
servationes  ad  Scholia  in  Homeri  Odysseam  "  (1869), 
Polak  has  pul)lished  the  following  works:  "  Bloem- 
lezing  van  Grieksche  Dichters"  (1875;  2d  ed.  1892); 
"Ad  Ody.sseam  Ejusque  Scholiastas  Curai  Se- 
cundfc"  (Briel,  1881-82);  and  "Studit'n"  (1888). 
He  has  also  contributed  a  great  number  of  essays 
to  "Mnemosyne,"  "Hermes,"  "Museum,"  "Tyd- 
spiegel,"  "Gids,"  "Elsevier,"  and  other  journals. 

Bibliography:  Jaarhnek  Grnuingsrhe  Universiteit ,'lS9^-Qr,•, 
Ottze  Hoogleernaren,  p.  110 ;  En  Halve  Ecuw,  il.  27, 270, 375. 

8.  E.  Sl. 

POLAK,  JAKOB  EDXJARD  :  Austrian  physi- 
cian ;  horn  1818  at  Gross-Morzin,  Bohemia;  died 
Oct.  7,  1891;  studied  at  Prague  and  Vienna  (M.D.). 
About  1851,  when  an  envoy  of  the  Persian  govern- 
ment went  to  Vienna  to  engage  teacliers  for  the  mil- 
itary scliool  at  Teheran,  then  about  to  be  organized, 
Polak  presented  himself  as  a  candidate.  He  arrived 
in  the  Persian  capital  in  1851,  much  impaired  in 
health  by  tlie  long  voyage;  and,  pending  tlie  organ- 
ization of  the  school,  studied  the  language  of  the 

In  spite  of  the  many  obstacles  which  he  encoun- 
tered— particularly  the  defective  state  of  medical 
science,  which  was  not  then  taught  in  class,  and  the 
Islamic  prohibition  against  the  dissection  of  bodies 
— Polak  soon  achieved  a  reputation  in  Persia,  and 
enjoyed  the  especial  confidence  of  Shah  Nasir-ed- 
Din.     At  first  he  lectured  in  Frencli,  with  the  aid  of 

an  interpreter;  but  after  a  year  he  was  able  to 
lecture  in  Persian,  and  later  published  in  Persians 
work  on  anatomy.  He  compiled  also  a  medical 
dictionary  in  Persian,  Arabic,  and  Latin,  in  order 
to  provide  a  system  of  terminology.  Finally  he 
founded  a  state  surgical  clinic  containing  sixty  beds. 
A  serious  illness  in  1855  obliged  him  to  give  up  his 
professional  work;  but  he  continued  his  literary 

As  physician  to  the  shah,  Polak  occupied  a  high 
position.  About  1861  he  returned  to  Vienna,  and 
wlienever  the  shah  visited  Austria  Polak  greeted 
him  at  the  frontier.  His  "Persien,  das  Land  und 
Seine  Bewohner;  P^thnograpische  Schilderungen," 
appeared  at  Leipsic  in  1865. 

Bibliography  :  Drasche,  in  Neue  Freie  Presae,  Oct.  14,  1891. 
8.  E.   J. 

POLAND.     See  Rrssi.v. 

TURE :  Altliough  pagan  nations  as  a  rule  were  not 
prone  to  intolerance  in  matters  of  religion,  they 
were  so  with  regard  to  Judaism.  Thej'  were  highly 
incensed  against  the  people  which  treated  so  con- 
temptuously all  pagan  divinities  and  reviled  all  that 
was  sacred  in  pagan  eyes.  Especially  embittered 
against  the  Jews  were  tlie  Egyptians  when,  through 
the  translation  of  the  Bible,  tliey  were  informed  of 
the  pitiful  role  ascribed  to  their  ancestors  at  the 
birth  of  the  Jewish  nation.  In  Egypt,  therefore, 
originated  the  anti-Jewish  writings,  and  the  apolo- 
getic and  polemical  works  in  defense 
First  Ap-  of  Judaism  against  paganism.  As 
pearance  in  early  as  the  middle  of  the  third  pre- 
Egypt.  Christian  century  a  Theban  priest 
named  Manetho,  in  his  history  of  the 
Egyptian  dynasties,  written  in  Greek,  violently  at- 
tacked the  Jews,  inventing  all  kinds  of  fables  con- 
cerning their  sojourn  in  Egypt  and  their  exodus 
therefrom.  The  substance  of  his  fables  is  that  a 
number  of  persons  suffering  from  le]irosy  had  been 
expelled  from  the  country  by  the  Egyptian  king 
Amenophis  (or  Bocchoris,  as  he  is  sometimes  called), 
and  sent  to  the  quarries  or  into  tlie  wilderness.  It 
happened  that  among  them  was  a  priest  of  Heliopo- 
lis  of  the  name  of  Os'arsiph  (Moses).  This  priest 
persuaded  his  companions  to  abandon  the  worship 
of  the  gods  of  Egypt  and  adopt  a  new  religion 
which  he  had  elaborated.  Under  leadership  the 
lepers  left  Egypt,  and  after  many  vicissitudes  and 
the  perpetration  of  numerous  crimes  the}'  reached 
the  district  of  Jeru.salem,  which  they  subdued. 

These  fables,  togelher  with  those  invented  by 
Antiochus  Epiphanes  in  connection  with  his  alleged 
experiences  in  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem,  were  re- 
pcate<l  and  greatly  amplified  by  Posidonius  in  his 
liistory  of  Persia.  The  accusations  thus  brouglit 
againstthe  Jews  were  that  they  worshiped  an  ass  in 
their  Temple,  that  they  sacrificed  annually  on  their 
altar  a  specially  fattened  Greek,  and  that  they  were 
filled  with  hatred  toward  every  other  nationality, 
particularly  the  Greeks.  All  these  malevolent  fic- 
tions found  embodiment  in  the  polemical  treati-ses 
against  the  Jews  by  Apollonius  Molou,  Chicrcmon, 
Lysimachus,  Apion,  and  others  (see  Eusebius, 
"  Pneparatio  Evangelica,"  X.  19;  Josephus,  "Contra 




Ap."  ii.  7.  §  15),  and  were  taken  up  and  retailed,  with 
sundry  alterations  and  additions,  by  the  Roman  his- 
torian Trogus  Ponipeius,  and  especially  by  Tacitus, 
who,  in  this  respect,  displayed  such  ingenuity  as  to 
excite  the  envy  of  the  greatest  casuists  among  the 

To  the  various  incidents  which,  according  to 
Manotho,  accompanied  the  Exodus,  Tacitus  traces 
the  6rigiu  of  nearly  all  the  religious  customs  of  the 
Jews.  Abstinence  from  the  use  of  swine's  Hesh  is 
explained  by  the  fact  that  the  swine  is  peculiarly 
liable  to  the  itch  and  therefore  to  that  very  disease 
on  account  of  which  the  Jews  were  once  so  severely 
maltreated.  Frequent  fasting  is  alleged  by  him  to 
have  been  instituted  in  commemoration  of  the  star- 
vation from  which  they  had  escaped  in  the  wilder- 
ness. Their  observance  of  the  seventh  day  of  the 
week  is  assumed  to  be  due  to  their  finding  a  resting- 
place  on  the  seventh  day  (Tacitus,  "Hist."  V.  2eiseq.). 
It  is  not  astonishing,  therefore,  that,  thus  represented, 
the  Jewish  religion  was  looked  upon  by  the  major- 
ity of  educated  people  as  a"barbara  superstitio" 
(Cicero,  "Pro  Flacco,"  xxviii.),  and  that  the  Jewish 
nation  was  made  the  butt  of  the  wit  of  the  Roman 
satirists  Horace,  Juvenal,  and  Martial. 

To  defend  the  Jewish  religion  and  the  Jewish  race 
against  the  slanderous  attacks  of  the  heathen  there 
appeared,  at  various  intervals,  from  about  the  .sec- 
ond pre-Christian  century  to  the  middle  of  the  sec- 
ond century   c.e.,   apologetical    and 
The  polemical  works  emphasizing  the  su- 

Hellenists.  periority  of  Judaism  over  paganism. 
To  works  of  this  kind  belong  the  ex- 
planation of  the  Mosaic  law  by  Aristobulus  of 
Paneas,  the  Oracula  Sibyllina,  the  Wisdom  of  Solo- 
mon, the  apocalpyses,  the  Jewish-Hellenistic  wri- 
tings of  Alexandria  (see  Hellenism),  especially 
those  of  Philo,  and  lastly  Josephus'  "  Contra  Apio- 
nem."  The  aim  of  all  these  works  was  the  same, 
namely,  severe  criticism  of  idolatry  and  vigorous  ar- 
raignment of  the  demoralization  of  the  pagan  world. 

A  new  polemical  element  was  introduced  by 
Christianity — that  of  the  interpretation  of  the  Bib- 
lical text.  Having  received  from  Judaism  its  ethical 
principles,  the  new  religion,  in  order  to  justify  its  dis- 
tinctive existence,  asserted  that  it  had  been  founded 
to  fulfil  the  mission  of  Judaism,  and  endeavored 
to  prove  the  correctness  of  this  allegation  from 
the  Bible,  the  very  book  upon  which  Judaism  is 
founded.  Aside  from  the  Gospels  and  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles,  the  first  Christian  polemical  work 
against  the  Jews  was  the  account  of  the  dialogue 
between  Justin  Martyr  and  the  Jew  Tryphon,  which 
took  place  shortly  after  the  Bar  Kokba  war  against 
the  Romans.  The  Church  father  endeavored  to 
demonstrate  that  the  prophecies  concerning  the  Mes- 
siah applied  to  Jesus,  while  the  Jew  met  his  argu- 
ments with  the  traditional  interpretation.  Justin 
displayed  great  bitterness  against  the  Jews,  whom 
he  charged  with  immorality  and  with  having  ex- 
punged from  their  Bibles  much  that  was  favorable 
to  Christianity  ("Dial,  cum  Tryph."  ^i^  72,  73,  114). 
These  charges  were  re])eated  by  the  succeeding 
Christian  polcmists;  while  that  of  having  falsified 
the  Scriptures  in  their  own  interests  was  later  made 
against  both  Christians  and  Jews  by  the  Mohammed - 

an.s.  A  remarkable  feature  In  Justin's  dialogue  is 
the  politenes.s  with  which  the  disputants  speak  of 
each  oilier;  at  the  close  of  the  debate  Jew  and 
Christian  confess  that  they  have  learned  much  from 
each  other  and  part  withexpresaiuusuf  mutual  good- 

More  bitter  in  tone  is  the  dialogue,  belonging  to  the 
same  period,  written  by  the  converted  Jt  w  Arislun 
of  Pella,  and  in  which  a  Christian  named  Jason  and 
a  Jew  named  Papiscusare  alleged  to  have  discuKsed 
the  nature  of  Jesus.  Among  other  polemical  works 
directed  against  the  Jew.<»  tin-  most  noteworthy  arc: 
"The  Canon  of  the  Church."  or  "  Against  the  Judu- 
izers,"  by  Clement  of  Alexandria  (see  EuM-bius, 
"Hist.  Eccl."  vi.  13);  "Contra  Celsum."  byOrigen; 
ripof    'lovdaiovc,    by    Claudius    Apol- 

Church  iinarius;  "  Adversus  Juditos,"  by  'i'cr- 
Attacks,  tullian;  "  Adversus  Juda'08"and  "Tes- 
timonia,"  by  Cyprian;  "  Demonstrutio 
Evangelica,"  by  Eusebius;  "  De  Incarnatione  Dei 
Verbi,"  by  Athanasius  of  Alexandria;  the  "Homi- 
lies" of  John  Chrysostom;  the  "Hynms"  of  Ephra- 
em  Syrus;  "Adversus  Haereses"  and  "Aucyrotus," 
by  Epiphanius;  "  Dialogus  Christiani  et  Juda-i  de 
St.  Trinitate,"  by  Jerome.  The  main  points  dis- 
cussed in  tliese  works  are  the  dogma  of  the  Trin- 
ity, the  abrogation  of  the  Mosaic  law,  and  especially 
the  Messianic  mission  of  Jesus,  which  Christians  en- 
deavored to  demonstrate  from  the  Old  Testament. 
Some  of  the  Church  Fathers  emphasized  their  argu- 
ments with  curses  and  revilings.  They  reproached 
the  Jews  for  stiff-neckednessand  hatred  of  Ch ri.stiau3 ; 
they  were  especially  bitter  against  them  for  persist- 
ing in  their  Messianic  hopes.  The  following  pas- 
sage from  one  of  Ephraem  Syrus'  "hynms"  against 
the  Jews  may  serve  as  an  example  of  the  polemical 
attitude  of  the  Church  Fathers:  "Jacob  blessed 
Judah,  saying,  '  The  scepter  shall  not  depart  from 
Judah,  nor  a  lawgiver  from  between  his  feet,  until 
Shiloh  come '  [Gen.  xlix.  10].  In  this  passage  the 
Jews  that  perceive  not  search  if  tliere  be  a  .scepter 
or  an  interpreter  between  his  [Judah  s]  feet,  for  the 
things  that  are  written  have  not  been  fulfilled, 
neither  have  they  so  far  met  with  accomplishment. 
But  if  the  scepter  be  banished  and  the  proj)liet 
silenced,  let  the  people  of  the  Jews  be  put  to  shame, 
however  hardened  in  impudence  they  be." 

The  Jews  did  not  remain  silent,  but  answered 
their  antagonists  in  the  sjune  tone.  This  at  Iwust  is 
the  asserti(m  of  Jerome  in  the  preface  to  his  com- 
mentary on  the  Psalms,  where  he  says  that  in  his 
time  discussions  between  the  Church  and  the  Syna- 
gogue were  very  frequent.  He  further  asserts  that 
it  was  considered  a  great  undertaking  to  enter  into 
polemics  with  the  Jews— a  proof  that  contests  often 
ended  in  favor  of  the  latter.  However,  in  spite  of 
the  frecjuency  of  discussions,  no  particular  Jewish 
polemical  work  of  that  period  has  survived;  the 
only  source  of  information  concerning  the  nature  of 
these  discussions  is  a  ninnber  of  dialogues  recorded 
in  the  Talmud  and  Midrash.  These  dialogues,  like 
others  between  Jews  and  pagans  found  in  the  same 
sources,  were  more  in  the  nature  of  go<Kl-humoretI 
raillery  than  of  seiiou?  debate.  The  rabbis  who 
excelled  in  these  friendly  passages  of  arms  with 
pagans.    Christians,   and    Christian   Gnostics  were 




Johanan  ben  Zakkai,  Gamaliel  II.,  Joshua  ben  Han- 

aniab,  and  Akiba.     Johanan  ben  Zakkai  answered 

several  questions  of  an  aggressive  na- 

Discus-  ture  put  by  a  Roman  commander  as 
sions  in  the  to  the  contradictious  existing  between 

Talmud.  Num.  iii.  22,  28,  3-4  and  the  39th  verse 
of  the  same  chapter  (Bek.  5b)  and 
between  Ex.  xxxviii.  26,  27  and  Gen.  i.  20,  ii.  19 
(Hul.  27b);  also  as  to  the  regulation  in  Ex.  xxi.  29 
(Yer.  Sanh.  19b)  and  the  law  concerning  the  red 
heifer  (Pesik.  40a). 

Interesting  are  the  accounts  of  the  debates  which 
Gamaliel,  Eleazar,  Joshua  ben  Hananiah,  and  Akiba 
held  with  unbelievers  at  Rome  (see  Bacher,  "Ag. 
Tan."  1.  85).  It  is  noteworthy  that  even  in  the 
time  of  Gamaliel  the  Christiana  used  as  an  argu- 
ment against  Judaism  the  misfortunes  that  had  be- 
fallen Israel.  In  discussing  with  Gamaliel,  a  "  min  " 
quoted  Hosea  v.  6  to  demonstrate  that  God  had 
completely  forsaken  Israel  (Yeb.  102b;  Midr.  Teh. 
to  Ps.  x.).  A  similar  argument  was  used,  not  in 
words  but  in  gesture,  by  another  min  against  Joshua 
ben  Hananiah,  who  answered  by  a  sign  that  God's 
protecting  hand  was  still  stretched  over  Israel  (Hag. 
5b).  This  took  place  in  the  palace  of  Hadrian, 
who  questioned  Joshua  as  to  how  God  created 
the  world  (Gen.  R.  x.);  concerning  the  angels 
(Gen.  R.  Ixxviii. ;  Lam.  R.  iii.  21);  as  to  the  res- 
urrection of  the  body  (Gen.  R.  xxviii. ;  Eccl. 
R.  xii.  5);  and  in  regard  to  the  Decalogue  (Pesik. 
R.  21). 

But  rabbinical  polemics  assumed  a  more  violent 
character  when  the  Church,  having  acquired  polit- 
ical power,  threw  aside  all  reserve,  and  invective 
and  abuse  became  the  favorite  weapons  of  the  assail- 
ants of  Judaism.  A  direct  attack  upon  Christianity 
was  made  by  the  Palestinian  amora  R.  Sinilai.  His 
attacks  were  especially  directed  against  the  doctrine 
of  the  Trinity  (Gen.  R.  viii. ;  Yer.  Ber.  ix.  lid,  12a). 
A  later  Palestinian  amora,  R.  Abbahu,  refuted  all 
the  fundamental  dogmas  of  Christianity  (Yalk., 
Gen.  47;  Gen.  R.  xxv. ;  Shab.  152b).  With  re- 
gard to  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  Abbahu  sajs: 
"  A  thing  of  flesh  and  blood  may  have  a  father,  a 
brother,  or  a  son  to  share  in  or  dispute  his  sover- 
eignty, but  the  Lord  said,  '  I  am  the  Lord  thy  God ! 
I  am  the  first ' — that  is,  I  have  no  father — '  and  be- 
sides me  there  is  no  God  '—that  is,  I  have  no  son  " 
(see  Isa.  xliv.  6;  Ex.  R.  xxix.).  Commenting  upon 
Num.  xxiii.  19,  Abbahu  says,  "God  is  not  a  man, 
that  he  should  repent;  if  a  man  say,  'lam  God,' 
he  lieth ;  and  if  he  say,  '  I  am  the  son  of  man  '  [Mes- 
siah], he  shall  repent;  and  if  he  say,  '  I  shall  go  up 
to  heaven  ' — he  may  say  it,  but  he  can  not  perform 
it "  (Yer.  Ta'an.  i.  1). 

The  Church  Fathers  who  lived  after  Jerome  knew 
less  and  less  of  Judaism,  and  merely  repeated  the 
arguments  that  had  been  used  by  their  predecessors, 
supplemented  by  more  or  less  slanderous  attacks 
borrowed  from  pagan  anti-Jewish  writings.  Spain 
became  from  the  sixth  century  a  hotl)C'd  of  Chris- 
tian polemics  against  Judaism.  Among  the  numer- 
ous works  written  there,  the  oldest  and  the  most 
important  was  that  of  Isidorus  Ilispalensis.  In  a 
book  entitled  "Contra  Judajos,"  the  Archbishop  of 
Seville  grouped  all  the  Biblical  passages  that  had 

been  employed  by  the  Fathers  to  demonstrate  the 
truth  of  Christianity.      Whether  learned   Spanish 
Jews  took  up  the  controversy  and  re- 
Polemics     plied  to  Isidorus'  arguments  by  coun- 
with         ter-treatisesin  Latin,  as  GrStz  believes 
Christians.    ("Gesch."  v.  75  et  seq.},  is  doubtful. 
In  Spain,  as  everywhere  else  in  that 
period,  the  Jews  paid  little  attention  to  attacks  writ- 
ten in  Latin  or  Greek,  which  languages  were  not 
understood  by  the  masses.     Moreover,  the  Christian 
dogmas  of  the  Trinity,  the  Incarnation,  etc.,  seemed 
to  them  to  stand  in  such  direct  contradiction  to  both 
the  letter  and  the  spirit  of  the  Old  Testament  that 
they  deemed  it  superfluous  to  refute  them. 

The  expansion  of  Karaism  during  the  ninth  and 
tenth  centuries  awakened  in  the  Jews  the  polemical 
spirit.  Alive  to  the  dangers  that  threatened  tradi- 
tional Judaism  through  the  new  sect,  which,  owing 
to  the  inertness  of  the  Geonim  of  the  Babylonian 
academies,  was  rapidly  growing,  several  rabbinical 
scholars  took  up  the  study  of  both  Biblical  and  sec- 
ular sciences,  which  enabled  them  to  advance  against 
the  Christians  as  well  as  the  Karaites  a  systematic 
defense  of  Jewish  beliefs.  The  first  known  polemist 
of  that  period  was  David  ibn  Merwan  al-Mukam- 
mas,  who  devoted  the  eighth  and  tenth  chapters  of 
his  "'Ishrun  al-Makalat "  to  the  refutation  of  Chris- 
tian dogmas.  He  was  followed  by  Saadia  Giion, 
who,  both  in  his  commentaries  on  the  Bible  and  in 
the  second  chapter  of  his  philosophical  "Emunot 
we-De'ot,"  assailed  the  arguments  of  the  Church. 
He  maintained  that  the  Jewish  religious  system, 
which  allowed  man  to  approach  as  nearly  as  is  pos- 
sible to  perfection,  would  always  exist,  and  would 
Hot  be  replaced  by  any  other,  least  of  all  by  the 
Christian,  which  transmuted  mere  abstractions  into 
divine  personalities. 

More  aggressive  was  Saadia's  contemporary,  the 
Karaite  Al-Kirkisani.  In  the  third  treatise  of  his 
"Kitab  al-Anwar  wal-Marakib  "  (ch.  xvi.)  he  says 
that  "the  religion  of  the  Christians,  as  practised  at 
present,  has  nothing  in  common  with  the  teachings 
of  Jesus.  It  originated  with  Paul,  who  ascribed 
divinity  to  Jesus  and  prophetic  inspiration  to  him- 
self. It  was  Paul  that  denied  the  necessity  of  obey- 
ing the  commandments  and  taught  that  religion 
consisted  in  humility;  and  it  was  the  Nicene  Coun- 
cil which  adopted  precepts  that  occur  neither  in  the 
Law  nor  in  the  Gospels  nor  in  the  Acts  of  Peter 
and  Paul."  Equally  violent  in  their  attacks  upon 
Christianity  were  the  Karaite  writers  Japheth  ben 
Ali  and  Hadassi— the  former  in  iiis  commentaries 
on  the  Bible,  and  the  latter  in  his  "Eshkol  ha- 
Kofer,"  in  which  the  fundamental  dogmas  of  Chris- 
tianity are  harshly  criticized.  The  assertion  of  the 
Christians  that  God  was  born  of  a  woman  and  as- 
sumed a  human  form  in  the  person  of  Jesus  is  con- 
sidered by  Hadassi  to  be  blasphemous.  ^Moreover, 
the  reason  given  by  the  Church  that  God  willed  the 
incarnation  of  Jesus  in  order  to  free  the  world  from 
its  tiiraldom  to  Satan,  is  declared  by  him  to  be 
absurd ;  for.  he  asks,  has  the  world  grown  any  bet- 
ter as  a  result  of  this  incarnation?  are  there  fewer 
murderers,  adulterers,  etc.,  among  the  Christians, 
than  there  were  among  the  pagans? 

The  first  works  wholly  devoted  to  the  refutation 




of  Christianity  appeared  in  the  second  half  of  the 
twelfth  century  in  Spain — the  preeminently  fertile 
source  of  anti-Jewish  writings  between  the  sixth 
and  fifteenth  centuries.  They  were  the  outgrowth 
of  the  restless  aggressiveness  of  the  Christian  clergy, 
who,  taking  advantage  of  the  irruption  of  fanati- 
cism marking  the  period  of  the  Crusades,  planned 
the  wholesale  conversion  of  the  Jews  through  the 
medium  of  polemical  works  written  by  converts 
from  Judaism.  These  converts,  instead  of  confining 
themselves  to  the  usual  arguments  drawn  from  the 
Old  Testament,  claimed  to  demonstrate  from  the 
Haggadah  that  Jesus  was  the  Messiah — from  the 
very  part  of  rabbinical  literature  which  they  most 
derided  and  abused!  This  new  method  of  war- 
fare was  inaugurated  in  Spain  by 
Petrus  Al-  Petrus  Alphonsi  (whose  name  before 
phonsi  and  baptism  was  Moses  Sephardi)  in  his 
Jacob  ben    series  of  dialogvies  against  the  Jews, 

Reuben,  the  disputants  being  himself  before 
and  himself  after  conversion  (Cologne, 
1536;  later  in  "BibliothecaPatrum,"ed.  Migne.clvii. 
535).  To  arm  themselves  against  these  attacks 
learned  Spanish  Jews  began  to  compose  manuals 
of  polemics.  About  a  quarter  of  a  century  after  the 
composition  of  Judah  ha- Levi's  famous  apologetical 
work,  the  "Cuzari,"  in  which  Judaism  was  defended 
against  the  attacks  of  Christians,  Karaites,  and 
philosophers,  Jacob  ben  Reuben  wrote  the  "Sefer 
Milhamot  Adonai."  This  is  divided  into  twelve 
chapters,  and  contains,  besides  refutations  of  the 
Christian  arguments  drawn  from  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, a  thorough  criticism  of  the  Gospels  and  the 
Acts  of  the  Apostles,  in  which  he  points  out  many 

About  the  same  time  Joseph  Kimhi,  also  a  native 
of  Spain,  wrote  the  "Sefer  ha-Berit,"  a  dialogue  be- 
tween a  believer  and  an  apostate.  The  believer 
maintains  that  the  truth  of  the  religion  of  the  Jews 
is  attested  by  the  morality  of  its  adherents.  The 
Ten  Commandments,  at  least,  are  observed  with 
the  utmost  conscientiousness.  The  Jews  concede 
no  divine  honors  to  any  besides  God ;  they  do  not 
perjure  themselves,  nor  commit  murder,  nor  rob. 
Jewish  girls  remain  modestly  at  home,  while  Chris- 
tian girls  are  careless  of  their  self-respect.  Even  their 
Christian  antagonists  admit  that  the  Jew  practises 
hospitality  toward  his  brother  Jew,  ransoms  the 
prisoner,  clothes  the  naked,  and  feeds  the  hungry. 
The  accusation  that  the  Jews  exact  exorbitant  inter- 
est from  Christians  is  balanced  by  Kimhi's  state 
ment  that  Christians  also  take  usurious  interest, 
even  from  their  fellow  Christians,  while  wealthy 
Jews  lend  money  to  their  coreligionists  without 
charging  anj^  interest  whatever. 

Great  activity  in  the  field  of  polemics  was  dis- 
played by  both  Jews  and  Christians  in  Spain  in  the 
thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries.  Among  the 
Christian  works  of  the  thirteenth  century  the  most 
noteworthy  are  the  "  Capistrum  Judaorum "  and 
the  "Pugio  Fidei"  (Paris,  1651;  Leipsic,  1667).  In 
the  latter  work,  Raymund  Martin  endeavored  to 
demonstrate  from  the  Talmud,  Midrasli,  and  other 
sources  that  Jesus  is  announced  in  rabbinical  litera- 
ture as  the  Messiah  and  the  son  of  God ;  that  the 
Jewish  laws,  although  revealed  by  God,  were  abro- 

gated by  the  advent  of  the  Messiali ;  that  the  Tal- 
mudists  corrupted  the  text  of  the  Hihk',  us  is  indi- 
cated in  the  "  Tikl^iun  Soferim."  Some 
Raymund  of  Martin's  arguments  were  ufied  hy 
Martin  and  Pul)loChriHliuui  inhisdisputution  with 
Nah-         NahmanitlcH,    who  victoriously  com- 

manides.  l)ate(i  them  before  King  James  and 
many  ecclesiastical  dignitaries.  Hoth 
theargumentsand  I  heir  refutation  were  reproduceil  in 
a  special  work  entitled  "  Wikkuah,"  written  by  Nuh- 
manides  himself.  The  subjects  di.scu8sed  were:  (1) 
Has  the  Messiali  appeared?  (2)  Siiould  the  .Messiah 
announced  by  the  Prophets  be  considered  as  u  god, 
or  as  a  man  born  of  human  parents?  (3)  Are  the 
Jews  or  the  Christians  the  posse.s.sors  of  the  true 
faith?  A  direct  refutation  of  Raymund  Martin's 
"Pugio  Fidei"  was  written  by  Solomon  Adrct,  who, 
in  view  of  the  misuse  of  the  Haggadah  by  converts 
to  Christianity,  wrote  also  a  commentary  on  that 
part  of  the  Jewish  literature. 

The  production  of  Jewish  polemical  works  in 
Spain  increased  with  the  frequency  of  the  attacks 
upon  Judaism,  in  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  cen- 
turies, by  baptized  Jews.  Of  the  latter  tlie  most 
renowned  were:  Alfonso  of  Valladolid  (Abner  of 
Burgos),  author  of  the  anti-Jewish  works  "  Moreh  Ze- 
dek"  (Spanish  version,  "El  Mustador")  and  "Teshu- 
bot  'al  Milhamot  Adonai "  (Spanish,  "Los  Batallos 
de  Dios  ") ;  Astruc  Raimuch  (Christian  name,  Dios 
Carne),  who  was  the  author  of  a  letter,  in  Hebrew, 
in  which  he  endeavored  to  verify,  from  the  Old 
Testament,  the  doctrines  of  the  Trinity,  original 
sin,  redemption,  and  transubstantiation;  Pablo  de 
Santa  Maria  (Solomon  Levi  of  Burgos),  author  of  a 
satire  on  the  festival  of  Purim,  addressed  to  MeYr 
ben  Solomon  Alguades;  Geronimo  de  Santa  Fe 
(Joshua  ben  Joseph  al-Lorqui),  who  wrote  the  anti- 
Jewish  "Tractatus  Contra  Perfidiam  Judteorum" 
and  "De  Juda'is  Erroribus  ex  Talmuth  "  (the  latter 
was  published,  under  the  title  "  Hcbncomastic,"  at 
Zurich,  1552;  Frankfort-on-the-Main.  1602;  Ham- 
burg, n.d. ;  and  in  Bibliotheca  Magna  Veterum  Pa- 
trum,  Lyons  [vol.  xxvi.],  and  Cologne,  1618). 

Against  the  writings  of  these  converts,  the  two 
last-named  of  whom  organized  the  disputation  of 
Tortosa,  held  before  Benedict  XIII.  (Pedro  de  Luna) 
in  1413,  there  appeared  a  series  of  works  which  are 
remarkable  for  the  aggressiveness  of  their  tone. 
The  first  of  this  series  was  the  "'Ezer  lia-Dat"of 
Ibn  Pulgar.  It  is  divided  into  eight  chapters  ("  she- 
'arim'M.  the  last  of  which  is  devoted  wholly  to  the 
work  of  Alfonso  of  Valladolid.  To  the  letter  of 
Astruc  Raimuch  there  appeared  two  answers,  the 
more  interesting  of  which  is  that  of  Solomon  ben 
Reuben  Bonfed,  in  rimed  prose.  Apologizing  for 
di.scussing  the  contents  of  a  letter  not  addressed  to 
him,  Bonfed  minutely  examines  the  Christian  dot'- 
mas  and  proceeds  to  show  how  irrational  and  unten- 
able they  are.    "  You  twist  and  distort 

Pablo  de  the  Biblical  text  to  establish  the  doc- 
Santa  Maria  trine  of  the  Trinity.  Had  you  a  qua- 
and  Joseph  ternity  to  prove,  you  would  demon- 
ibn  Vives.  strateit  (juite  as  strikingly  and  con- 
vincingly from  the  Old  Testament." 
An  answer  to  Pablo's  satire  was  written  by  Joseph 
ibn  Vives  al-Lorqui.    The  writer  expresses  his  aston- 




ishment  that  Pablo  should  have  changed  his  faith. 
Satirically  he  canvasses  the  various  motives  which 
might  have  led  him  to  take  such  a  step — desire  for 
wealth  and  power,  the  gratification  of  sensual  long- 
ings— and  naively  concludes  that  probably  Pablo 
had  carefully  studied  Christianity  and  had  come  to 
the  conclusion  that  its  dogmas  were  well  founded. 
He  (Joseph),  therefore,  begged  Pablo  to  enligliteu 
him  on  eight  specific  points  which  seemed  to  war- 
rant doubts  as  to  the  truth  of  Christianitj':  (1)  The 
mission  of  tiie  Messiah  announced  by  the  Prophets 
was  to  deliver  Israel.  "Was  this  accomplished  by 
Jesus?  (2)  It  is  expressly  stated  by  the  Prophets 
that  the  Messiah  would  assemble  the  Jews,  the  de- 
scendants of  Abraham,  and  lead  them  out  from 
exile.  How,  then,  can  tiiis  be  applied  to  Jesus,  who 
came  when  the  Jews  still  possessed  their  laud?  (3) 
It  is  predicted  that  after  the  arrival  of  the  Messiah, 
Palestine,  peopled  by  the  descendants  of  Jacob,  who 
would  have  at  their  head  David  for  king,  would  en- 
joy unbroken  prosperity.  But  is  tliere  any  country 
more  desolate  than  that  land  is  now?  (4)  After  the 
arrival  of  the  Messiah,  God,  the  Prophets  foretold, 
would  be  recognized  by  the  %vhoIe  universe.  Has 
this  been  fulfilled  ?  (5)  Where  is  the  universal  peace 
predicted  for  the  Messianic  time  by  the  Prophets? 

(6)  Where  is  the  Temple,  with  its  divine  service  by 
the  priests  and  Levites,  that  the  ^lessiah  was  to  re- 
store, according  to  the  predictions  of  the  Prophets? 

(7)  Great  miracles  are  foretold — the  worship  in  Jeru- 
salem of  God  by  all  nations;  the  war  between  Gog 
and  Magog ;  etc.  Did  these  take  place  at  the  time  of 
Jesus?  (8)  Did  any  prophet  predict  that  the  Messiah 
would  abrogate  the  Mosaic  law?  "These,"  says 
Joseph  ibn  Vives,  "are  only  a  few  of  the  numerous 
doubts  that  have  been  suggested  to  me  by  the  words 
of  the  Prophets.  Much  more  difficult  to  allay  are 
my  doubts  concerning  the  birth,  death,  and  resur- 
rection of  Jesus,  his  intercourse  with  his  disciples 
and  others,  his  miracles;  but  these  I  would  discuss 
orally,  and  not  in  writing." 

A  general  work  against  Christianity  was  written 
in  Spanish,  under  the  title  "  Tratado  "  ("  Bittul  'Ikkere 
ha-Nozerim  "  in  the  Hebrew  translation  of  Joseph 
ibn  Shem-Tob),  by  the  philosopher  Hasdai  Crescas. 
In  a  dispassionate,  dignified  manner  he  refutes  on 
philosophical  grounds  the  doctrines  of 

Hasdai       original  sin,  redemption,  tlie  Trinity, 

Crescas.  the  incarnation,  the  Immaculate  Con- 
ception, transubstantiation,  baptism, 
and  the  Messianic  mission  of  Jesus,  and  attacks 
the  Gospels.  Another  general  anti-Christian  work, 
entitled  "Eben  Bohan,"  and  modeled  upon  the 
"Milhamot  Adonai "  of  Jacob  ben  Reuben,  was 
written  at  the  end  of  the  fourteenth  century  by 
Shem-Tob  ben  Isaac  ibn  Shaprut,  who,  in  1376,  de- 
bated in  public  at  Pamplona  with  Cardinal  Pedro 
de  Luna,  afterward  Benedict  XIII.,  on  the  dogmas 
of  original  sin  and  redemption.  The  book  is  di- 
vided into  fifteen  chapters,  the  last  being  devoted 
to  the  refutation  of  the  work  of  Alfonso  of  Valladolid 
against  the  "  Milhamot  Adonai"  of  Jacob  ben  Reuben. 

Of  the  same  character  as  the  "Eben  Bohan,"  and 
of  about  the  same  date,  are  the  works  written  by 
Moses  Cohen  of  Tordesillas  and  by  Hayyim  ibn 
Musa,  entitled  respectively  "  'Ezer  ha-Emunah"  and 

"  Magen  wa-Romah."  A  masterpiece  of  satire  upon 
Christian  dogma  is  the  "  Iggeret  al-Tchi  ka-Aboteka, " 
written  at  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century  by 
Profiat  Duran  and  addres.sed  to  the  baptized  Jew 
David  Bonet  Bongoron.  It  was  so  skilfully  com- 
posed that  until  the  appearance  of  Joseph  ibn  Sheni- 
Tob'scommentary  thereon  Christian  authors  believed 
it  to  be  favorable  to  Christianity,  and  frequently 
quoted  it  under  the  corrupted  title  "  Alteca  Boteca  " ; 
but  when  they  perceived  the  real  character  of  the 
epistle  they  strove  to  destroy  all  the  copies  known. 
Associated  with  this  letter  is  Duran's  polemic  "  Keli- 
mat  ha-Goyim,"  a  criticism  of  Christian  dogma, 
written  in  1397  at  the  request  of  Hasdai  Crescas, 
to  whom  it  is  dedicated.  It  was  much  used  by  his 
kinsman  Simon  ben  Zemah  Duran  in  his  attacks 
upon  Christianity,  especially  in  those  which  concern 
the  abrogation  of  the  ]\Iosaic  law  and  are  made  in  his 
commentary  on  the  sayings  of  the  Fathers  (•'  Magen 
Abot,"  published  separately  under  the  title  "  Keshet 
u-Magen,"  Leghorn,  1785;  reedited  by  M.  Stein- 
schneider,  Berlin,  1881). 

The  earliest  anti-Jewish  writings  in  France  date 
from  the  first  half  of  tlie  ninth  century.  Between 
825  and  840  Agobard,  Bishop  of  Lyons,  wrote  three 
anti-Jewish  epistles,  among  which  was  one  entitled 
"De  Insolentia  Jud;eorum,"  and  one  "Concerning 
the  Superstitions  of  the  Jews"  ("  Ago- 
In  bardi  Opera,"  ed.  j\Iigne,  civ.).     The 

France.  author  endeavors,  in  the  latter  work, 
to  show  from  various  Biblical  pas- 
sages that  the  society  of  Jews  should  be  avoided 
even  more  than  association  with  pagans,  since  Jews 
are  the  opponents  of  Christianity.  He  recounts  the 
jjudgments  passed  by  the  Church  Fathers  upon  the 
.Tews,  the  restrictive  measures  taken  against  tlicm 
by  different  councils,  their  superstitions,  and  their 
persistent  refusal  to  believe  in  Jesus.  Agobard 's 
successor  in  the  diocese  of  Lyons,  Bishop  Amolo, 
also  wrote  against  the  Jews,  denouncing  their  super- 
stitions, calling  attention  to  the  invidious  expres- 
sions used  by  them  to  designate  the  Apostles  and 
the  Gospels,  and  exposing  the  fictitious  character  of 
their  arguments  in  defense  of  their  Messianic  hopes 
("Contra  Jud.Tos,"  ed.  Migne,  cxvi.). 

However,  works  like  those  of  Agobard  and  Amolo 
were  very  rare  in  France  in  the  tenth  and  eleventh 
centuries;  they  began  to  multiply  only  after  the 
Crusades,  when  every  priest  considered  himself 
charged  with  the  duty  of  saving  .Jewish  souls.  The 
many  anti-Jewish  works  of  the  twelfth  and  thir- 
teenth centuries  include:  "  De  Incarnatione,  Adver- 
sus  Judaeos,"  by  Guilbert;  "Annulus  seu  Dialogus 
Christiani  et  Judfci  de  Fidei  Sacramentis,"  by  Ru- 
pert; "Tractatus  Ad  versus  Judicoruin  Inveteratam 
Duritiem,"  by  Pierre  le  Venerable;  "Contra  Juda;- 
orum"  (anon)'mous) ;  "Liber  Contra  Perfidiam  Ju- 
dseorum,"  by  Pierre  of  Blois;  "Altercatio  Judad 
de  Fide  Christiana,"  by  Gilbert  Crcpin;  "  De  Messia 
Ejusque  Adventu  Pneterito,"  by  Nicolas  de  Lyra. 
From  the  thirteenth  century  polemical  works  in 
French  began  to  appear,  as,  for  instance,  "  De  la 
Disputation  de  la  Svnagogueet  de  la  Sainte  Eglise" 
(Jubinal,  "Mysteres  du  XV«  Siiicle,"  ii.  404-408); 
"La  Disputation  du  Juyf  et  du  Crestian "  ("  His- 
toire  Litteraire  de  France,"  xxiii.  217). 




On  the  part  of  the  Jews  there  appeared  in  north- 
ern France  a  collection  of  replies  made  "to  infidels 
and  Christians  "  by  several  members  of  the  Ollieial 
family,  especially  by  Joseph  the  Zealot  (who  is 
credited  with  the  redaction  of  the  IIel)rew  version, 
entitled  "Wikkuah,"  of  the  disputation  of  1240  be- 
tween Nicholas  Donin  and  four  representatives  of 
the  Jews),  Jehiel  of  Paris,  Judah  ben  David  of 
Melun,  Samuel  ben  Solomon,  and  Moses  de  Coucy. 
The  characteristic  features  of  these  controversies  are 
the  absence  of  fanaticism  in  the  clerical  disputants 
and  the  freedom  of  speech  of  the  Jews,  who  do  not 
content  themselves  with  standing  upon  the  defen- 
sive, but  often  attack  their  opponents,  not  with  dia- 
lectics, but  with  clever  repartee.  The  following 
may  serve  as  an  example:  Nathan  ben  Meshullam 
was  asked  to  give  a  reason  for  the  duration  of  the 
present  exile,  while  that  of  Babylon,  which  was  in- 
flicted upon  the  Jews  as  a  punishment  for  the  worst 
of  crimes,  idolatry,  lasted  only  seventy  years.  He 
answered:  "Because  in  the  time  of  the  First  Temple 
the  Jews  made  stone  images  of  Astarte  and  otlier 
statues  which  could  not  last  for  long;  while  in  the 
time  of  the  Second  Temple  they  deified  one  of  them- 
selves, Jesus,  to  whom  they  applied  many  prophecies, 
thus  creating  a  durable  idol  which  attracted  many 
worshipers.  Thegravity  of  the  fault,  therefore,  called 
for  a  corresponding  severity  in  the  punishment." 

Regular  treatises  in  defense  of  Judaism  against 
the  attacks  of  Christianity  began  to  appear  in  south- 
ern France.  The  most  important  of  these  were:  the 
"Sefer  ha-Berit"  of  Joseph  Kinihi  (see  above); 
the  "Mahazik  lia-Emunah  "  of  Mor- 
In  decai  ben  Josiphiah;   the  "Milhemet 

Provence.  Mizwah  "  of  Meir  ben  Simon  of  Nar- 
bonne ;  and  three  works  by  Isaac  ben 
Nathan — a  refutation  of  the  arguments  contained 
in  the  epistle  of  the  fictitious  Samuel  of  Moi'occo 
(who  endeavored  to  demonstrate  from  the  Bible  the 
Messiahship  of  Jesus);  "Tokahat  Mat'eh,"  against 
Geronimo  de  Santa  Fe;  and  "Mibzar  Yizhak,"  a 
general  attack  upon  Christianity.  An  interesting 
polemical  work  was  written  in  France  at  the  end  of 
the  eighteenth  century  by  Isaac  Lopez,  under  the 
title  "Kur  Mazref  ha-Emunot  u-Mar'eli  ha-Emet." 
It  is  divided  into  twelve  chapters  or  "gates,"  and 
contains,  besides  a  refutation  of  the  Christian  argu- 
ments drawn  from  the  Old  Testament,  a  thorough 
criticism  of  the  Gospels  and  the  Acts  of  the  Apos- 
tles, in  which  the  author  points  out  many  contra- 
dictions and  false  statements.  He  accuses  Paul  of 
hypocrisy  for  prohibiting  in  one  country  what  he 
allowed  in  another.  Thus,  for  instance,  to  the  Chris- 
tians of  Rome,  who  clung  to  the  Mosaic  law,  he  did 
not  dare  to  recommend  the  abrogation  of  circumci- 
sion and  other  commandments:  "For  circumcision 
verily  profiteth,  if  thou  keep  the  law;  but  if  thou 
be  a  breaker  of  the  law,  thy  circumcision  is  made 
uncircumcision."  "Do  we  then  make  void  the  law 
through  faith?  God  forbid:  yea,  we  establish  the 
law  "  (Rom.  ii.  25,  iii.  31).  But  to  the  Galatians  he 
said:  "Behold,  I  Paul  say  unto  you,  that  if  ye  be 
circumcised,  Christ  shall  jirofit  you  nothing.  P'or 
I  testify  again  to  every  man  that  is  circumcised,  he 
is  a  debtor  to  do  the  whole  law  "  (Gal.  v.  2,  3).  "  If 
this  is  the  case,"  asks  Lopez,  "why  did  not  Paul, 

who  was  circumcised,  observe  the  Mosaic  lawT 
Then,  again,  why  did  lie  ciiiisi-  jiis  dis<-iple  Timothy 
to  be  circumci.sed?"  To  the  lli-brews  Paul  Kaid, 
"He  that  despised  Mo8«!s'  luw  died  without  mercy 
under  two  or  three  witnesses"  (Heb.  x.  28);  but  to 
his  disciple  Titus  he  wrote,  "Hut  avoid  foolish 
questions,  and  genealogies,  and  contentions,  and  stri- 
vings about  the  law  ;  for  they  are  unprofltable  and 
vain"  (Titus  iii.  U). 

Although  tiic  "  l)isi)Utatio  Christianorum  ct  Judip- 
orum  Olim  Honuu  Habita  Coram  Imperatorr  Con- 
stantino" (Mayence,  1544)  is  founilcd  on  u  lirtion. 
there  is  no  doubt  that  religious  controversies  be- 
tween Christians  and  Jews  in  Italy  were  held  as 
early  as  the  pontificate  of  Boniface  IV.  (WJH-eir)). 

Alcuin  (735-804)  relates  that  while  he 
In  Italy,     was  in  Pavia  a  disputation  took  jdaco 

between  a  Jew  named  Julius  and 
Peter  of  Pisa.  Yet  in  spite  of  the  frequency  of  re- 
ligious controversies  anti-Jewish  writings  were  very 
rare  in  Italy  before  the  Crusades;  the  only  work  of 
the  kind  known  to  belong  to  the  eleventh  century 
was  tliat  of  Damiani,  entitled  "Antilogus  Contra 
Judicos,"  in  which  he  sought,  by  means  of  numer- 
ous passages  from  tiie  Old  Testament,  such  as  those 
relating  to  the  Creadon,  the  building  of  the  tower 
of  Babel,  the  triple  priestly  benediction,  the  thrice- 
repeated  "Holy,"  and  the  Messianic  passages,  to  es- 
tablish the  Christian  doctrines  of  the  Trinity  and 
the  divinity  of  Jesus  (Migne,  "Patrologia,"2<l  series, 
1853;  comp.  Yogelstein  and  Rieger,  "Gcsch.  der 
Juden  in  Rom,"  i.  26  et  seg.). 

But  from  the  time  of  the  pontificate  of  Innocent 
III.  anti-Jewish  writings  in  Italy,  as  elsewhere,  be- 
gan to  multiply.  To  the  earlier  calumny  that  the 
Talmud  contained  blasphemies  against  Christianity, 
there  was  added,  after  the  twelfth  century,  the  accu- 
sation that  the  Jews  used  Christian  blood  for  ritual 
purposes.  About  the  same  time  also  there  appeared 
the  charge  that  the  Jews  pierce  the  consecrated  host 
until  blood  flows.  The  first  Jewish  polemical  wri- 
ter in  Italy  seems  to  have  been  Moses  of  Salerno, 
who,  between  1225  and  1240,  composed  "Ma'amar 
ha-Emunah"  and  "Ta'anot,"  in  both  of  which  he 
attacked  the  fundamental  dogmas  of  Christianity. 
They  were  followed  by  other  polemics,  the  most 
important  of  which  are  the  "Milhamot  Adonai  "  (or 
"She'elot  u-Teshubot,"  or  " 'Edut  Adonai  Ne"ema- 
nah  "),  by  Solomon  ben  Jekuthiel ;  the  "  Magen  Abra- 
ham" (or  "Wikkuah"),  by  Abraham  Farissol:  and 
the  "Hassagot  'al  Sifre  ha-Shilluhim."  by  Brieli. 

The  shamefully  oppressive  economic  and  polit- 
ical conditions  under  which  the  Jews  labored  in 
Germany  and  in  Austria  during  the  Middle  Ages 
rendered  them  regardless  of  the  fiood  of  anti-Jewish 
writings  with  which  those  countries  became  inun- 
dated. It  was-not  until  the  fifteenth  century  that  a 
polemical   work   against   Christianity   api)eared   in 

Austria.     This  was  written    by  Lip- 
In  mann  Mnlhausen.  under  the  title  "Se- 
Germany     fcr  ha-Nizzahon,"  and  it  consisted  of 
and          354  paragrapiis.  the  last  eight  of  which 
Austria,      contained  a  dispute  which  took  place 

between  the  author  and  a  convert 
named  Peter.  Lipmann  quotes  in  his  work  346 
passages  from  the  Old  Testament,  upon  which  his 

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argument  against  Christianity  is  based.  Very  char- 
acteristic is  bis  objection  to  the  divinity  of  Jesus. 
"If  really  God  had  willed  to  descend  upon  the  earth 
in  the  form  of  a  man,  He,  in  His  omnipotence,  would 
have  found  means  to  do  so  without  degrading  Him- 
self to  be  born  of  a  woman."  The  Gospel  itself,  ac- 
cording to  Lipmann,  speaks  against  the  assumption 
that  Jesus  was  born  of  a  virgin,  since,  with  the  pur- 
pose of  showing  that  he  was  a  descendant  of  David, 
it  gives  the  genealogy  of  Joseph,  the  husband  of 

Among  the  numerous  objections  raised  by  Lip- 
mann to  the  doctrine  of  redemption,  mention  maybe 
made  of  the  following:  "Why,"  asks  he,  "did  God 
cause  Jesus  to  be  born  after  thousands  of  generations 
had  lived  and  died,  and  tlius  allow  pious  men  to 
suffer  damnation  for  a  fault  which  tliey  had  not 
committed?  Was  it  necessary  that  Christ  should 
be  born  of  Mary  only,  and  were  not  Sarah,  Miriam, 
Abigail,  Ilulda,  and  others  equally  worthy  of  this  fa- 
vor? Then,  again,  if  mankind  be  redeemed  through 
Christ,  and  the  original  sin  be  forgiven  through  his 
crucifixion,  why  is  the  earth  still  laboring  under  the 
Lord's  curse:  '  In  sorrow  thou  shalt  bring  forth  chil- 
dren. '  '  Thorns  also  and  tliistles  shall  it  bring  forth 
to  thee'  [Gen.  iii.  16,  18]?  Were  there  invisible 
curses  which  have  been  removed,  while  the  visible 
were  allowed  to  remain?  "  As  may  be  readily  sur- 
mised, the  "  Safer  ha-Nizzahon"  called  forth  a  num- 
ber of  replies  from  Christians.  Of  these  there  were 
published  Wilhelm  Schickard's  "Triumphator  Vap- 
ulans,  sive  Refutatio  Blasphemi  Libri  Hebraici"  (Tu- 
bingen, 1629),  Stephen  Gerlow's  "Disputatio  Con- 
tra Lipmanni  Nizzachon  "  (Konigsberg,  1647),  and 
Christian  Schotan's  "  Anti-Lipmauniana"  (Franeker, 
1659).  In  1615  there  appeared  also  in  Germany  a 
polemical  work  in  Judaeo-German  entitled  "Der 
Jildische  Theriak";  it  was  composed  by  Solomon 
Offenhausen,  and  was  directed  against  the  anti-Jew- 
ish "Schlangenbalg"  of  the  convert  Samuel  Brenz. 
The  Jewish  work  which  more  than  any  other 
aroused  the  antagonism  of  Christian  writers  was  the 

"  Hizzuk    Emunah "  of    the  Karaite 

Isaac        Isaac  Troki,  which  was  written  in  Po- 

Troki's       land  and  translated  into  Latin,  Ger- 

"  Hizzuk    man,  Spanish,  and  English.     It  occu- 

Emunah."    pies  two  volumes  and  is  subdivided 

into  ninety-nine  chapters.  The  book 
begins  by  demonstrating  that  Jesus  was  not  the 
Messiah  predicted  by  tlie  Prophets.  "This,"  says 
the  author,  "is  evident  (1)  from  his  pedigree,  (2) 
from  his  acts,  (3)  from  the  period  in  which  he  lived, 
and  (4)  from  the  fact  that  during  his  existence  the 
promises  that  related  to  tiie  advent  of  the  expected 
Messiah  were  not  fulfilled."  His  argument  on 
these  points  is  as  follows:  (1)  Jesus' pedigree:  With- 
out discussing  the  question  of  the  relationship  of 
Joseph  to  David,  which  is  ver}'  doubtful,  one  may  ask 
what  has  Jesus  to  do  with  Joseph,  who  was  not  his 
father?  (2)  Hisacts:  According  to  Matt.  x.  34,  Jesus 
said,  "  Think  not  that  I  come  to  make  peace  on  earth ; 
I  come  not  to  send  peace  but  the  sword,  and  to  set  a 
man  at  variance  against  his  father,  and  the  daughter 
against  her  mother,  and  the  daughter-in-law  against 
her  mother-in-law."  On  the  other  hand,  Holy 
Writ  attributes  to   the   true    and    expected   Mes- 

siah actions  contrary  to  those  of  Jesus.  (3)  The 
period  of  his  existence:  It  is  evident  that  Jesus  did 
not  come  at  the  time  foretold  by  the  Prophets,  for 
they  predicted  the  advent  of  Messiah  at  the  latter 
day8(Isa.  ii.  2).  (4)  The  fulfilment  of  the  Messianic 
promises:  All  the  Prophets  predicted  that  at  the  ad- 
vent of  the  Messiah  peace  and  justice  would  reign  in 
the  world,  not  only  among  men  but  even  among  the 
animals;  yet  there  is  not  one  sincere  Christian  who 
would  claim  that  this  has  been  fulfilled. 

Among  Isaac  Troki's  objections  to  the  divinitj'of 
Jesus  the  following  may  be  mentioned:  The  Chris- 
tian who  opposes  Judaism  must  believe  that  the  Jews 
tormented  and  crucified  Jesus  either  with  his  will  or 
against  his  will.  If  with  his  will,  then  the  Jews 
had  ample  sanction  for  what  they  did.  Besides,  if 
Jesus  was  really  willing  to  meet  such  a  fate,  what 
cause  was  there  for  complaint  and  affliction?  And 
why  did  he  pray  in  tlie  manner  related  in  Matt. 
xxvi.  39?  On  the  other  hand,  if  it  be  assumed  that 
the  crucifixion  was  against  his  will,  how  then  can 
he  be  regarded  as  God — he,  who  was  unable  to  re- 
sist the  power  of  those  who  brought  him  to  the 
cross?  How  could  one  who  had  not  the  power  to 
save  his  own  life  be  held  as  the  Savior  of  all  man- 
kind?  (ch.  xlvii.). 

In  the  last  chapter  Isaac  quotes  Rev.  xxii.  18,  and 
asks  how  Christians  could  consistently  make  changes 
of  such  a  glaring  nature;  for  the  change  of  the  Sab- 
bath from  the  seventh  to  the  first  day  of  the  week 
was  not  authorized  by  Jesus  or  any  of  his  disciples; 
and  the  partaking  of  the  blood  and  tlesii  of  a  stran- 
gled beast  is  a  palpable  infringement  of  the  dictates 
of  the  Apostles. 

A  series  of  apologetic  and  polemical  works,  writ- 
ten in  Spanish  and  Portuguese  by  scholarly  refugees 
from  Spain  and  Portugal,  appeared  in  the  sixteenth 
and  seventeenth  centuries,  in  Holland  and  in  some 
places  in  Italy.  Of  these  the  most  important  arc: 
"  Sobre  el  Capitulo  53  de  Ezaya  e  au- 
By  tros  Textos  de  Sagrada  Escritura,"  by 

STaranos.  Montalto;  "Livro  Fayto  .  .  .  em  Que 
Mostra  a  Verdad  de  Diversos  Textos  e 
Cazas,  Que  Alegao  as  Gentilidades  para  Confirmar 
Suas  Seictas,"  by  the  same  author;  "Tractado  de  la 
Verdad  de  la  Ley  "  (Hebrew  trans!,  by  Isaac  Gomez 
de  Gora,  under  the  title  "Torat  Mosheh  "),  by  Saul 
Levi  Morteira;  "Tratado  da  Calumnia,"  by  Nah- 
mios  de  Castro ;  "  Fuenta  Clara,  las  Excellencias  y 
Calumnias  de  los  Hebreos,"  by  Isaac  Cardoso; 
"  Prevenciones  Divinas  Contra  la  Vance  Idolatria  de 
las  Gentes"  and  "Explicac^ao  Paraphrastica  Sobre  o 
Capitulo  53  de  Prophcta  Isahias,"  by  Balthazar 
Orobio  de  Castro;  "Fortalazzo"  (Hebrew  transl.  by 
Marco  Luzzatto),  by  Abraham  Peregrino. 

Though  nuich  less  violent  than  the  Christian  anti- 
Jewish  writings,  an  extensive  anti-Jewish  polemical 
literature  has  been  produced  by  Mohammedan  schol- 
ars. The  subject-matter  of  this  literature  is  closely 
connected  with  the  earlier  attacks  upon  Judaism 
found  in  the  Koran  and  the  tradition  ("hadith  "), 
the  most  debated  charge  being  that  of  having  falsi- 
fied certain  portions  of  the  Holy  Scriptures  and 
o;nitted  others.  Among  the  examples  of  falsifica- 
tion is  the  Biblical  account  of  the  sacrifice  of  Abra- 
ham, in  which,  according  to  the  Mohammedans,  the 



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name  of  Isaac  was  substituted  for  tliat  of  Ishmael. 
The  passages  omitted  contained  the  predictions  re- 
garding the  advent  of  Mohammed  and  liis  mission 
to  all  mankind.  A  common  point  for  controversy 
also  was  the  question  of  the  abrogation  of  the  divine 
laws— the  Sabbath  law,  the  dietary  laws,  and  other 
Biblical  commandments. 

On  the  Jewish  part  very  little  was  written  against 

Islam,    and    besides    occasional    attacks    scattered 

through  the  Biblical  commentaries  of  the  Kabbin- 

ites  and  Karaites,  and   the  philosophical  works  of 

Saadia,  Abraham  ibn  Daud,  Judah  ha- 

In  Islam.    Levi,  Moses  ben  Maimon,  and  others, 

Jewish  literature  contains    but   two 

productions  of  any  extent  that  are  devoted  to  an 

attack  upon  Islam:  the  "Ma'amar  'al  Yishmael"  of 

Solomon  ben  Adret,  refuting  the  attacks  upon  the 

Bible    by   Abu   Mohammed    ibn    Hazm,    and    the 

"  Keshet  u-Magen  "  of  Simon  Duran. 

The  following  is  an  alphabetical  list  of  printed 
polemical  works  in  Hebrew  and  Judfeo-German : 

n^maNj  "^nn  hn  mJN,  Proflat  Duran.    Published  with  the  anti- 
Christian  satire  of  Solomon   Bonfed 
and  the  disputation  of  Shem-Tob  ben 
Joseph    Falaquera.     Constantinople, 
1570-75;    Breslau,  1844,  in    the   col- 
lection a^niDM  y^^p,  with  a  German 
translation  by  Geiger. 
'pllSn  ysfin^  "\  nnJK,  Joseph  ibn  Vives'  answer  to  Pablo  Chris- 
tian!.    Published    In    "Dibre    Haka- 
mlra,"  Metz,  1849. 
^jiSbti  n^riN  (Dlsputatio  Leoni  Josephl  Alfonsl  cum 
Rabbino  Judah  Mlzrahl),  Isaac  Baer 
Levinsohn.    Lelpslc,  18&4. 
D>D3n  nJlDN,  Hayyim  Viterbo.    Printed  in  "  Ta'an  Ze- 
kenim,"  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  1855. 
njDN  'D,  disputations  collected  from  the  Talmud 
and  Midrashim.    Isny,  1542. 
Q^m  DDK,  Levinsohn.    Against  the  accusation  of 
ritual  murder.   Odessa,  1864 ;  Warsaw, 
1879,  1881. 
JJ1J3''S1J?D  "i^T  T13,  Isaac  Jacob  ben  Saul  Ashkenazi.    Am- 
sterdam, 1696. 
D^IXijn  ^ipy  Sitsa,  pasdal  Crescas.    Published  by  Epbraim 
'  Deinard,  Kearny,  N.  J.,  1894. 
^DV  mis  p,  Isaac  Onkeneira.    Constantinople,  1577. 
n^ian  'D,  Joseph   Kimhi.    Partly  published  with 
the  "  Milhemet  Hobah,"  Constantino- 
ple, 1710. 
Ointani'  OHi,  M.  Rosenschein.    London. 
nnn  ^"lai,  Isaac  ha-Levi  Satanow.    Berlin,  1800? 
|n  Vya  pniih,  Don  David  Nasi.  Frankfort-on-the-Maln, 
1866,  and  by  Ephraim  Deinard,  Kearny, 
N.  J.,  1894. 
'?K>n>  '")  niDM.  In  Wagenseil's  "  Tela  Ignea  Satanae," 
Freiburg,  1681. 
J3Din  niD''i.  In  Wagenseil's  "Tela  Ignea  Satanae," 
Freiburg,  1681,  and  by  Stelnschnelder, 
Stettin,  1860. 
njDNJ     "Pny    m3M,  Solomon  ben   Jekuthiel   (see   Jelllnek, 
Cn  mcnSn)        "B.  H.'Mi.  43). 

'?a2nt,  Levinsohn.  Odessa,  1864;  Warsaw,  1878. 
njiDN  pirn,  Isaac  Troki.    Published  by  Wagenseil, 
and  later  in  Amsterdam,  1705 ;  Jerusa- 
lem, 1845;  Leipsic,  1857.    In  Judaeo- 
German.  Amsterdam,  1717 ;  in  English, 
by  Mocatta,  London,  1856. 
pK""ita  nj?tS'nv,  Solomon  Zalman  OfTenhausen.    Amster- 
dam, 1737  ;  under  the  title  "  Sefer  ha- 
Nizzahon,"  Hanau,  1615;  wlthaLatln 
translation,  Altdorf,  1680. 
nuiCNH  r^iXD  113,  Isaac  Lopez.    Metz,  1847. 
D''1CN  '"OipV,  Kozin.    Smyrna,  18.5.5. 
niXD  ncnSc,  Solomon  ben  Simon  Duran.    Published 
with  the  "  Keshet  u-Magen,"  Leipsic, 
DiSc'3  ncn'^c,  Rosenberg.    Wilna.  1871. 
mSra  ncnSc,  Benjaminsohn.    New  York,  1898. 

iDisn  iiPDj.  Published  byAbrebam  Berliner,  A Itonv 
■•NIC'  nxj,  W.  Shur.    Chlcairo,  1897. 
pnxjn '3,  Lipmnnn  MOIIiauHen.    PublUbcd  by  Wa. 
geuHcll,  and  al  AiiisKTilatu.  170SI,  1711, 
and  KAnlgHiMTg,  1H47. 
D'ni3'i  f 3ip,  various    nllgiDUH    di8put*tlonii.     Pub- 
llHhfd  by  Abraham  Geiger,  IlresUu, 
Pay-IDK'PJ  ptpu'SFi.  Gabriel  Isaac  I*nai8burger.  I>rague,  IKSi. 

For  later  polemics  sec  Anti-8emitih.m:  Convkr- 


Bini.ionRAPiiY:  Heathen  Polemics:  Kmnkel,  In  Mnnats- 
Kctirift,  IK56,  .^p.  HI  91  ;  (.riltz.  i7..  1K7L'.  pp.  ll«  axi ;  (,lle*, 
Hrdlheii  IlecoriLi  to  tUrJcxriMh  Srriitturr  JiMttrn.  Umdon, 
ia5<l;  Idem,  JVofitc  of  the  Jrus  nmi  Thrir  Coutitry  l>u  the 
ClanKic  Writern  of  A  utUiuilu,  I<'>ndon.  1H7:; ;  L.  (;.'ig.T.  i^tUt 
de  JudUrorum  MuriUuH  Atiim  liiKiilutiti  Scriijlmtlnii-  !{'>■ 
manUt  Pcrsuaimm  Purrit ,  Ht-rlln,  IMTa  :  'I  hliinciurt,  (>  yiii 
Tacitr,  Dit  den  Juifn  nu  Comininnmrtit  ilu  Ltvrr  V.  lUi  li.  K.  J.  xlx.  IHU  ;  Th.'-<Mlon-  Hfiria<ii,  TitIk 
d'Auteurs  Greca  ct  linmniitH  lOhitifH  <iu  Jiiila\j<m,  Parlji. 
1895;  SchUrer,  Oatch.  ill.  KC'ef  seq.;  JYlediander.  OtJtch.  der 
Jlldischen  A})oUi(ietih.  VMi. 

Christian  Polemics :  Wolf.  BOiL  Hehr.  II.  998  et  nrq.;  De 
Rossi,  liil)li(>theca  AntivhriKtiann,  Parma,  IWO;  Kaywrllng. 
Bihl.  Kxp.-Port.-Jud.  pp.  114  et  Hfi/.;  Sti'liisihrK-lili-r.  Jf  i/i^h 
Iyiffr«(«rf,  p.  314;  Winter  and  WQnsche,  J(i<lij«-/i<  I.Urrn- 
tnr,  lii.  65.5-670;  Hamburger,  R.  B.  T.  Supplement,  l«i«i,  ii.v. 
Diii)ndntif>n  ;  Ziegler,  ReliyiOite  DunmtalUmen  iin  Mitttl- 
alter,  Frankfort-on-the-Maln,  IHftt;  Isidore  Ix*eb,  Ln  r<ititr<>- 
verne  Eclinieiuse  Entre  leu  Clirt'tUnK  et  lex  Juifn  du  Mourn 
Age,  Paris.  1888;  Israel  I^vl,  In  U.  E.  J.  v.  239  et  (V(/.:  (,el- 
ger,  Prohcn  Jlldwcher  VertheUliguud  fJeaen  ChrUtenthum, 
in  Breslauer's  Jahrhuch,  1.,  II.  (185i>-51). 

Mohammedan  Polemics:  Stelnschnelder,  PolemiKrhe  und 
Apnlogetische  Literatur  in  ArabUtcher  Sjyrache  ZxfiKChen 
Muslimen,  ChrU<ten,  und  Judcn,  In  Ahhandlungen  fUr  die 
Kunde  dcs  Morgeidandes,  vl..  No.  3;  (ioidzlher,  Uclicr  Mxi- 
hammedanische  Polemik  (iegen  Ahl  al-KUah.  in  Z.  I>. 
M.  G.  xxxii.  341-387;  Schreiner,  Ziir  Gcsch.  der  I'oUmik 
Zwischeii  Juden  und  Muhammedancn\,lb.  xlll.  591  6T5. 
J.  I.   Bk. 

POLEMON  II.:  King,  first  of  the  Pontus  and 
the  Bosporus,  then  of  the  Pontus  and  Cilicia,  and 
lastly  of  Cilicia  alone;  died  in  74  c.e.  Together 
with  other  neighboring  kings  and  princes.  Polcmon 
once  visited  King  Agrippa  I.  in  Tiberias  (Jo.seplms, 
"Ant."  xix.  8,  §  1).  The  Herodian  princess  Bere- 
nice, of  whom  it  was  reported  that  she  held  f(jrbid- 
den  relations  with  her  brother,  chose  Polemon  for  a 
husband,  in  order  to  mend  her  reputation,  she  being 
at  the  time  the  widow  of  Herod  of  Chalcis.  Pole- 
mon married  her  not  so  much  for  her  beauty  as  for 
her  riches;  and  he  adopted  Judaism,  undergoing  the 
rite  of  circumcision.  His  wife  soon  left  him.  how- 
ever, and  Polemon  abandoned  his  Judaism  {ib.  xx. 
7,  §  3).  According  to  the  Christian  Bartiiolomcus 
legend,  he  accepted  Christianity,  but  only  to  Im?- 
come  a  pagan  again.  If  there  is  any  truiii  in  the 
story,  the  numerous  Jews  living  in  tlie  Bosporus 
kingdom  miist  have  taken  an  interest  in  his  con- 
version to  Christianity  and  also  in  its  being  made 
known  in  the  mother  country. 

BIBUOGRAPHT  :  Grfttz.  Gejich.  4th  ed..  111.  MO.  428 :  Gu'^hmld, 
Kleinc  Schrifteu.U.-iol/ioS;  Pru«opoffraphia  Im}xrn  Il»- 
mani.  111.  59,  No.  406. 

o.  S.  Kn. 

POLICE  LAWS  :  Laws  regulating  intercourse 
among  citizens,  and  embracing  the  care  and  pres- 
ervation of  the  public  peace,  health,  safety,  moral- 
ity, and  welfare.  The  prevention  of  crime  is  the 
main  object  of  the  police  laws,  althougli  there  arc 
many  other  points  not  strictly  involved  in  the  pop- 
ular  (ktinition  of  crime,  but  materially  afTertinp  the 
security  and  convenience  of  the  public,  which  arc 
recognized  as  lying  witliin  their  province. 

It  is  a  moot  question  whether  the  cities  of  Judca 

Police  La-w^s 



had  a  regulated  police  force  during  Biblical  limes. 
There  are  many  terms  in  tlie  Bible  which  have  been 
translated  to  denote  magistrates  or  police  officers; 
but  the  correctness  of  the  translation  is  questioned 
in  almost  every  instance  by  modern  scholars  (see 
Government).  The  Deuteronomic 
In   Biblical  code  (Dent.  xvi.  18)  enjoins  the  ap- 

Times.  pointment  of  "shoterim"  (A.  V.  "offi- 
cers'"; LXX.  ypafifiaTOEiaa-'jU)e'iq\  Tar- 
gum,  pjyiQ ;  and  almost  all  Jewish  commentators, 
"police  officers"  whose  duty  it  was  to  execute  the 
decisions  of  the  court;  conip.  Rashi  and  Ibn  E/ra, 
Midr.  Tan.  and  Midr.  Lekah  Tob  ad  loc.  ;  Pesik.  R., 
ed.  Friedmann,  p.  149b;  Maimonides,  "  Yad,"  Sanhe- 
driu,  i.  1,  and  "  Lehem  ^Mishneh  "  ad  loc.  ;  comp.  Prov. 
vi.  7)  alongside  the  "shofctim"  (judges)  in  every 
town  (comp.  Ezra  vii.  25,  A.  V.  ;  LXX.  ypaufiareli). 
As  far  as  can  be  gleaned  from  the  Biblical  records,  the 
duties  of  the  "  shoterim  "  Avere  to  make  proclamations 
to  the  people,  especially  in  time  ot'war(Dcut.  xx. 
5,  8,  9;  Josh.  i.  10,  iii.  2),  to  guard  the  king's  person 
(I  Chron.  xxvii.  1),  to  superintend  public  works  (II 
Chron.  xxxiv.  13;  comp.  Ex.  v.  6,  10,14,19,  where 
the  same  term  is  applied  to  Pharaoh's  taskmasters), 
and  other  similar  services.  The  frequent  mention 
of  the  shoterim  together  with  the  judges  (Deut- 
xvi.  18;  Josh.  viii.  33,  xxiii.  2,  xxiv.  1;  I  Chron. 
xxiii.  4,  xxvi.  29),  or  with  the  elders  of  the  commu- 
nity (Xum.  xi.  16;  Deut.  xxix.  9,  xxxi.  28)  who 
acted  as  judges  in  earlier  times  (see  Elder;  Judge), 
would  seem  to  indicate  that  these  officials  were  at- 
tached to  the  courts  of  justice,  and  held  themselves 
in  readiness  to  execute  tlie  orders  of  the  officiating 
judge.  Josephus  relates  ("Ant."  iv.  8,  §  14)  that 
every  judge  had  at  his  command  two  such  officers, 
from  the  tribe  of  Levi.  That  Levites  were  later 
preferred  for  this  office  is  evident  also  from  various 
passages  in  Chronicles  (I  Chron.  xxiii.  4,  xxvi.  29; 
II  Chron.  xxxiv.  13).  Besides  officers  of  the  town 
there  were  also  officers  for  every  tribe,  similar,  prob- 
ably, to  the  modern  district  police  (Deut.  i.  15;  Sifre, 
Deut.  144 ;  Sanh.  16b).  The  chief  of  the  judicial  de- 
partment established  by  Jehoshaphat  seems  to  have 
had  also  chief  jurisdiction  over  the  police  (II  Chron. 
xix.  11;  comp.  ib.  xxvi.  11).  Mention  is  also  made 
of  watchmen  who  patrolled  the  city  at  night  and 
attacked  all  suspicious  persons  (Cant.  iii.  3,  v.  7). 

The  Temple  had  a  police  force  of  its  own,  most  of 
its  officers  being  Levites.     These  were  the  gatekeep- 
ers ("sho'arim  ";  I  Chron.  ix.  17,  24- 

Temple      27;  xxvi.  12-18),  the  watchmen  that 

Police.  guarded  the  entrance  to  the  Temple 
mount,  and  those  that  had  charge  of 
the  cleaning  of  its  precincts  (Philo,  ed.  Cohn,  iii. 
210).  Levites  were  stationed  at  twenty- one  points 
in  the  Temple  court;  at  three  of  them  priests  kept 
watch  during  the  night.  A  captain  patrolled  with 
ft  lantern,  to  see  that  tlie  watchmen  were  at  their 
po.sts;  and  if  one  was  found  sleeping,  the  captain 
had  the  right  to  beat  him  and  to  set  lire  to  his  gar- 
ments (Mid.  i.  1,  2).  Tlie  opening  and  the  closing 
of  the  gates,  considered  to  be  a  very  difficult  task, 
and  requiring,  according  to  Josephus  ("B.  J."  vi.  5, 
§  3;  "Contra  Ap."  ii.  10),  the  services  of  at  least 
twenty  men.  was  also  one  of  the  watchmen's  duties: 
and  a  special  officer  was  appointed  to  superintend 

that  work  (Shek.  v.    1;   comp.  Schurer,  "Gesch." 
Eug.  ed.,  division  ii.,  i.  264-268;  see  Temple). 

The  Mishnah  (Ket.  xiii.  1)  mentions  two  judges 
of  "gezerot"  (lit.  "prohibitions,"  "decrees";  see 
Gezerah),  Admon  REN  G.\DDAi  and  TIanan  ben 
Abishalom  (Han.w  the  Eoyptlxn),  who  were  in 
Jerusalem  during  the  latter  part  of  the  second  com- 
monwealth, and  the  baraita  quoted  in  the  Gemara 
(Ket.  105a)  adds  one  more,  named  iSahum  the  Meile. 
The  meaning  of-  the  term  "gezerot"  in  this  con- 
nection, and  the  significance  and  functions  of  these 
judges,  have  been  variously  explained  by  modern 
scholars  (see  Frankel,  "Darke  ha-Mishnah,"  p.  61; 
tdem,  in  "Monatsschrift."  1852,  p.  247,  note  5; 
Weiss,  "Dor,"  i.  193;  Sidon,  "Eine  Magistratur  in 
Jerusalem,"  in  Berliner's  "Magazin,"  lb90,  pp.  198 
et  seq.  ;  Grunwald,  ib.  1891,  p.  60);  but  it  is  safe  to 
assume  that  the  functions  of  these  judges  were  simi- 
lar to  those  of  modern  police  magistrates  (comp. 
Yer.  Ket.  xiii.  1),  although  they  may  have  had  also 
some  judicial  authority  in  pctt\'  cases.  These,  un- 
like the  judges  of  courts  of  justice,  received  a  stipu- 
lated salary  from  the  Temple  treasury  ("Terumat 
ha-Lishkah/'  Shek.  iv.  2).  Each  of  them  was  al- 
lowed ninety-nine  manahs  per  annum,  which  sum, 
if  not  sufficient  for  his  support,  might  be  increased 
(Ket.  105a;  comp.  "Yad,"  Sliekalim,  iv.  7,  where 
the  annual  salary  is  given  as  ninety  manahs). 

Mention  is  made  in  the  Talmud  of  various  police 

officials  that  held  office  in  tlie  Jewish  communities 

of  Palestine  and  Babylon.     The  Greek  names  by 

which  most  of  them  were  known  indicate  tliat  they 

were  introduced  during  a  later  period,  after  Hellenic 

influence  had  become  strong  among  the  Jews.     Most 

of  these  officials  received  their  authority  from  the 

local  courts,  and  were  appointed  by 

Local        tliem  as  adjuncts  to  the  communal 

Police        organization.    Officers  were  appointed 

OflB.cials.  for  the  following  duties:  to  supervise 
the  correctness  of  weights  and  meas- 
ures (D"'DTI3X,  a  corruption  of  D^01J'n3J<=«>"P"»'"/^"f; 
Sifra,  Kedoshim,  viii.  8;  B.  B.  89a);  to  regulate  the 
market  price  of  articles  (B.  B.  89a;  according  to  an- 
other opinion,  it  was  unnecessary  to  appoint  offi- 
cials for  this  purpose,  since  competition  would  reg- 
ulate the  price;  in  Yer.  B.  B.  v.  11,  Rab  is  mentioned 
as  having  been  appointed  to  this  office  by  the  exil- 
arch);  to  allot  land  by  measurement,  and  to  see 
that  no  one  overstepped  the  limits  of  his  field  (B.  B. 
68a  and  RaSHBaM  ad  loc.  ;  in  B.  ]M.  107b,  Adda,  the 
survej'or  [nsniB'D].  is  mentioned  as  holding  the 
office;  comp.  'Er.  56a).  Besides  these,  mention  is 
made  of  watchmen  who  guarded  the  city  (B.  B.  68a, 
according  to  the  interpretation  of  Maimonides  in  his 
Commentary  of  tlie  Mishnah,  and  of  R.  Hananeel, 
quoted  in  RaSIIBaM  ad  loc. ;  comp.  Git.  801);  SanJi. 
98b;  Yer.  Hag.  i.  7;  Sheb.  iv.  2,  end)  and  of  mounted 
and  armed  watchmen  who  maintained  order  in  the 
suburbs  (B.  Ii.  8a;  comp.  Yeb.  121b).  There  were 
also  officers  in  charge  of  the  dispensation  of  charity 
(B.  B.  8b).  Permission  was  given  to  the  authorities 
of  every  town  to  supervise  the  correctness  of  weights 
and  measures,  to  regulate  the  market  price  of 
articles  and  of  labor,  and  to  jmnish  those  who  did 
not  abide  by  the  regulations  {ih.).  The  salaries  of 
all  these  oflicers  were  drawn  from  the  town  treas- 



PoUoe  Laws 

ury,  to  which  all  the  inliabitants  had  to  contribute 
(see  Domicil). 

Tlie  police  laws  of  tlie  Bible  and  of  the  Talmud 
are  very  numerous.  The  Biblical  commandment  to 
build  a  battlement  around  the  roof  of  a  house,  "  that 
thou  bring  not  blood  upon  thine  house,  if  any  man 
fall  from  thence"  (I)eut.  xxii.  8),  was  regarded  by 
the  Rabbis  as  a  general  principle,  from  which  were 
derived  many  regulations  the  object 
Special  of  which  was  to  insure  public  safety. 
Police  Thus,  it  was  forbidden  to  harbor  a 
Laws.  vicious  dog  or  to  keep  a  broken  lad- 
der on  one's  premises  (B.  K.  151)),  or 
lo  keep  a  pit  or  a  well  uncovered  or  uufenced 
(Sifre,  Deut.  229;  "Yad,"  Rozeah,  xi.  4).  Dogs 
had  to  be  kept  chained ;  they  might  be  let  loose 
during  the  night  only  in  places  where  a  sudden  at- 
tack of  an  enemy  was  feared  (B.  K.  83a).  Untamed 
animals,  espociiilly  cats  that  might  injure  children, 
might  not  be  kept;  and  any  one  was  permitted  to 
kill  such  an  animal  found  on  the  premises  of  a  Jew 
{ih.  80b;  comp.  Hul.  7b).  A  ruined  wall  or  a  de- 
cayed tree  was  not  allowed  to  remain  in  a  public 
place.  The  owner  was  given  thirty  days'  notice  to 
remove  it ;  but  if  the  danger  was  imminent  he  was 
compelled  to  remove  it  forthwith  (B.  M.  1171); 
"Yad,"  Nizke  Mamon,  xiii.  19;  Shulhan  'Aruk, 
Hoshen  Mishpat,  416,  1,  and  Isserles'  gloss).  No 
one  was  permitted  to  throw  stones  into  the  street 
(B.  K.  50b)  or  to  build  a  tunnel  under  the  public 
thoroughfare  (B.  B.  60a),  except  by  special  permis- 
sion of  the  city  authorities  and  under  their  super- 
vision (Hoshen  Mishpat,  417,  1,  Isserles'  gloss,  and 
"  Pithe  Teshubah  "  ad  loc).  Weapons  might  not  be 
sold  to  suspicious  persons  ('Ab.  Zarah  15b;  "Yad," 
Rozeah,  xii.  12,  14;  Shulhan  'Aruk,  Yoreh  De'ah, 
151,  5)'. 

Another  set  of  police  regulations  was  based  on 
the  Biblical  expression  "Neither  shalt  thou  stand 
against  the  blood  of  thy  neighbor"  (Lev.  xix.  16). 
The  Rabbis  made  it  obligatory  upon  any  man  who 
saw  one  drowning,  or  in  danger  of  an  attack  by 
robbers  or  by  a  wild  beast,  to  endeavor  to  save  him 
(Sifra  ad  loc. ;  Sanh.  73a).  The  court  was  obliged 
to  furnish  safe  passage  to  travelers  in  dangerous 
places;  so  that,  wl\,en  a  murdered  man  was  found, 
the  elders  of  the  nearest  town  could  conscientiously 
sav,  "  Our  hands  have  not  shed  this  blood  "  (Deut. 
x.xi.  7;  Sifre  nd  loc;  Sotah  45b,  46a;  "Yad,"  I.e. 
ix.  3;  ib.  Ebel,  xiv.  3).  The  court  was  obliged  also 
to  provide  wide  avenues,  furnished  wMth  posts  and 
directions,  leading  to  the  cities  of  refuge,  so  that  one 
who  had  committed'murder  unwittingly  might  have 
easy  access  to  them  in  his  escape  from  the  liands  of 
the  go 'el  (B.  B.  90a;  Mak.  10a;  see  Asylum;  Aven- 
ger OF  Blood). 

Numerous   laws  were   instituted   by  the   Rabbis 
with  the  view  of  preserving  the  health  of  the  com- 
munity (see  Health  Laws).     The  laws  tending  to 
tlie  preservation  of  the  life  of  dumb 
Sanitary     creatures,  and  to  the  considerate  care 
Laws.        of  them,  also  formed  a  large  portion 
of  rabbinic  legislation  (see  Cfu'klty 
TO  Animals).     The  care  of  the  poor  and  the  proper 
distribution  of  charity  were  also  regulated  by  law 
(see  Charity).     Many  provisions  are  found  in  the 

Talmud  the  purpose  of  which  waa  to  guard  free 
commercial  intercourse.  Houds  leading  from  one 
town  to  another  liad  to  be  at  Icusl  eiglil  cubit» 
wide;  so  that  two  wagons,  going  in  opposite  direc- 
tions, might  pass  without  difllculty.  RoadH  leading 
to  commercial  centers  were  to  be  at  least  sixleeu 
cubits  wide  (B.  B.  100a,  b;  RaSHBuM  ati  loe.). 
Balconies  or  other  extensions  of  houses  projecting 
to  the  public  thoroughfare  and  trees  in  the  public 
streets  wiiose  branches  might  obstruct  the  passage 
of  a  rider  mounted  on  Ids  camel  were  also  prohibitetl 
(B.  B.  27b,  60a).  Trees  growing  near  the  bunk  of 
a  river,  if  they  impeded  freight-laborers  in  tlieir 
work,  might  be  cut  down  witii  impunity  (B.  M. 
107b).  Building-materials  might  not  be  prepared  in 
the  public  street.  Stones  and  bricks  brouglil  for 
immediate  use  in  a  building  might  be  deposited  in 
the  street;  but  the  owner  was  held  responsible  for 
any  injury  caused  tiiereby  {ib.  llHb).  One  wlio 
broke  a  vessel  left  in  tiie  public  street  was  not  re- 
quired to  pay  any  damages;  but  the  owner  of  the 
vessel  Avas  held  responsible  for  any  injury  caused 
by  it,  or  even  by  its  sherds,  if  he  intended  to  make 
use  of  them  (B.  K.  28a;  see  Baha  Kamma).  Dur- 
ing the  summer  months  no  water  might  be  poured 
into  the  street;  and  even  in  the  rainy  season,  when 
this  was  permitted,  the  one  who  poured  the  water 
was  held  respon.sible  for  any  injury  resulting  from 
it  (B.  K.  6a,  30a).  The  pious  used  to  bury  tlieir 
potsherds  and  broken  glass  three  "  tefahim  "  (dsts) 
deep  in  the  tield  in  order  that  tiicy  might  cause  no 
injury  to  any  one  nor  impede  the  plowshare  in  its 
course;  others  burned  them;  and  others,  again, 
threw  them  into  the  river  {ib.  80a).  Among  tiie  ten 
ordinances  that  applied  especially  to  Jerusalem  were 
the  prohibitions  against  any  projections  from  pri- 
vate houses  to  the  street,  against  the  establishment 
of  potteries,  against  the  planting  of  gardens  (except 
rose-gardens  that  were  suppo.sed  to  have  existed 
since  the  times  of  the  early  prophets),  against  keep- 
ing chickens,  and  against  dunghills  within  the  city 
limits  (B.  K.  82b). 

Provisions  were  also  made  by  the  Rabbis  with 
the  view  of  guarding  the  personal  liberty  and  honor 
of  the  members  of  the  conununity.     Stealing  a  per- 
son and  selling  him  into  slavery  was 
Laws  Re-    punishable  by  death,  according  to  the 
lating  to     Mosaic  law  (E.\.  x.xi.  16).     "They  are 
Liberty.      My  [God's]  servants,  but  not  servants 
to  servants,"   was  a  principle  often 
enunciated  by  the  Rabbis  (B.   M.    10a;    Kid.  22b. 
based  on  Lev.  xxv.  42).     Imprisonment  as  a  punish- 
ment is  not  mentioned  in  the  Bible,  although  later 
it  was  employed  in  the  of  certain  transgressions 
(see  Imimusonment).     The  iiayment  of  damages  for 
the  infliction  of  a  personal  injury  included  also  a 
fine  for  the  shame  which  waa  caused   by  such  an 
injury  (see  Damage).     In  inflicting  the  punishment 
of  flagellation  no  more  tlian  the  prescrilK-d  number  of 
stripes  might  be  given,  "lest,  if  he  should  exceed, 
and  beat  iiim  above  tliese  with  many  stripes,  then 
thy  brother  should  seem  vile  unto  thee  "  (Deut.  xxv. 
3;  see  CoKPoiiAL  Pinishment).     Posthumous  in- 
dignities  at  the  public  execution  of  a  criminal  were 
prohibited;   and  when  hanging  after  execution  was 
enjoined,  the  body  was  not  allowed  to  remain  on 

Police  Laws 



the  gallows  overnight  (Deut.  xxi.  23;  see  Capital 


The  laws  of  morality  and  chastity  were  elaborated 
by  the  Rabbis  iu  greatest  detail  (see  Chastity; 
Ethics).  The  gambler  was  regarded  as  an  outcast: 
his  testimony  was  not  admitted  in  evi- 
Public  dence  (see  Evidence),  nor  was  his 
Morality,  oath  believed  (see  Gambling;  Per- 
jury). The  Rabbis  took  especial  care 
in  interpreting  and  elaborating  the  laws  touching 
upon  the  property  rights  of  individuals.  The  bound- 
aries of  fields  were  accurately  marked ;  and  a  curse 
was  pronounced  upon  him  who  should  remove  his 
neighbor's  landmarks  (Deut.  xix.  14,  xxvii.  17;  see 
Boundaries).  Special  officers  were,  therefore,  ap- 
pointed, as  stated  above,  to  measure  the  fields  and 
to  determine  the  situation  and  limits  of  every  one's 
land.  It  was  forbidden  to  keep  animals  that  might 
injure  the  crops  of  another  (B.  K.  79b).  Dove-cots 
were  to  be  fifty  cubits  distant  from  a  neighbor's 
land,  in  order  that  the  birds  might  cause  no  injury 
to  the  seeds  (B.  B.  23a).  Wells,  pits,  and  caves 
might  not  be  dug  in  the  vicinity  of  a  neighbor's 
property  (ib.  17a).  An  oven  might  not  be  con- 
structed in  one's  house,  unless  it  was  so  built  as  to 
guard  against  any  danger  from  fire  (ib.  20b).  Win- 
dows and  doors  might  not  be  constructed  so  as  to 
face  the  windows  and  doors  of  a  neighbor's  house 
{tb.  11a;  see  Easement;  Hazakah). 

It  was  not  permissible  to  buj'  stolen  goods  or  such 
as  might  be  suspected  of  having  been  stolen.  No 
milk,  wool,  lambs,  or  calves  might  be  bought  from 
a  shepherd  (B.  K.  118b),  nor  wood  or  fruit  from  a 
hired  gardener  (ib.  119a).  Nothing  might  be  bought 
from  women  who  had  no  personal  property,  nor 
from  minors  or  slaves,  except  such  objects  respect- 
ing which  there  could  be  no  suspicion  (ib.),  nor 
might  anything  be  taken  from  them  for  safe-keep- 
ing (B.  B.  51b). 

Not  only  was  cheating  in  business  forbidden  (Lev. 
XXV.  14,  17),  but  even  dissimulation  in  speech  and 
misleading  statements  were  prohibited  (B.  M.  58b), 
even  when  a  non-Jew  was  concerned  (Hul.  94a). 
Objects  might  not  be  "doctored"  or  ornamented 
with  the  intention  of  deceiving  the  buyer,  nor  might 
the  finer  parts  of  an  article  be  prominently  displayed 
in  order  to  attract  the  eye  (B.  M.  60a,  b).  If  water 
was  accidentally  mixed  with  wine,  the  wine  might 
not  be  sold  unless  the  buyer  was  notified  of  the  ac- 
cident (ib.).  Special  officers  were  appointed  to  test 
the  quality  of  wine  in  order  to  guard  against  adul- 
teration (Tosef.,  Kelim,  B.  K.  vi.  10;  comp.  'Ab. 
Zarah  58a,  and  Rashi,  s.v.  "  Agardemin  ").  After  an 
animal  had  been  slaughtered  a  butcher  might  not 
arrest  the  free  flow  of  the  blood  in  order  to  make 
the  meat  weigh  more  (Hul.  113a). 

The  prohibition  against  false  weights  and  meas- 
ures applied  not  only  to  their  use  (Lev.  xix.  35,  36), 
but  also  to  the  mere  presence  of  them  in  one's 
house  (Deut.  xxv.  13-16;  B.  B.  89b). 

"Weights     R.  Levi  declared  that  the  sin  of  using 

and  false  weights  and  measures  was  greater 

Measures,    than  that  of  the  breach  of  the  laws  of 

chastity ;  for  the  latter  could  be  atoned 

for  by  repentance,  while  the  former  could  not,  unless 

the  tran.sgressor  returned  to  each  one  whom  he  liad 

deceived  the  amount  lost  by  the  deception,  which 
was  almost  impossible  (B.  B.  88b).  Weights  might 
not  be  made  of  lead,  iron,  or  any  other  metal  liable  to 
accumulate  rust,  but  only  of  stone  or  glass  (ib.  89b). 
They  might  not  be  left  in  salt;  for  this  might  in- 
crease their  weight  (ib.).  Ample  space  was  to  be 
allowed  to  admit  of  the  scales  swinging  freely  (ib. 
89a).  The  measures  were  to  be  cleaned  at  least 
twice  every  week ;  the  weights,  at  least  once  every 
week;  and  the  scales,  after  every  time  that  they 
were  used  (ib.  88a).  The  measures  were  to  be 
so  graded  that  each  one,  whether  dry  or  liquid, 
should  be  one-half  of  that  preceding  it  (ib.  89b,  90a). 
The  seller  was  required  to  add  y^j^  in  liquid  and  ^-J^ 
in  dry  measures  to  the  actual  amount  required,  iu 
order  that  he  might  be  certain  that  the  measure  was 
correct  (ib.  88b).  In  places  where  the  custom  was 
to  sell  by  level  measures  one  was  forbidden  to  sell 
heaped  measures  and  the  price  accordingly, 
and  vice  versa  (ib. ;  see  WEicnTs  and  Measures). 

Rai.sing  the  market  price  by  speculation  was  re- 
garded with  disfavor  by  the  Rabbis;  and  he  who 
practised  it  was  classed  together  with  the  usurer  and 
with  him  who  used  false  weights  and  measures,  to 
all  of  whom  they  applied  the  words  of  Amos  viii. 
4-8  (B.  B.  90b).  It  was  forbidden  to  export  from 
Palestine,  even  to  the  neighboring  land 

Market  of  Syria,  necessary  articles  of  food 
Laws.  (ib.).  In  times  of  famine  one  was  not 
permitted  to  store  up  necessary  arti- 
cles of  food,  even  the  products  of  his  own  field,  but 
was  required  to  put  them  on  the  market.  At  other 
times  the  storage  of  foodstufis  was  permitted  to 
the  farmer,  but  not  to  the  speculator  (ib.).  Middle- 
men w^ere  not  tolerated,  unless  they  improved  the 
product  either  by  grinding  the  grain  into  flour  or 
by  baking  the  flour  into  bread  (ib.  91a;  comp. 
RaSHBaM,  s.v.  -'En").  The  retail  storekeeper 
might  not  derive  for  himself  a  gain  larger  than  one- 
sixth  of  the  cost  of  the  article  (ib.  90a).  The  inhab- 
itants of  a  town  had  the  right  to  bar  outsiders  from 
its  market,  although  much  freedom  was  exercised 
by  the  town  authorities  when  the  question  of  allow- 
ing a  learned  man  to  sell  his  goods  was  brought  be- 
fore them  (ib.  21b,  22a).  Pedlers  might  not  be  de- 
barred from  selling  their  goods;  for  there  was  an 
ancient  tradition  that  Ezra  liad  permitted  pedlers 
to  sell  cosmetics  to  women  in  all  places  (B.  K. 
82a,  b) ;  they  might,  however,  be  prevented  from 
settling  in  a  town  (B.  B.  22a;  .see  Hawkers  and 

The  property  of  a  person  unable  to  defend  himself 
was  protected  in  the  following  ways:  (1)  In  the  case 
of  minors,  th?  court  appointed  a  guardian  (Ket.  18b, 
20a);  (2)  in  the  case  of  the  insane,  the  government 
took  charge  of  their  property  (Hag.  3b;  Yoreh 
De'ah,  i.  5) ;  (3)  in  the  case  of  an  absent  defendant, 
the  court  appointed  a  curator,  provided  he  had  left 
because  his  life  was  imperiled;  otherwise,  the  court 
intervened  only  if  he  had  died  during  his  absence 
and  his  property  was  about  to  be  divided  among  his 
relations  (B.  M.  38b,  39a). 

The  only  material  permissible  for  legal  documents 
was  material  of  a  kind  that  would  render  erasures 
or  changes  easily  recognizable  (Git.  23a;  Hoshen 
Mishpat,  42,  1). 



Police  Laws 

Bibliography:   Blorh,  Dan  Mnmltrh-TalmudUtche  Pnlizei- 
recht,  Hudapcst,  1879;  Hamburper,  Jl.  li.  T.  il.,  s.v.  I'olizci; 
Hastings,  Dkt.  Bible,  s.v.  Mmjistratr.  and   Officer  ;  Saal- 
schutz,  Das  Momische  Itecht,  ch.  v.,  Berlin,  lai-l. 
E.  c.  J.  H.  G. 

POLIDO,  DAVID,  See  David  Raphael  ben 
Abkaham  Polido. 

POLISHER  jtrDEL.     See  Periodicals. 

POLITZER,  ADAM  :  Austrian  aurist ;  born  at 
Alberti-Insa,  Hungary,  Oct.  1,  1835;  studied  niediciue 
at  the  University  of  Vienna,  receiving  his  diploma 
in  1859  and  becoming  assistant  at  the  university 
hospital.  Politzer  established  himself  as  a  physi- 
cian in  the  Austrian  capital ;  was  admitted  to  the 
medical  faculty  of  the  university  there  as  privat- 
docent  in  aural  surgery  in  18G1 ;  became  assistant 
professor  in  1870;  was  chief  of  the  aural  surgical 
clinic  in  1873,  and  professor  in  1895. 

Politzer  has  arranged  a  well-known  anatomical 
and  pathological  museum  for  the  aural-surgical 
clinic.  He  has  written  many  essays  for  the  medical 
journals,  and  is  the  author  of:  "Die  Beleuch- 
tungsbilderdesTrommelfells,"  Vienna,  1865;  "Zehn 
Wandtafcln  zur  Anatomic  des  Gehororgans,"  ib. 
1873;  "Atlas  dcr  Beleuchtungsbilder  des  Trommel- 
fells  "  (containing  14  colored  tables  and  392  diagrams 
and  illustrations),  ib.  1876;  "Lchrbuch  der  Ohren- 
heilkunde,"  Stuttgart,  1878  (4th  ed.  1902);  "Die 
Anatomische  Zergliederung  des  Menschlichen  Gehor- 
organs im  Normalen  und  Kranken  Zustande, "  ib.  1889. 

Bibliography:  Pagel,  Biog.  Lex. 

».  F.  T.   H. 

POLKAR,  ISAAC  B.  JOSEPH.    See  Pulgak, 

Isaac  b.  Joseph. 

POLL-TAX :  The  custom  of  taxing  a  popula- 
tion at  a  certain  amount  per  head  dates  back  to  very 
ancient  times.  The  first  time  such  a  tax  is  men- 
tioned is  in  Ex.  xxx.  12-16,  where  it  is  stated  that 
svcry  male  "  from  twenty  years  old  and  above " 
shall  give,  as  "a  ransom  for  his  soul,"  half  a  shekel 
for  an  offering  unto  the  Lord.  There  were  three 
3ther  annual  contributions  obligatory  on  males,  the 
imouuts  being  proportioned  according  to  their 
means  (comp.  Deut.  xvi.  16-17).  Although  the  con- 
tribution of  half  a  shekel  was  required  only  at  the 
iime  of  the  numbering  of  the  children  of  Israel,  the 
rabbinical  law  makes  it  an  annual  tax.  There  are, 
lowever,  in  the  Bible  traces  of  a  regular  poll-tax. 
Ezekiel,  remonstrating  against  exactions,  pointed 
)ut  that  the  shekel  was  twenty  gerahs  (Ezek.  xlv. 
)-12).  This  shows  that  in  Ezekiel's  time  the  princes 
mposed  a  greater  exchange  value  on  the  shekel  than 
;he  prescribed  twenty  gerahs  (comp.  Ex.  I.e.). 

Nehemiah  reduced  the  contribution  from  half  a 
shekel  to  one-third  of  a  shekel,  which  was  used  for 
;he  maintenance  of  the  Temple  and  for  the  purchase 
)f  the  sacjifices  (Neh.  x.  33-34  [A.  V.  32-33]).  The 
Rabbis  also,  probably  on  the  basis  of  the  passage 

in  Nehemiah,  declared  that  the  pre- 

Shekel       scribed  half-shekel  contribution  should 

Tax,         be  employed  for  the  purchase  of  all 

the  sacrifices  necessary  in  the  service 
)f  the  Temple  and  for  the  maintenance  of  the  Tem- 
ple and  the  fortifications  of  Jerusalem  (see  Shekel 
N  Rabbinical  Litekature).  Besides  this  con- 
ribution  for  religious  purposes,  the  Jews  were  re- 
X,— 8 

quired  at  various  times  to  pay  poll-taxes  of  unknown 
amounts  to  their  rulers.  An  inscription  of  S.n- 
nacherib  shows  that  he  impo.sed  a  per  cupilu  tax  on 
all  his  subjects;  the  Jcw.s  paid  the  same  tux  when 
tliey  were  under  Syrian  control.  In  tlu;  time  of  the 
Second  Temple  the  Greeks,  particularly  the  Seleu- 
cidan  rulers,  apparently  exacted  u  capitation  tax 
from  the  Jews  (Josephu.s,  "Ant."  xiii.  2.  ^  3;  <<,mp 
I  Mace.  X.  29);  Wilcken  ("Griechischc  6.struka,"  1. 
245  <><  »f7.).  however,  denies  that  the  capitation  tax 
existed  before  Augustus.  From  the  reign  of  tlie 
latter  the  Romans  exacted  from  tiie  Jews  among 
other  taxes  one  known  as  the  "tril)utum  capitis." 
The  Jews  rose  against  this  tax.  which  was  both 
ignominious  and  burdensome. 

The  historians  do  not  agree  as  to  the  contribtition 
per  capita  under  Herod,  against  whose  oppressive 
taxations  the  Jews  complained  to  the  Roman  em- 
peror ("Ant."  xvii.  11,  t^  2).  Josephus  does  not 
mention  any  census  which  the  Romans  took  in  con- 
nection with  a  "tributum  capitis"  at  the  time  of 
Herod.  Still.  Wieseler  ("Synopse."  pp.  100  ct  seq.) 
and  Zumpt  ("Geburtsjahr  Chrisli,"  pp.  106  f<  seq.) 
maintain  that  such  a  census  was  taken  at  that  time, 
and  that  it  was  the  cause  of  the  .'^editiejn  stirred 
up  by  the  scribes  Judas,  son  of  Saripheus,  and 
Matthias,  son  of  Margolothus  ("Ant."  xvii.  6,  §  2). 
According  to  these  two  historians,  while  the  other 
taxes  were  levied  by  Herod  himself  in  order  to  meet 
the  expenses  of  internal  administration  of  the  prov- 
ince the  capitation  tax  was  paid  into  the  Roman 

In  70  c.e.  Titus,  being  informed  that  the  Jews 
had  paid  half  a  shekel  per  capita  to  the  Temple,  de- 
clared that  it  should  thereafter  be  paid  into  the  im- 
perial treasury.  This  practise  continued  up  to  the 
reign  of  Hadrian,  when  the  Jews  ob- 
Under  the  tained  permission  to  apply  the  half- 
Romans,  shekel  to  the  maintenance  of  their 
patriarch  (comp.  Basnage,  "Histoire 
des  Juifs,"  iv.,  ch.  iv.).  Nevertheless,  it  appears 
from  Appian  ("Syrian  War."  §  50)  that  Hadrian 
imposed  on  all  the  Jews  of  his  empire  a  heavy  poll- 
tax.  It  is  further  stated  that  the  contribution  of  a 
half-shekel  continued  to  be  paid  to  the  Roman  em- 
peror, that  it  was  remitted  only  under  Julian  the 
Apostate,  and  that  Theodosius  reimposed  it.  This 
poll-tax  existed  during  the  Middle  Ages  under  tiie 
name  of  "der  goldene  Opkeupkenmg."  In  the 
Orient  the  Jews  paid  the  half-shekel  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  exilarch.  and  Pethahiah  of  Regciis- 
burg  relates  that  he  found  at  Mosul  six  thousand 
Jews,  each  of  whom  paid  annually  a  gold  piece,  one- 
half  of  which  was  used  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
two  rabbis,  while  the  other  half  was  paid  to  the 
emir  (Depping,  "  Juden  im  Mittelalter,"  p.  138). 

The  age  at  which  the  Jews  became  liable  to  the 
poll  tax  varied  in  dilTerent  countries.  In  Germany 
every  Jew  and  Jewess  over  twelve  years  old  i)aid 
one  gulden.  In  Spain  and  England,  in  1273,  tlie  ace 
was  ten  years.  The  amount  varied  in  liitTerent 
epochs.  In  Anjou  the  Jews  paid  ton  "sols  tour- 
nois"  as  a  poll-tax;  on  certain  occasions  tlie  poor 
Jews  claimed  to  be  unable  to  pay  this  poll  tax  :  in 
these  cases  its  collection  was  left  to  the  community, 
which  was  responsible  to  the  government  for  1,000 




individuals,  even  when  the  number  of  Jews  in  tlie 
city  was  smaller.  In  England  the  tallage  furciowu 
revenue  occasionally  took  the  form  of  a  poll-tax. 
In  Italy,  according  to  Judah  Minz  (Respousa,  No. 
42),  a  poll-tax  was  imposed  on  the  community  by 
its  chiefs  to  the  amount  of  half  the  communal  ex- 
penses, the  other  half  being  raised  by  assessment. 
Ifl  Turkey,  in  the  fifteenth  century,  the  Jews  were 
subject  to  a  light  poll-tax,  payable  only  by  males 
over  twelve  years  of  age.  To  defray  congrega- 
tional expenses,  the  Jewish  communities  until  re- 
cently assessed  equally  every  head  of  a  household 
("rosh  bayit")  in  addition  to  collecting  a  tax  on 
property  (Eracu).  A  similar  tax  was  demanded 
from  every  family  by  the  Austrian  government  (see 
Familianten  Gesetz). 

Bibliography  :  Abrahams,  Jewish  Life  in  the  Middle  Age^, 
pp.  40  et  seq.;  Depping,  Lej<  Juifs  daiia  le  Mouen  Age,  Ger- 
man transl.,  pp.  24,  l8,  138,  189;  Gratz,  Gesch.  3d  ed.,  iii.  9, 
2bU:  ix.  30;  Nubling,  Judengemeindcn  dcs  Mittelaltcrs,  pp. 
xxxvi.  et  seq.,  261  ct  seq.,  435  et  seq.;  Reynier,  Ecnruimie 
Politique  et  Rurale  des  Arabes  et  do-  Juifs,  pp.  311  et  seq., 
Geneva,  1820 ;  Schurer,  Gesch.  3d  ed.,  i.  329  et  seq.,  529  et 
D.  M.   Sel. 


Austrian  manufacturer  and  philanthropist;  born  at 
Wescheraditz,  Bohemia,  in  1817 ;  died  at  Vienna  June 
1,  1884.  Pollak  was  trained  for  a  technical  career. 
In  1836  he  established  at  Prague  a  factory  for  the 
manufacture  of  matches,  and  was  so  successful  that 
within  ten  years  he  was  able  to  export  his  goods. 
He  established  branch  offices  at  London  in  1846, 
at  New  York  in  1847,  and  at  Sydney  in  1850,  and 
extended  his  trade  to  South  America  during  the 
years  that  followed.  In  1858  he  began  to  trade  with 
Japan,  established  a  branch  at  Yokohama  in  1859, 
and  the  next  year  received  permission  to  import  his 
goods  into  Russia.  Many  of  the  inventions  and 
improvements  used  in  the  manufacture  of  matches 
originated  in  his  establishments,  and  as  a  conse- 
quence he  was  awarded  many  prizes  in  international 
expositions.  His  chief  factories  were  at  Prague, 
Budweis,  and  Vienna,  with  branches  at  Christians- 
berg,  Maderhausen,  and  Wodnitza. 

Pollak's  philanthropy  was  directed  principally  to 
popular  education  and  the  encouragement  of  scien- 
tific studies.  His  name  is  most  closely  associated  in 
this  connection  with  the  Rudolphinum  at  Vienna, 
founded  in  commemoration  of  the  birth  of  the 
Crown  Prince  Rudolph  of  Austria  and  dedicated 
Dec.  19,  1868.  In  this  establishment  75  students  at- 
tending the  Polytechnic  receive  board,  lodging,  and 
all  aids  to  study  free.  It  has  an  endowment  of  160,- 
000  Horins,  while  the  interest  of  an  additional  5,000 
florins  is  devoted  to  prizes  for  proficiency  in  physics 
and  chemistry.  Pollak  also  founded  a  large  non- 
sectarian  kindergarten  at  Baden.  In  1869  he  was 
ennobled  by  the  emperor  with  the  title  "  Von  Rudin. " 

8.  E.  J. 

POLLAK,  JACOB :  Founder  of  the  Polish 
method  of  halakic  and  Talmudic  study  known  as 
the  PiLPUL;  born  about  1460;  died  at  Lublin  1541. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  Jacob  Maugolioth  of  Nurem- 
berg, with  wliose  sou  Isaac  he  officiated  in  the  rab- 
binate of  Prague  about  1490;  but  he  first  became 
known  during  the  latter  part  of  the  activity  of  Judah 

Minz  (d.  1508),  who  opposed  him  in  1492  regarding 
a  question  of  divorce.  Pollak's  widowed  mother- 
in-law,  a  wealthy  and  prominent  woman,  who  was 
even  received  at  the  Bohemian  court,  hud  married 
her  second  daughter,  who  was  still  a  minor,  to  the 
Talmudist  David  Zehner.  Regretting  this  step,  she 
wished  to  have  the  marriage  annulled  ;  but  the  hus- 
band refused  to  permit  a  divorce,  and  the  mother, 
on  Pollak's  advice,  sought  to  have  the  union  dis- 
solved by  means  of  the  declaration  of  refusal 
("mi'un")ou  the  part  of  the  wife,  permitted  by 
Talmudic  law.  Menahem  of  Mersebuhg,  a  recog- 
nized authority,  had  decided  half  a  ceuturj'  previ- 
ously, however,  that  a  formal  letter  of  divorce  was 
indispensable  in  such  a  case,  although  his  opinion 
was  not  sustained  by  the  Oriental  rabbis.  When, 
therefore,  Pollak  declared  the  marriage  of  his  sister- 
in-law  null  and  void,  all  the  rabbis  of  Germany 
protested,  and  even  excommunicated  him  until 
he  should  submit  to  Menahem 's  decision.  Judah. 
Minz  of  Padua  also  decided  against  Pollak,  who 
was  sustained  by  one  rabbi  only,  Meir  Pfetl'erkorn, 
whom  circumstances  compelled  to  approve  this 
course  (Judah  Minz,  Responsa,  No.  13;  Gratz, 
"Gesch."  2ded.,  ix.  518). 

Pollak  had  a  further  bitter  controversy,  with 
Minz's  son  Abraham,  regarding  a  legal  decision,  in 
which  dispute  more  than  100  rabbis  are  said  to  have 
taken  part  (Ibn  Yahya,  "Shalshelet  ha-Kabbaluh," 
ed.  Amsterdam,  p.  51a). 

After  the  accession  of  Sigismund  I.,  in  1506,  many 
Jews  left  Bohemia  and  went  to  Poland,  founding  a 
community  of  their  own  at  Cracow.     Pollak  fol- 
lowed them,  officiating  as  rabbi  and  organizing  a 
school  for  the  study  of  the  Talmud,  which,  up  to 
that  time,  had  been  neglected  in  Po- 
Becomes      land.     This  institution  trained  young 
Rabbi        men   to  introduce   the  study  of  the 
of  Cracow.    Talmud    into    other   Polish   commu- 
nities.     In  1530  Pollak  went  to  the 
Holy  Land,  and  on  his  return  took  up  his  residence 
at  Lublin,  where  he  died  on  the  same  day  as  his 
opponent,  Abraham  Minz.     His  most  famous  pupils 
were  Shachnaof  Lublin  and  Meir  of  Padua. 

Pollak,  in  transferring  the  study  of  the  Talmud 
from  Germany,  where  it  had  been  almost  entirely 
neglected  in  the  sixteenth  century,  to  Poland,  ini- 
tiated a  movement  which  in  the  course  of  time  domi- 
nated the  Talmudic  schools  of  the  latter  country. 
The  sophistic  treatment  of  the  Talmud,  which  Pollak 
had  found  in  its  initial  stage  at  Nuremberg,  Augs- 
burg, and    Ratisbon,   was  concerned 
Introduces  chiefly  with  the  mental  gymnastics  of 
Pilpul  into  tracing  relationships  between   things 
Poland.      widely  divergent  or  even  contradictory 
and  of  propounding    questions    and 
solving  them  in  unexpected  ways. 

Pollak's  contemporaries  were  unanimous  in  re- 
garding him  as  one  of  the  great  men  of  his  time, 
although  the  exaggerations  to  which  his  method 
eventually  led  were  later  criticized  with  severity 
(comp.  Gans,  "Zemah  Dawid,"  ed.  Offenbach,  p. 
31a).  Pollak  himself,  however,  was  not  responsible 
for  these,  since  he  modestly  refrained  from  publish- 
ing the  decisions  at  which  he  arrived  by  his  system, 
not  wishing  to  be  regarded  as  a  casuist  whose  deci- 




sions  were  to  be  implicitl}'  followed.  Only  a  few 
quotations  from  him  are  found  iu  the  works  of  other 

Bibliography  :  Jost.  Gesch.  dcs  Jndcnthums  itrirt  Seiner 
Sekttn,  iii.  240  et  acq.;  Griitz,  Gesch.  2d  ed.,  Ix.  58  ct  xcq.; 
Zuiiz,  G.  S.  Iii.  84  et  .seo.;  Briill's  Jahrh.  vli.  31  el  seq.;  Dein- 
bltzer,  K7-Uische  Bricfe,  etc.,  p.  19,  Crtu-ow,  1891. 
s.  E.  N. 


Austrian  rabbi;  born  iu  Hungary  in  IT'Jb;  died  at 
Trebitsch,  Moravia,  Dec.  16,  1879,  where  lie  officiated 
as  rabbi  from  1828  until  his  death.  He  wrote  a 
cominentary,  entitled  "Mekor  Hayyim"  (Presburg, 
1849;  3d  ed.  Warsaw,  1885),  on  R.  Isjiac  Arama's 
philosophical  work  " 'Akedat  Yizhak,"  and  a  biog- 
raphy of  the  same  scholar.  Pollak  was  also  the 
author  of  a  number  of  Hebrew  songs  in  the  annual 
"Bikkure  ha-'Ittim,"  and  of  a  scholarly  essay  on 
the  Talmudic  rules  of  the  KlpO^  DX  K*^  in  Stern's 
"Kebuzat  Hakamim,"  besides  being  a  regular  con- 
tributor to  many  Hebrew  periodicals. 

Bibliography:  Fucnn,  Keneset  Yisrael,  P-  366;  Fiirst.  Bihl. 
Jud.  iii.  \ll  ;Neiizeit,  1879,  pp.  400-412;  Ha-Mawid,  1880,  p. 
21 ;  Zeitlin,  Kirmt  Sefer,  li.  277. 
s.  M.  L.  B. 

POLLAK,  KAIM:  Hungarian  writer;  born  at 
Lipto-Szent-Miklos  Oct.  6,  1835;  educated  iu  the 
Talmud  at  his  native  city,  at  Presburg,  and  at 
Satoralja  Ujhely.  In  1858  he  went  to  Prague,  where 
he  attended  Rapoport's  lectures,  and  then  taught 
successively  at  the  Jewish  schools  in  Szegzard,  Hod 
Mezo  Vasarhely,  and  Alt-Ofen.  When,  in  1870,  the 
Jewish  school  of  the  last-named  community  was 
made  a  municipal  common  school,  Pollak  was  re- 
tained in  his  position,  which  he  continued  to  hold 
until  he  was  pensioned  in  1902. 

Pollak  has  been  a  prolific  writer.  Besides  several 
text-books,  one  of  which,  a  geometry  for  pulilic 
schools,  has  passed  through  eight  editions  (1st  ed. 
1878),  he  has  published  the  following  works: 
"  Heber. -Magyar  Teljes  Szotar"  (Budapest,  1880),  a 
complete  Hebrew-Hungarian  dictionary;  "Valoga- 
tott  Gyongyok  "  (ib.  1886),  a  Hungarian  translation 
of  Gabirol's  "Mibhar  ha-Peninim";  "Megillat  An- 
tiochus"  (Drohobicz,  1886),  a  Hungarian  translation 
with  Hebrew  notes;  Gabirol's  "Tikkun  Middot 
ha-Ncfesh"  (Budapest,  1895);  "Izrael  Nepenek 
Multjabol"  {ib.  1896);  Gabriel  Schlossberger's 
"Petah  Teshubah"  (Presburg,  1898);  "Josephini- 
sclie  Aktenstiicke  liber  Alt-Ofen"  (Vienna,  1902); 
and  "  Die  Erinnerung  an  die  Vorfahren  "  (ib.  1902), 
a  history  of  mourning  customs.  In  1882  and  1883 
Pollak  edited  the  religious  journal  "Jeschurun," 
directed  mainly  against  Rohling. 

s.  L.  V. 

POLLAK,  LEOPOLD  :  Genre-  and  portrait- 
painter;  born  at  Lodenitz,  Bohemia,  Nov.  8,  1806; 
died  at  Rome  Oct.  16,  1880.  He  studied  under  Berg- 
ler  at  the  Academy  of  Prague,  and  later  in  Munich 
and  (after  1833)  in  Rome.  He  became  a  naturalized 
citizen  of  Italy. 

Of  Pollak 's  paintings,  several  of  which  were  en- 
graved by  Mandel  and  Straucher,  the  following  may 
be  mentioned:  "Shepherdess  with  Lamb"  (Ham- 
burger Kunsthalle);  "The  Shepherd  Boy"(Redern 
Gallery,  Berlin);   "Zuleika,"  from  Byron's   poem; 

and  "Maternal  Love."  He  painted  also  a  portrait 
of  Kiedel,  which  is  owned  by  the  Neue  Piuakothek 
in  Munich. 

bibliography:    Bryan's  IHrtOmaru  of  I'mutetn  and  En- 
mwcrs.  London.  1«(«  ;  Hum  WolfjfimK  siuK.r.  Allurmriuu 
KUmtler-Lcxicun,  FrankforUon-the-Muln  JtW 
«  F.  C. 

POLLAK,  LUDWIG:  Austrian  archeologiKt; 
born  in  i»iague  Sept.  14,  1868  (Ph.D.  Vienna.  1898). 
In  1893  he  was  sent  for  a  year  by  tlie  Austrian  urdv- 
ernment  to  Italy  and  Greece;  and  since  that  time  be 
has  lived  in  Rome.  Besides  shorter  journeys  in 
1900  he  made  an  extensive  scientific  tour  through 
Egypt,  Syria,  and  Asia  Minor.  In  1898  he  was 
elected  corresponding  member  of  tlie  German  Ar- 
cheological  Institutes. 

Pollak  has  published :  "  Zwei  Va.sen  ausder  Wcrk- 
stattIIierons,"Leipsir,  1900;  and  "  Klassische  Antike 
Goldschmiedearbeiten  im  Besitze  Seiner  K.vcellenz 
A.  T-  von  Nclidow,  Kaiserlich  Russischen  lioi.schaf- 
ters  in  Rom,"  ib.  1903.  s. 

KENAU  :  Austrian  tinaiiiicr;  born  at  Vitima  Dec. 
24,  1827;  died  there  Aug.  20,  1904.  After  leaving 
the  gymnasium  of  his  native  city,  at  the  age  of 
twenty-two,  he  took  charge  of  liis  father's  whole- 
sale leather  business,  and  soon  succeeded  in  extend- 
ing his  export  trade  to  France  and  Germany.  In 
1857  he  was  elected  to  the  municipal  council  of  Vi- 
enna, and  took  an  active  part  in  the  relief  and  con- 
struction works  in  the  year  of  the  great  flnod  (1862). 
Soon  afterward  he  took  charge  of  the  budget  of  the 
city  of  Vienna,  acting  as  auditor  until  his  resigna- 
tion iu  1885.  In  1867  he  was  sent  by  the  city  of 
Vienna  as  one  of  the  delegates  on  the  occasion  of  the 
coronation  of  the  King  of  Hungary  at  Budapest, 
and  in  1873  he  was  made  chairman  of  the  executive 
committee  of  the  Vienna  Exposition.  He  entered 
the  Niederosterreichische  Escomptebank  as  exam- 
iner, and  was  director-general  and  vice-president 
from  1885  to  1898,  also  officiating  as  deputy  of  the 
Vienna  chamber  of  commerce,  director  of  the  Wiener 
Kaufmannshallc,  and  examiner  of  the  Austro-Hun- 
garian  bank. 

Pollak  took  a  very  active  part  in  the  affairs  of 
the  Jewish  community,  filling  various  offices,  in- 
cluding finally  that  of  president  from  May  4.  lSS-1,  to 
Dec.  27,  1885.  Besides  many  other  decorations  he 
received  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor,  in  recogni- 
tion of  his  services  at  the  Paris  Exposition  of  1H78; 
five  years  before,  for  his  services  in  connection  with 
the  Exposition  of  Vienna,  he  had  received  from  the 
Austrian  emperor  the  patent  of  nobility  with  the 
title  "  Von  Borkenau." 

s.  E.  J. 

POLLITZER,  ADOLPH:  Violinist;  born  at 
Budapest  July  23,  1832;  died  in  London  Nov.  14, 
1900.  In  184'2  he  left  Budapest  for  Vienna,  where 
he  studied  the  violin  under  Bniim;  and  in  his  four- 
teenth year  he  took  the  first  prize  at  the  Vienna 
Conservatorium.  After  a  concert  tour  in  Germany, 
he  went  to  Paris  and  studied  under  Alard.  In  1850 
he  crossed  the  Channel,  and  in  Loudon  his  remark- 
able talents  as  a  violinist  were  speedily  recognized. 
He  became  leader  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre  under 




Sir  Michael  Costa  and  also  led  the  new  Philharmonic 
Orchestra  and  the  Royal  Choral  Society. 

PoUitzer  stood  preeminent  in  his  day  as  an  inter- 
preter of  classic  chamber  music,  his  playing  attain- 
ing to  what  may  be  called  "the  great  style."  As  a 
teacher  of  his  instrument  he  was  regarded  as  the 
most  eminent  of  his  time  in  England,  and  many 
pupils  who  attained  distinction  Jiad  studied  under 
him.  In  1861,  on  the  establishment  of  the  London 
Academy  of  Music,  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
the  violin.  This  post  he  held  till  1870,  in  which 
year  he  succeeded  Dr.  Wylde  as  principal  of  the 
Academy,  and  retained  this  position  until  his  death. 

Bibliography:  Jcic.  Chron.  Nov. 23, 1900. 

G.  L. 

POLLONAIS,  AMilLIE  :  French  philanthro- 
pist;  born  at  Marseilles  in  1835;  died  at  Cap  Ferrat 
July  24,  1898;  daughter  of  Joseph  Jonas  Cohen,  and 
wife  of  Desire  Pollonais.  In  1868  she  published 
her  "Reveries  Maternelles,"  in  which  she  cleveloped 
an  entire  system  of  education  for  children,  and  the 
next  year  she  followed  this  with  her  "  Philosophic 
Enfautine,"  a  method  of  self-instruction  for  chil- 
dren. For  her  devotion  to  the  wounded  in  the 
Franco  Prussian  war  she  received  the  medal  of  the 
Red  Cross  Society ;  and  her  subsequent  visits  to  the 
huts  of  the  peasantry  in  the  canton  of  Villefranche 
formed  the  basis  of  her  most  important  work,  "A 
Travers  les  Mansardeset  lesEcoles"  (1886). 

Amelie  Pollonais  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
"Gazette  des  Enfants,"and  after  1887  a  contributor 
to  the  "Foyer  Domestique."  In  1898  she  founded 
a  society  in  the  interest  of  prisoners  and  released  con- 
victs, reporting  her  progress  in  "La  Femmc."  She 
was  president  of  the  Societe  des  Beaux-Arts  of  Nice. 
Shortly  after  her  death  the  name  of  the  Place  de  la 
Marine  and  the  Boulevard  de  Saint-Jean,  at  Ville- 
franche, was  changed  to  Amelie  Pollonais. 

8.  J.  Ka. 

POLLONAIS,  GASTON:  French  journalist; 
born  at  Paris  May  31,  1865;  son  of  Desire  Pollonais, 
mayor  of  Villefranche,  and  of  Amelie  Pollonais. 
About  1890  he  began  journalistic  work  as  the 
local  correspondent  of  the  "Independance  Beige," 
and  contributed  at  the  same  time  to  "Le  Voltaire," 
"Le  Figaro,"  and  "Le  Gaulois."  He  then  succeeded 
Fernand  Xau  as  editor  of  "Le  Soir,"  but,  leaving 
that  paper,  returned  to  "Le  Gaulois,"  to  which  he 
has  now  (1905)  been  a  contributor  for  five  years. 
During  the  Dreyfus  affair  Pollonais  was  an  enthu- 
siastic adherent  of  the  nationalist  party.  In  1902 
he  became  a  convert  to  Catholicism,  his  godparents 
being  the  Marquis  de  Dion  and  Frangois  Coppee. 
Pollonais  is  known  also  as  a  dramatist,  having  pro- 
duced "Le  Jour  de  Divorce,"  "Celle  Qu'il  Faut 
Aimer,"  "Eve,"  and  "Le  Degel." 

8.  J.  Ka. 

POLNA  AFFAIR:  An  accusation  of  ritual 
murder  in  Polna  resulting  from  the  murder  of 
Agnes  Hruza  March  29,  1899.  Polna,  a  city  in  the 
district  of  Deutschbrod,  Bohemia,  with  a  population 
of  5,000,  including  a  small  Jewish  settlement,  was 
shocked  by  a  cruel  murder.  Agnes  Hruza,  a  girl 
nineteen  years  old,  living  in  Klein  Veznic,  a  village 
two  miles  from  Polna,  and  going  every  day  to  the 

city  to  work  as  a  seamstress,  left  her  place  of 
employment  on  the  afternoon  of  March  29, 1899,  and 
did  not  return  to  her  home.  Three  days  later 
(April  1)  her  body  was  found  in  a  forest,  her  throat 
having  been  cut  and  her  garments  torn.  Near  by 
were  a  pool  of  blood,  some  blood-stained  stones, 
parts  of  her  garments,  and  a  rope  with  which  she 
had  been  either  strangled  to  death  or  dragged,  after 
the  murder,  to  the  place  where  the  body  was  found. 
The  suspicion  of  the  sheriff  was  first  turned 
against  four  vagrants  who  had  been  seen  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  forest  on  the  afternoon  of  the 
day  when  the  murder  was  supposed  to  have  been 
committed.  Among  them  was  Leo- 
Leopold  pold  Ililsner,  a  Jew,  twenty-three 
Hilsner  years  old,  who  had  been  a  vagrant 
Accused,  all  his  life.  Suspicion  against  him 
was  based  on  the  fact  that  he  had  been 
frequently  seen  strolling  in  the  forest  where  the  body 
was  found.  A  search  in  his  house  showed  nothing 
suspicious.  lie  claimed  to  have  left  the  place  on 
the  afternoon  of  the  murder  long  before  it  could  have 
been  committed:  but  he  could  not  establish  a  per- 
fect alibi.  Hilsner  was  arrested  and  tried  at  Kut- 
tenberg  Sept.  12-16,  1899.  He  denied  all  knowledge 
of  the  crime.  The  only  object  which  could  be  used 
as  evidence  against  him  was  a  pair  of  trousers  on 
which  some  stains  were  found  that,  according  to 
the  testimony  of  chemical  experts,  might  have  been 
blood,  while  the  garment  was  wet  as  if  an  attempt 
had  been  made  to  wash  it.  The  most  important 
witness  against  him  was  Peter  Peschak,  who  claimed 
to  have  seen  Ililsner,  at  a  distance  of  2,000  feet,  in 
company  with  two  strange  Jews,  on  the  day  on  which 
the  murder  was  supposed  to  have  been  committed 
and  on  the  spot  where  the  body  was  found.  An- 
other witness  claimed  to  have  seen  him  come  from 
that  place  on  the  afternoon  of  March  29  and  to  have 
noticed  that  he  was  very  much  agitated.  Both  the 
state's  attorney  and  the  attorney  for  the  Hruza  fam- 
ily made  clear  suggestions  of  ritual  murder.  Testi- 
mony had  proved  that  Hilsner  was  too  weak  to  have 
committed  the  crime  by  himself.  Still  he  was  sen- 
tenced to  death  for  participation  in  the  murder,  while 
his  supposed  accomplices  were  undiscovered  and  no 
attempt  was  made  to  bring  them  to  justice. 

On  the  ground  of  technicalities  an  appeal  was 
made  to  the  supreme  court  (Cassationshof),  which 
ordered  a  new  trial,  to  be  held  at  Pisek  in  order  to 
avoid  intimidation  of  the  jury  by  the  mob,  and  that 
it  might  not  be  influenced  by  political  agitation. 
On  Sept.  20,  1899,  a  few  days  after  the  first  trial, 
Hilsner  was  frightened  by  his  fellow  prisoners,  who 
showed  him  some  carpenters  working  in  the  court- 
yard of  the  jail  and  told  him  that  they  were  con- 
structing a  gallows  for  him.  They  persuaded  him  to 
give  the  names  of  liis  accomplices,  as 
The  "Con-  by  doing  so  he  would  obtain  a  commu- 
fession."  tation  of  his  sentence.  Hilsner,  a  man 
of  little  intelligence,  fell  into  the  trap, 
and  implicated  Joshua  Erbmanu  and  Solomon 
Wassermann  as  those  who  had  assisted  him.  Being 
brought  before  the  judge  on  Sept.  29,  he  declared 
that  this  charge  was  false.  On  Oct.  7,  however,  he 
reiterated  the  charge,  but  again  recanted  on  Nov. 
20.    Fortunately  for  those  he  had  accused,  they  were 




able  to  prove  perfect  alibis,  one  of  thcin  liiwing 
been  in  jail  on  the  day  of  the  murder,  while  the 
other  proved,  from  certificates  of  poorhousea  in 
Moravia  which  he  had  visited  as  a  beggar,  that  he 
could  not  possibly  have  been  in  Polna  on  tliat  day. 

Meantime  anti-Semitic  agitators  tried  their  best 

to  arouse  a  strong  sentiment  against  the  Jews  in 

general  and   against   Hilsner   in   particular.      The 

"Deutsches  Volksblatt"  of  Vienna  sent  a  special 

reporter  to   the   place   to  make  an    investigation. 

Hilsner's  brother  was  made  drunk  at 

Anti-        a  wine-shop  and  was  induced  to  tell 

Semitic      what  the  anti-Semites  wished  him  to 

Agitation,   say.     The   "Vaterland,"   the  leading 

organ  of  the  clericals,  leiterated  the 

blood  accusation  and  produced  evidence  that  the 

Church  had  confirmed  it.     In  various  places  where 

political  tension  was  very  strong,  as  in  Holleschau 

and  in   Nachod,   sanguinary  excesses  took   place. 

Neither  a  public  indignation  meeting  which  was 

called  by  the  Jewish  congregation  of  Vienna  (Oct.  7) 

nor  an  appeal  which  was  made  to  the  prime  minister 

had  any  tangible  effect. 

The  sentence  of  four  months  in  jail  imposed 
upon  August  Schreiber,  one  of  the  editors  of  the 
"Deutsches  Volksblatt,"  for  libeling  the  Jews  (Dec. 
11)  only  added  fuel  to  the  fire.  Violent  speeches 
against  the  Jews  were  delivered  in  the  Reichsrath 
(Dec  12) ;  and  Dr.  Baxa,  the  attorney  for  the  Hruza 
family,  in  a  speech  delivered  in  the  Bohemian  Diet 
(Dec.  38),  accused  the  government  of  partiality  to 
the  Jews. 

Meantime  Hilsner  was  accused  of  another  murder. 
Maria  Klima,  a  servant,  had  disappeared  July  17, 
1898,  and  a  female   body  found  Oct.  27  following 
in  the  same  forest  where  that  of  Agnes  Hruza  had 
been  discovered,  had,  with  great  probability,  been 
identified  as  that  of  the  missing  girl.    Decomposition 
was,  however,  so  advanced  that  not  even  the  fact 
that  the  girl  had  been  murdered  could  be  estab- 
lished.    Hilsner,  charged  with  this  crime  also,  was 
tried  for  both  murders  in  Pisek  (Oct.  25-Nov.  14, 
1900).     The  witnesses  at  this  trial  became  more  defi- 
nite in  their  statements.     Those  that  at  the  first  trial 
had  spoken  of  a  knife  which  they  had  seen  in  Hils- 
ner's  possession,  now  asserted  distinctly  that  it  was 
such  a  knife  as  was  used  in  ritual  slaughtering.     The 
strange  Jews  who  were  supposed  to  have  been  seen 
in  company  with  Hilsner  were  more  and  more  par- 
ticularly described.     When  witnesses  were  shown 
that  the  testimony  given  by  them  at  the  second  trial 
differed  from  that  given  at  the  first  trial,  they  said 
either  that  they  had  been  intimidated  by  the  judge 
or  that  their  statements  had  not    been  correctly 

A  special  sensation  was  created  by  Dr.  Baxa,  who 
claimed  that  the  garments  of  Agnes  Hruza  had  been 
saturated  with  blood  after  the  first  trial  in  order  to 
refute  the  supposition  that  the  blood  had  been  used 
for  ritual  purposes.  The  anti-Semites  sent  agitators 
to  the  place  of  trial,  "L'Antijuif  "  of  Paris  being 
represented  by  a  special  reporter.  A  Bohemian  jour- 
nalist, Jaromir  HuSek,  editor  of  "fesky  Zajmy," 
constantly  interrupted  the  trial  by  making  remarks 
which  were  intended  to  prejudice  the  jury  against 
the  defendant. 

The  verdict  pronounced  Hilsner  guihy  of  having 
murdered  both  Agnes  Hruza  ami  Mariu  Klinm  and 
of  having  libeled  Jo.sliua  Krbinanu  and  Soiomou 
Was.sermann.  He  was  sentenced  to  death  (Nov.  14, 
1900),  but  the  sentence  was  commuted  by  tlie  em' 
peror  to  imprisonment  for  life.  (Jwing  i,/the  agita- 
tion of  the  anti-Semites,  various  attempts  to  prove 
Hilsner's  innocence  were  futile,  espcriallv  tliat  nmde 
by  Profes.sor  Masaryk  of  the  Bolicmiuu"  University 
in  Prague,  a  Chri.stian  wlio  proposed  the  theory  lliat 
Agnes  Hruza  was  not  killed  at  tlie  jilaee  where  her 
body  was  found  and  that  siie  was  most  likely  the 
victim  of  a  family  (juarrel,  and  that  made  bv  Dr. 
Bulowa,  a  Jewish  physician.  ']). 

POLONNOYE  :  Town  in  the  district  of  Novo- 
grad,  Volhynia,  Russia.  It  was  a  fortified  place  in 
the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  when  about 
12,000  Jews  found  there  a  refuge  from  the  neigh- 
boring towns  at  the  time  of  the  Cossacks'  Upkicino. 

Polonnoye  had  two  well  known  rabbis  in  the 
seventeenth  century,  Solomon  Harif  and  liis  son 
Moses,  who  later  became  rabbi  of  Lemberg  (see 
Buber,  "Anshe  Shem,"  p.  160,  and  I).  Maggid. 
"Zur  Geschichte  und  Genealogie  der  Gllnzburge." 
p.  221.  St.  Petersburg,  1899);  but  the  best-known 
occupant  of  the  rabbinate  was  undoubtedly  Jacob 
Joseph  ha-Kohen  (d.  1769),  whose  principal  work. 
"Toledot  Ya'akob  Yosef  "  (Miedzyboz  and  Koretz. 
1780,  and  numerous  other  editions),  in  which  the 
teachings  of  R.  Israel  Ba'al  Shem  were  first  set 
forth  in  literary  form,  was  burned  in  the  syna- 
gogue-yard of  Wilna  when  the  war  against  Hasidism 
was  commenced  there. 

Polonnoye  had  a  Hebrew  printing-oflace  at  the 
end  of  the  eighteenth  century  and  at  the  beginning 
of  the  nineteenth.  The  earliest  work  which  is 
known  to  bear  the  imprint  of  that  town  is  the  re- 
sponsa  collection  "Me'ir  Netibim"  (1791),  by  R.  MeTr 
b.  Zebi  Margoliot;  and  the  latest  is  Hayyim  ibn 
'Attar's  "  Rishon  le-Ziyyon  "  (1809),  on  a  part  of  the 

At  present  (1905)  the  population  of  Polonnoye  ex- 
ceeds 10,000,  about  50  per  cent  of  whom  are  Jews. 

Bibliography:  Brockhaus-Efron, KntziklopnUrhrski N/oror; 
Graetz,  Hist.  v.  11;  Hannover,  Ynren   Mtzulah.   pp.  2K  et 
seq.,  Cracow,  1896;  Walden,  Shem  ha-Oai<'>Um  hc-Haflaah, 
p.  103,  Warsaw,  1882. 
H.   1{.  P.    Wl. 

POLOTSK  (POLOTZK) :    District  town  in  the 
government  of  Vitebsk,  Russia.     The  first  mention 
of  its  Jewish  community  occurs  in  \5^)l.  when,  at  the 
Polish  Diet  held  at  Wilna,  Polotsk  is  expressly  named 
in  a  list  of  towns  whose  Jews  were  to  be  exempt 
from    the  special   tax  known  as  "Serebeshchizna  " 
("  Akty  Yuzhnoi  i  Zapadnoi  Rossii."  i.  133).     There 
are  indications,  however,  of  the  existence  of  Jcwb  at 
Polotsk  as  early  as  1490  ("  Sbornik  Iinperatorskavo 
Istoricheskavo  Obshchestva,"  xxxv.  41-43).    In  1509 
the  baptized  Jew  Abraham  Ezefovich.  a  non-resi- 
dent of  Polotsk,  is  spoken  of  as  farmer  of  it.*;  rev- 
enues and  customs  ("Aktovya  Kiiigi  Metriki  Litov- 
skoi  Zapisei,"  No.  8),  similar  positions  being  held 
about  1525  by  his  brother  Michael  {ib.  No.  14.  p. 
285),  and  about  the  middle  of  the  same  century  by 
another  Jew,  Felix  (ib.  No.  87,  p.  242). 

In  1563,  in  the  war  between  the  Russians  and  the 




Poles  over  Smolensk,  the  Muscovite  grand  duke 
Ivan  the  Terrible,  having  captured  Polotsk,  ordered, 
according  to  the  testimony  of  an  eye-witness,  that 
all  the  Jews  who  refused  to  adopt  Christianity — 
about  300  in  number — should  be  thrown  into  the 
Diina  (Sapunov,  "Vitebskaj'a  Starina,"  iv.  119,  189, 
232).  In  1580,  however,  a  Jewish  conmiunity  is 
again  found  in  the  town;  but  the  letters  patent  of 
the  so-called  "Magdeburg  Rights"  of  that  year 
contain  an  edict  against  the  Jews  of  Pi)lotsk,  de- 
pri  ving  them  of  the  right  to  trade  and  to  build  or  buy 
houses  (•' Akty  Yuzhnoi  i  Zapaduoi  Rossii,"  iii.  255). 
About  seveuty-tive  years  later  (ICoo),  tiie  Russians, 
with  whom  the  Cossacks  under  Chmieluicki  were 
allied,  again  overran  Lithuania,  and  the  Jewish 
communit}'  at  Polotsk  met  the  fate  of  its  fellow 
communities  in  Poland  in  tlie  bloody  years  of  1648 
and  1649.  The  estates  of  the  slaughtered  Jews  seem 
to  have  been  distributed  among  the  army  officers 
and  the  nobiUty  ("' Vitebskaya  Starina,"  iv.,  part  2, 
p.  77). 

In  the  sixteenth  centur}'  Polotsk  was  more  pros- 
perous than  Wilna.  It  had  a  total  population  of 
100,000,  and  presumably  its  Jewish  community  was 
well-to-do,  although  the  fact  that  its  taxes  were 
farmed  to  two  Jews  of  Wilna  (see  R.  Solomon  Luria, 
Responsa,  No.  4)  might  be  adduced  as  evidence  to 
the  contrary. 

Before  Polotsk  was  finally  annexed  to  Russia  (1772) 
it  had  lost  its  former  importance,  and  a  majoritj'^  of 
its  inhabitants  were  Jews.  The  town 
Under  the  was  at  first  incorporated  in  the  gov- 
Russians.  ernment  of  Pskov.  In  1777  it  was 
made  a  government  citj',  and  is  men- 
tioned as  such  in  the  letter  against  Hasidism  which 
was  sent  out  by  Elijah  Gaon  of  Wilna  in  1796  (see 
Yazkan,  "Rabbenu  Eliyahu  mc-Wilna,"  p.  73, 
Warsaw,  1900,  where  "Gubernia  Plock  "  is  a  mis- 
print for  "  Polotsk  ").  In  1780  the  town  had  360 
wooden  houses,  of  which  100  belonged  to  Jews;  but 
the  number  of  Jewish  fannlies  amounted  to  478,  as 
against  437  Christian  families.  In  the  same  year 
Russia,  in  the  flush  of  exultation  over  the  lion's 
share  in  the  division  of  Poland  which  liad  fallen 
to  her,  gave  the  Jewish  merchants  of  the  govern- 
ment of  Polotsk  eejual  rights  with  other  merchants 
("Poinoye  Sobraniye  Zakonov,"  xx..  No.  14,962). 
Fourteen  years  later,  however,  this  policy  was 
changed,  and  a  double  tax  was  imposed  in  Polotsk 
and  in  several  other  governments  upon  the  Jews 
who  wished  to  avail  tiiemselves  of  the  privilege  to 
become  recognized  burghers  or  merchants.  In  case 
a  Jew  desired  to  leave  Russia  he  could  do  .so  only 
after  having  paid  in  advance  the  doul)le  tax  for 
three  years  {ih.  xxiii..  No.  17,224).  In  1796  Polotsk 
became  part  of  the  government  of  White  Russia; 
since  1802  it  has  been  a  part  of  the  government  of  The  policy  of  discriminating  against  the 
Jews  was  manifested  again  in  18:^0,  when  all  the  mer- 
chants of  Polotsk  except  Jewish  ones  Avere  granted 
immunity  from  gild-  and  poll-taxes  for  ten  years 
("Poinoye  Sobraniye  Zakonov  1 1."  xii..  No.  10,851). 

Polotsk  has  been  one  of  the  strongest  centers  of 
Hasidism  in  Lithuania,  and  has  been  also  the  seat 
of  a  zaddik.  On  the  whole,  however,  Polotsk  has 
never  been    distinguished   as  a  center  of  Jewish 

learning,  and  the  names  of  but  very  few  of  its  ear- 
lier rabbis  or  scholars  have  been  preserved  in  Jew- 
ish literature.  Among  them  were  Zebi  Ilirsch  b. 
Isaac  Zack,  rabbi  of  Polotsk  and  Shkud  (1778), 
who  was  probably  succeeded  by  Judah  Lob  b. 
Asher  Margoliotii;  Israel  Polotsker,  one  of  the 
early  Hasidic  rabbis  (at  first  their  opponent),  who 
went  to  Palestine  in  1777,  returned,  and  died  in  Po- 
land; and  R.  Phinehas  b.  Judah  Polotsk,  "  maggid  " 
of  Polotsk  for  eigliteen  years  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century  and  author  of  numerous  works. 
R.  Phinehas  b.  Judaii  afterward  settled  in  Wilna; 
he  became  a  pupil  of  Elijali  Gaon,  and 
Rabbis  and  died  there  Jan.  15,  1823.     Among  the 

Scholars,  later  rabbis  of  Polotsk  were  Senior 
Solomon  Fradkiu,  Jacob  David  Wi- 
lowsky,  Judah  Meshel  ha-Kohen  Zirkel,  and  Solo- 
mon Akselrod  (b.  Nov.  1,  1855;  became  rabbi  of 
Polotsk  in  1901).  Senior  Solomon  Fradkin  was 
known  later  as  Reb  Zalmen  Lubliner  (b.  Liadi,  gov- 
ernment of  Moghilef,  1830;  d.  Jerusalem  April  11, 
1902);  he  was  rabbi  of  Polotsk  from  1856  to  1868. 
Jacob  David  Wilowskj',  later  rabbi  of  Slutsk  and 
chief  rabbi  of  the  Orthodox  congregations  of  Chi- 
cago (1903-4),  was  rabbi  from  1883  to  1887.  Judah 
Me.shel  ha-Kohen  Zirkel  (b.  1838)  assumed  the  rab- 
binate in  1895,  and  occupied  it  until  his  death.  May 
26,  1899. 

The  Hasidim  of  Polotsk  usually  maintain  their 
own  rabbinate ;  in  the  latter  part  of  the  nineteenth 
century  it  was  held  by  Eliezer  Birkhan  (see  Efrati, 
"Dor  we-Dorshaw,"  p.  58,  Wilna,  1889).  The  en- 
graver and  author  Yom-Tob,  who  became  well 
known  in  England  under  the  name  of  Solomon 
Bennett,  was  born  in  Polotsk  about  1757,  and  lived 
there  until  about  1792  (see  "Ha-Meliz,"  1868,  pp. 
85,  161-162). 

The  population  of  Polotsk  in  1897  was  over  20,000, 
of  which  more  than  half  are  Jews.  It  has  most  of 
the  institutions  usually  found  in  a  Russian  Jew- 
ish community,  including  a  government  school  for 
boj's.  It  is  an  Orthodox  community,  and  the  sale,  by 
a  Jew,  of  anything  on  a  Sabbath  is  almost  an  im- 
heard-of  occurrence  there  ("  Ha-Meliz, "  1897,  No.  89). 
Tlie  district  of  Polotsk,  exclusive  of  the  city,  has 
only  3  Jewish  landow  ners  in  a  total  of  567. 

Bibliography  :  Griitz,  Ga^ch.  Het)revv  transl.,  vii.  3.58,  viii.  l.^O; 
Kntziklopedichexki  Slovar,  xxiv.  36.S;  liegcMy,  )..  Nos.  ~()8, 
473, 528-.530,  6^1,969;  BershadskM.  Litoi:<kiye  Ycvreyi.  p. 340; 
idem,  Riu^^ko-Yevrciski  Ai'khiv,  i..  No.  97;  ii..  No.  KR);  iii., 
Nos.  60,  71, 84 ;  B.  O.  Lewanda,  Shorn ik  Zakonov.  Nos. .');{,  43, 
3.59:  Fuenn,  Kirjiah  Ne'cmnnalu  I>P-  14,  3;i5,  Wilna,  1S60; 
Guiiand,  Le-Korot  }ta-(icze.rnt  bc-Visracl.  iv.  .34;  Eisen- 
stadt-Wiener.  7->aV(<  Kedoshim,  p.  16,  St.  Petersburg?,  1897- 
1898;  Eisenstadt,  liablMnaw  wa-Sofcraw.  iii.  5-38,  iv.  39; 
Waldcn,  Shcni  ha-Ocdolim  }ic-Hadaish,  p.  75. 
II.  K.  A.  S.  AV.-P.  Wi. 

coiHiiunlaior on  the  Bible;  lived  at,  Poland, 
in  the  eighteenth  century.  He  wrote  commentaries 
on  four  books  of  the  Old  Testament,  as  follows: 
"Shebet  mi-Yehudah"  (Wilna,  1803),  on  Proverbs; 
"Derek  ha-Melek  "  (Grodno,  1804),  on  Canticles;  a 
commentary  on  Ecclesiastes  (rt.  1804);  an(l"Gibe'at 
Pinehas  "  ( Wilna,  1808),  on  the  Book  of  Job.  Other 
works  by  him  are:  an  extract,  which  he  entitled 
"Kizzur  Eben  Bohan "  {if>.  1799),  from  the  great 
work  of  Kalonymus  b.  Kalonymus;  "  Rosh  ha- 
Gibe'ah"  (ib.  1820),  in  two  sections,  the  first  treat- 




ing  of  morals  and  asceticism,  and  tlie  second  con- 
taining sermons  on  the  Four  Parasliiyyot;  and 
"Maggid  Zedek,"  on  the  613  commandments,  wliich 
work  is  still  unpublished. 

BinuoGRAPHY  :  Fiirst,  TiihJ.  Jud.  111.  Ill;  Benjacob,  (hfariia- 
Sefarim,  p.  3,  No.  5,  ct  passim. 
K.  C.  8.   O. 

POLTAVA  :  Government  of  Little  Russia,  which 
came  under  Russian  domination  in  1764,  and  whose 
present  organization  was  established  in  1802.  It  has 
a  Jewish  population  of  111,417,  the  total  population 
being  2,780,427  (census  of  1897).  See  table  at  end  of 

Poltava :  Capital  of  the  above-named  govern- 
ment. It  had  a  small  Jewish  community,  almost 
entirely  Hasidic,  before  Jews  from  Lithuania,  Po- 
land, and  other 
parts  of  Russia 
began  to  arrive 
there  in  larger 
numbers  after 
the  great "  Ilyin- 
skaya"  fair  had 
been  transferred 
to  that  city  from 
Romny  in  1852. 
A  Sabbath-  and 
for  Jewish  ap- 
prentices was  es- 
tablished there 
in  1861  ("Ha- 
Karmel,"  Rus- 
sian Supple- 
ment, 1861,  Nos. 
46-47).  Aaron 
Zeitlin  then  held 
the  position  of 
"  learned  Jew  " 
under  the  gov- 
ernor of  Poltava. 

dim,  or  Mitnag- 
gedim,  soon  in- 
creased in  num- 
bers, and  erected 
a  synagogue 
for  themselves 
about  1870.  In  1863  Aryeh  LOb  Seidener  (b.  1838; 
d.  in  Poltava  Feb.  24,  1886)  became  the  govern- 
ment rabbi,  and  during  the  twenty-three  years  in 
which  he  held  the  position  he  was  instrumental  in 
establishing  various  educational  and  benevolent  in- 
stitutions and  in  infusing  the  modern  spirit  into  the 
community.  He  was  assisted  in  his  efforts  by  the 
teachers  Michael  Zerikower,  Eliczer  Hayyim  Rosen- 
berg, Abraham  Nathansohn,  and  other  progressive 
men.  In  1890  Aaron  Gleizer,  son-in-law  of  Lazar 
Zweifel,  was  chosen  to  succeed  Seidener.  Eliezer 
AkibahRabinovich(b.  Shilel,  government  of  Kovno, 
May  13,  1862),  whose  project  of  holding  a  rabbinical 
conference  in  Grodno  in  1903  aroused  intense  oppo- 
sition, has  been  rabbi  of  Poltava  since  1893.  One  of 
the  assistant  rabbis,  Jacob  IMordecai  Bezjialov, 
founded  a  yeshibah  there.  Poltava  has  a  Talmud 
Torah  for  boys  (250  pupils),  with  a  trade-school  con- 

Synagogue  at  Poltava,  Russia. 

(From  a  photogrnph.) 

nected  witli  it,  and  a  corresponding  institution  for 
girls.  Ithasa  Jewisii  home  for  the  aged  (16inmiite8 
in  1897),  u  Hebrew  literary  society,  and  soverul  churi- 
table  and  Zionist  organizations.  The  most  promi- 
nent among  tlie  Maskilim  or  progressive  HcIikw 
scholars  who  have  resided  in  Poltava  was  Ezckitl  b. 
Joseph  Mandelstamm  (born  in  Zhagory,  government 
of  Kovno.  in  1812;  died  in  Poltava  April  13,  IM'JI). 
author  of  the  Rii)liealonomastieon"()/.ariia-.Slii-in<it" 
(War.'^aw,  1889).  with  a  "Sefer  lm-Miilu'lm,"or  sup- 
plement,  which  was  printed  posllnim  "  '  ,  IR94. 
He  was  the  father  of  Dr.  Ma.x   Man.  mm  of 

Kiev.  Michel  Gordon's  well-known  YiddiHli  song 
beginning  "Ihr  seit  doch,  Reb  Yud.  in  Poltava 
gewen  "  is  a  humorous  allusion  to  the  moral  pitfalls 
in  the  way  of  pious  Jews  of  the  older  Polish  com- 

m  u  u  i  t  i  e  K  w  h  o 
settled  in  the  lib- 
eral-minded Pol- 
tava. The  wri- 
ter Alexander 
SQsskind  Rubi- 
novich,  A.  M. 
Borucljov  (con- 
tributor to  "Ha- 
Shilouh "),  and 
Benzion  MirkiD 
(journalist)  are 
residents  of  Pol- 
tava. Among 
the  prominent 
Jews  of  Poltava 
in  early  times 
were  the  fami- 
lies of  Zelcnski. 
Portugalov,  and 
The  city  has  a 
total  ))0|)ulation 
of  53.060,  of 
whom  7,600  are 

K  r  e  m  e  n  - 
tchug' :  City  in 
the  government 
of  Poltava,  on 
the  left  bank  of 
the  Dnieper.  It 
now  (1905)includes  the  suburb  of  Kryukov  on  the  op- 
posite bank,  and  has  the  largest  Jewish  community  in 
thegovernment,35,179—orabout  60  per  cent  of  the  to- 
tal population  of  the  city  (1897).  It  was  the  first  of 
the  important  cities  of  southwestern  Russia  to  which 
Jews  from  Lithuania  and  Poland  began  to  flock 
about  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century.  Even  in 
the  calamitous  years  1881-82,  when  anti-Jewish  riots 
occurred  in  the  government  of  Poltava,  numer- 
ous Jews  from  other  places  went  to  Krcmentohug. 
where  the  local  Jewish  community  raised  for  them  a 
relief  fund  of  about  40.000  rubles. 

R.  Isaac  of  Krementchug.  who  died  there  Dec.. 
1833,  was  among  the  earliest  Hasidim  of  that  city. 
Ne.xt  in  importance  was  Abraham  Fradkin  '    m 

Jacob  Lapin  addressed  a  letter  which  n;  .  in 

his    "Reset    ha-Sofer."    pp.    11-12,    Berlin.    1857). 
Other    prominent  men  in  tlic  Jewish  community 




were:  Lipavski,  Zlatopolski.  Michael  Ladyzhenski. 
Sergei  (Sbmere)  Roseuthal,  David  Sack  (son  of 
Hayyitn  Sack  of  Zliagory),  and  Solomon,  Marcus, 
and  Vasili  Rosenthal. 

Among  those  who  went  to  Krcmentcluig  in  1864 
was  Herman  Rosenthal,  who  established  a  printing- 
office  there  in  1869,  and  organized  a  circle  of  Maski- 
lim,  among  whom  were  Eliezer  Schulmanx,  J. 
S.  Olschwaxg,  L.  and  M.  Jakobovich,  and  M.  Sil- 
berberg  (see  Zedcrbaum,  "Massa  Erez,'"  in  "Ha- 
Meliz,"  1869,  No.  1).  Rosenthal  published  the  first 
work  of  M.  Morgulis  on  the  Jewish  question,  "So- 
braniye  Statci  "  (1869),  the  first  almanac  of  Kremen- 
tchug,  and  many  other  works.  He  was  for  eight 
years  a  member  of  the  city  council  (1870-78),  and  it 
was  owing  to  his  efforts  that  the  Realnoye  Uchi- 
lishche  (Realgymnasium)  was  built  in  1872.  The 
best-known  rabbi  of  Krementchug  was  Joseph  b. 
Elijah  Tumarkin,  who  died  there  in  1875.  After  his 
death  the  Mitnaggedim  elected  Meir  LOb  Malbim  as 
rabbi,  but  he  died  while  on  his  way  to  assiune  the 
position  (Sept.,  1879),  and  the  candidate  of  the  Hasi- 
dim  of  Lubavich,  Ilirsch  Tumarkin,  the  brother  and 
son-in-law  of  Meir's  predecessor,  was  elected  to  the 
position.  The  government  rabbis  were  Freidus 
(1865),  Mochan  (1867-71),  a  son-in-law  of  Seidener 
of  Melitopol,  Ch.  Berliner,  and  Freidenberg(whowas 
reelected  in  1899).  The  present  (1905)  rabbi  is  Isaac 
Joel  Raphalovich. 

Krementchug  has  numerous  synagogues  and  the 
usual  educational  and  charitable  institutions,  in- 
cluding a  Talmud  Torali,  with  a  trade-school  in 
connection  with  it,  founded  by  Mendel  Seligman ; 
a  hospital,  with  a  home  for  aged  persons  ("Ila- 
Meliz,"  1890,  No.  139);  the  society  Maskil  el  Dal 
(founded  1898);  and  several  Zionist  organizations. 
It  is  the  most  important  business  and  industrial 
center  in  the  government. 

About  a  dozen  other  cities  and  towns  in  the  govern- 
ment of  Poltava  contain  Jewish  communities,  those 
of  Pereyaslavl  and  Romny  being  among  the  largest. 

BiBLioGRAPnr :  Keneset  Tisrael,  1. 1124 ;  Ha-Meliz,  1883,  No. 
96  ;  1890,  No.  7  ;  Ha-Shahar.  vl.  215-218,  ix.  183  ct  ticq.;  Eisen- 
stadt-Wiener,  Da'at  Kedbshim,  p.  26,  St.  Petersburg,  1897-98 ; 
Ha^a^efirah,  1897,  No.  H. 
H.  R.  P.    Wl. 

Population  op  Poltava  Government  in  1897. 

















Total  in  government, 













H.  R.  V.    R. 

POLYGAMY  :    The  fact  or  condition  of  having 
more  than  one  wife  or  husband  at  a  time;  usually, 

the  practise  of  having  a  plurality  of  wives.  While 
there  is  no  evidence  of  a  polyandrous  state  in  prim- 
itive Jewish  society,  polygamy  seems  to  have  been 
a  well  established  institution,  dating  from  the  most 
ancient  times  and  extending  to  comparatively  mod- 
ern days.  The  Law  indeed  regulated  and  limited 
this  usage;  and  the  Prophets  and  the  scribes  looked 
upon  it  with  disfavor.  Still  all  had  to  recognize 
its  existence,  and  not  until  late  was  it  completely 
abolished.  At  no  time,  however,  was  it  practised  so 
much  among  the  Israelites  as  among  otlicr  nations; 
and  the  tendency  in  Jewish  social  life  was  always 
toward  ^ 

That  the  ideal  state  of  human  society,  in  the  mind 
of  the  primitive  Israelite,  was  a  monogamous  one  is 
clearly  evinced  by  the  fact  that  the  first  man 
(Adam)  was  given  only  one  wife,  and  that  the  first 
instance  of  bigamy  occurred  in  the  family  of  the 
cursed  Cain  (Gen.  iv.  19).  Noah  and  his  sons  also 
are  recorded  as  having  only  one  wife  each  {ib. 
vi.  7,  13).  Abraham  had  only  one  wife;  and  he 
was  persuaded  to  marry  his  slave  Hagar  {ib.  .\vi.  2, 
3;  see  Pii.egesh)  only  at  the  urgent  request  of  his 
wife,  who  deemed  herself  barren.  Isaac  had  only 
one  wife.  Jacob  married  two  sisters,  because  he 
was  deceived  by  his  father-in-law,  Laban  {ib.  xxix. 
23-30).  He,  too,  married  his  wives'  slaves  at  the  re- 
quest of  his  wives,  who  wished  to  have  children  {ib. 
XXX.  4,  9).  The  sons  of  Jacob  as  well  as  Moses  and 
Aaron  seem  to  have  lived  in  monogamy.  Among 
the  Judges,  however,  polygamy  was  practised,  as 
it  Avas  also  among  the  rich  and  the  nobility  (Judges 
viii.  30;  comp.  ib.  xii.  9,  14;  I  Chron.  ii.  26,  iv.  5, 
viii.  8).  Elkanah,  the  father  of  Samuel,  had  two 
wives,  probably  because  the  first  (Hannah)  was 
childless  (I  Sam.  i.  2).  The  tribe  of  Issachar  was 
noted  for  its  practise  of  polygamy  (I  Chron.  vii.  4). 
Caleb  had  two  concubines  {ib.  ii.  46,  48).  David 
and  Solomon  had  many  wives  (II  Sam.  v.  13 ;  I  Kings 
xi.  1-3),  a  custom  which  was  probablj'  followed 
by  all  the  later  kings  of  Judah  and  of  Israel  (comp. 
I  Kings  XX.  3;  also  the  fact  that  the  names  of 
the  mothers  of  most  of  the  kings  are  mentioned). 
Jehoiada  gave  to  Joash  two  wives  only  (II  Chron. 
xxiv.  3). 

There  is  no  Biblical  evidence  that  any  of  the  Proph- 
ets lived  in  polygamy.    Monogamous  marriage  was 
used  by  them  as  a  s^'mbol  of  the  union 
Prophetic    of  God  with  Israel,  while  polj'gamy 

Attitude,  was  compared  to  polytheism  or  idola- 
trous worship  (Hos.  ii.  18;  Isa.  1.  1; 
Jer.  ii.  2;  Ezek.  xvi.  8).  The  last  chapter  of  Prov- 
erbs, which  is  a  description  of  the  purity  of  home 
life,  points  to  a  state  of  monogamy.  The  marriage 
with  one  wife  thus  became  the  ideal  form  with  the 
great  majority  of  the  people;  and  in  post-exilic 
times  polygamy  formed  the  rare  exception  (Tobit  i. 
10;  Susanna  63;  Matt.  xvii.  25,  xix.  9;  Luke  i.  5). 
Herod,  however,  is  recorded  as  having  had  nine 
wives  (Josephus,  "Ant."  xvii.  1,  §  3). 

The  Mosaic  law,  while  permitting  polygamy,  in- 
troduced many  provisions  which  tended  to  confine 
it  to  narrower  limits,  and  to  lessen  the  abuse  that 
might  arise  in  connection  with  it.  The  Israelitish 
woman  slave  who  was  taken  as  a  wife  by  the  son  of 
her  master  was  entitled  to  all  the  rights  of  matri- 




mony  (see  Hcsbaxd  and  Wife),  even  after  he  had 
taken  another  wife ;  and  if  they  were  withheld  from 
her,  she  had  to  be  set  free  (Ex.  xxi.  9-11;  see 
Slaves).  One  who  lived  in  bigamy  might  not  show 
his  preference  for  the  children  of  the  more  favored 
wife  by  depriving  the  first-born  son  of  the  less 
favored  one  of  his  rights  of  inheritance  (Deut.  xxi. 
15-17;  see  Inheritance).  The  king  should  not 
"multiply  wives"  (j'6.  xvii.  17;  comp.  Sanh.  21a, 
where  the  number  is  limited  to  IS,  24,  or  48,  accord- 
ing to  the  various  interpretations  given  to  II  Sam. 
xii.  8);  and  the  high  priest  is,  according  to  the  rab- 
binic interpretation  of  Lev.  xxi.  13,  commanded  to 
take  one  wife  only  (Yeb.  59a;  comp.  Yoma  2a). 

The  same  feeling  against  polygamy  existed  in 
later  Talmudic  times.  Of  all  the  rabbis  named  in 
the  Talmud  there  is  not  one  who  is  mentioned  as 

having  lived  in  polygamy.     The  gen- 
Rabbinic     eral  sentiment   against    polygamy   is 
Aversion     illustrated  in   a  story  related  of    the 
to  son  of  R.    Judah  ha-Nasi  (Ket.  62a). 

Polygamy.  A  peculiar   passage   in    the  Targum 

(Aramaic  paraphrase)  to  Ituth  iv.  6 
points  to  the  same  state  of  popular  feeling.  The 
kinsman  of  Elimelech,  being  requested  by  Boaz 
to  marry  Ruth,  said,  "I  can  not  redeem;  for  I 
have  a  wife  and  have  no  right  to  take  another  in 
addition  to  her,  lest  she  be  a  disturbance  in  my 
house  and  destroy  my  peace.  Redeem  thou ;  for 
thou  hast  no  wife."  This  is  corroborated  by  R. 
Isaac,  Avho  says  that  the  wife  of  Boaz  died  on  the 
day  when  Ruth  entered  Palestine  (B.  B.  91a).  Po- 
lygamy was,  however,  sanctioned  by  Jewish  law  and 
gave  rise  to  many  rabbinical  discussions.  While 
one  rabbi  says  that  a  man  may  take  as  many  wives 
as  he  can  support  (Raba,  in  Y'eb.  65a),  it  was  recom- 
mended that  no  one  should  marry  more  than  four 
women  (ib.  44a).  R.  Ami  was  of  the  opinion  that  a 
woman  had  a  right  to  claim  a  bill  of  divorce  if  her 
husband  took  another  wife  (ib.  65a).  The  institu- 
tion of  the  Ketubah,  which  was  introduced  by  the 
Rabbis,  still  further  discouraged  polygamy ;  and 
subsequent  enactments  of  the  Geonim  (see  Mviller's 
"Mafteah,"  p.  282,  Berlin,  1891)  tended  to  restrict 
this  usage. 

An  express  prohibition  against  polygamy  was 
pronounced  by  R.  Gershom  b.  Judah,  "the  Light  of 

"the  Exile  "  (960-1028),  which  was  soon 

Rabbi       accepted  in   all   the  communities  of 

Gershom's   northern  France  and  of  Germany.    The 

Decree.       Jews  of  Spain  and  of  Italy  as  well  as 

those  of  the  Orient  continued  to  prac- 
tise polygamy  for  a  long  period  after  that  time,  al- 
though the  influence  of  the  prohibition  was  felt  even 
in  those  countries.  Some  authorities  suggested  that 
R.  Gershom's  decree  was  to  be  enforced  for  a  time 
only,  namely,  up  to  5000  a.m.  (1240  c.e.  ;  Joseph 
Colon,  Responsa,  Xo.  101;  see  Shulhan  'Aruk,  Eben 
ha-'Ezer,  i.  10,  Isserles'  gloss),  probably  believing 
that  the  Messiah  would  appear  before  that  time ;  but 
this  opinion  was  overruled  by  that  of  the  majority 
of  medieval  Jewish  rabbis.  Even  in  the  Orient  mon- 
ogamy soon  became  the  rule  and  polygamy  the  ex- 
ception ;  for  only  the  wealthy  could  afford  the  lux- 
ury of  many  wives.  In  Africa,  where  Mohammedan 
influence  w^as  strongest,  the  custom  was  to  include 

in  the  marriage  contract  the  following  paragraph: 
"The  said  bridegroom  .  .  .  hereby  proniiws  that 
he  will  not  take  a  second  wife  during  ;hc  lifetime 
of  the  said  bride  .  .  .  except  with  her  consent;  and, 
if  he  this  oath  and  t  /  .1  wife 

during  the  lifetime  of  the  saiil  bri.  iit  her 

consent,  he  shall  give  her  every  tittle  of  what  is 
written  in  the  marriage  settlement,  r  '  r  with 
all  the  voluntary  additions  Jicrtin  d-  javiug 

all  to  her  up  to  the  last  farthing,  and  he  shall  free 
her  by  regular  divorce  instantly  and  with  fitting 
solemnity."  This  condition  was  rigidly  enforced 
by  the  rabbinic  authorities  (see  Abrahams,  "Jewish 
Life  in  the  Middle  Ages,"  p.  120). 

The  Jews  of   Spain   practised  polygamy  as  late 

as  the  fourteenth  century.      The  only  requirement 

there  was  a  special  permit,  for  which  a  certain  sum 

was  probably   paid  into  the    king's 

Later        treasury  each    time  a  Jew   took  an 

Instances,  additional  wife  (Jacobs,  "Sources."  p. 
XXV.,  No.  104,  London,  1894;.  Such 
cases,  however,  were  rare  exceptions.  The  Span- 
ish Jews,  as  well  as  their  brethren  in  Italy  and  in 
the  Orient,  soon  gave  up  these  practises;  and  to- 
day, although  the  Jews  of  the  East  live  under  Mo- 
hanmiedan  rule,  but  few  cases  of  polygamy  are 
found  among  them. 

In  some  exceptional  cases  bigamy  was  -.-d 

(see  Bigamy)  ;  but  this  was  in  very  rare  <  ly, 

and  the  consent  of  100  learned  men  of  three  dif- 
ferent states  was  required  (see  Insanity).  While 
in  the  case  of  the  'Agunah  one  witness  who  tes- 
tifies to  the  death  of  her  husband  is  sufficient  to 
permit  the  woman  to  remarry,  in  the  case  of  the 
woman's  disappearance  some  authorities  ("Bet 
Shemuel"  on  Eben  ha-*Ezer,  158,  1;  15,  20)  are  of 
the  opinion  that  the  testimony  of  one  witness  is  not 
sufficient  to  permit  the  husband  to  remarry  (see 
Fassel,  "Mishpete  El;  Das  Mosaisch-Rabbinische 
Civilrecht,"  §§  63,  112,  Xagy-Kanizsa,  1852).  Later 
authorities,  however,  permit  him  to  remarry  even 
when  there  is  only  one  witness  to  testify  to  the 
death  of  his  wife,  and  even  when  that  witness  did 
not  know  her  personally,  providing  that  after  he  had 
described  the  deceased  woman  the  husband  recog- 
nized the  description  as  that  of  his  wife  ("  Noda' 
Bihudah,"  series  ii.,  Eben  ha-'Ezer,  7,  8;  comp. 
"Hatam  Sofer"  on  Eben  ha-'Ezer,  responsum  2; 
"Pithe  Teshubah"  on  Eben  ha-'Ezer.  1,  10). 

In  spite  of  the  prohibition  against  polygamy  and 

of  the  general  acceptance  thereof,  the  Jewish  law 

still    retains    many   provisions    which  apply  only 

to  a  state  which  permits  polygamy. 

Survivals     The   marriage   of  a   married   man   is 
of  legally  valid  and  needs  the  formality 

Polygamy,  of  a  bill  of  divorce  for  its  dissolution, 
while  the  marriage  of  a  married  woman 
is  void  and  has  no  binding  force  (El)en  ha  Ezir,  1. 
10;  comp.  "Pithe  Teshubah,"  §  20,  where  is  quoted 
the  opinion  of  some  authorities  that  after  a  man  takes 
a  second  wife  he  is  not  compelled  to  divorce  hcrV 
The  Reform  rabbis  in  conference  assembled  (Phila 
delphia,  1869)  decided  that  "then  '      "    ir- 

ried  man  to  a  second  woman  can  ;  .>  e 

nor  claim  religious  validity,  just  as  little  as  the 
marriage  of  a  married  woman  to  another  man,  but. 

Polyglot  Bible 



like  this,  is  null  and  void  from  the  beginning."  Still, 
with  the  majority  of  Jews,  this  is  not  even  an  open 
question,  and  the  marriage  of  a  married  man  is  con- 
sidered just  as  valid  as  that  of  an  unmarried  man; 
it  not  only  requires  the  formality  of  divorce  in  the 
case  of  separation,  but  also  makes  him  subject  to  the 
laws  of  relationship;  so  that  he  can  not  afterward 
marry  the  wife's  sister  while  the  wife  is  living,  nor 
can  he  or  his  near  relatives,  according  to  the  laws 
of  consanguinity,  enter  into  matrimonial  relations 
•with  any  of  her  near  relatives  (see  Makuiage). 

Bibliography:  Hastings.  Dic(.  Bible,  s.v.  Marriage:  Ham- 
burger, R.  B.  T.,  s.v.  Vielweiherei;  Frankel,  Grundlitiien 
des  Mosaixch-Talmudiselun  Eherechts.  Breslau.  18tiU;  Lkh- 
tenstein.  Die  Ehe  nach  Mo!<ai.'ich-Talmudi,'icher  Atiffassuitu, 
lb.  1879;  Klugman,  Stellung  dcr  Frau  im  TaUimd,  Vienna, 
1898;  Rabbinowicz,  Meho  ha-Talmitd,  Hebr.  transl.,  p.  80, 
Wilna,18iH;  Buchholz,  Z>i«  Faun! if,  Breslau,  1867;  Mielziner, 
Tlie  Jeiciifh  Law  of  Marriage  iind  Divorce,  Cincinnati,  1884 ; 
Duscbak,  Das  Mosaisch-Talinudische  Eherecht,  Vienna, 
E.  c.  J.  H.  G. 

POLYGLOT  BIBLE.     See  Bible  Editions. 

POMEGRANATE  (pDI :  Punica  Granatum): 
A  tree  of  the  myrtle  family.  The  pomegranate  was 
carried  into  Egypt  in  very  early  historic  times 
(comp.  Num.  xx.  5),  and  was  also  cultivated  in  Pal- 
estine, Assyria,  and  most  of  the  countries  bordering 
the  Mediterranean.  The  spies  brought  pomegran- 
ates, grapes,  and  figs  as  signs  of  the  fertility  of 
Canaan  (ib.  xiii.  23).  Several  Biblical  passages  in- 
dicate that  the  pomegranate  was  among  the  com- 
mon fruit-trees  of  the  country  (Deut.  viii.  8;  Joel  i. 
12;  Hag.  ii.  19).  A  famous  pomegranate-tree  grew 
at  Gibeah  in  the  time  of  Saul  (I  Sam.  xiv.  2).  Pome- 
granate-groves, as  well  as  the  beautiful  tlowerof  the 
tree,  are  mentioned  in  the  Song  of  Solomon ;  and  the 
fruit  furnishes  similes  (Cant.  iv.  3,  13;  vi.  7,  11;  vii. 
13).  The  pomegranate  was  used  in  art.  The  two 
pillars,  Jachin  and  Boaz,  were  ornamented  with  a 
representation  of  it  (I  Kings  vii.  18);  and  pomegran- 
ates were  embroidered  on  the  garment  of  the  high 
priest  (Ex.  xxviii.  33). 

Throughout  the  East  the  pomegranate  is  the  sym- 
bol of  luxuriant  fertility  and  of  life.  Pomegranates 
are  eaten  raw,  their  acid  juice  being  most  refreshing 
(comp.  Cant.  iv.  3).  They  are  also  dried  (comp. 
Ma'as.  i.  6).  The  juice  mixed  with  water  is  to-day 
a  favorite  drink  in  the  East;  in  former  times  it  was 
also  prepared  as  a  kind  of  wine  (Cant.  viii.  2;  Pliny, 
"Hist.  Naturalis,"  xiv.  19). 

E.  Q.  H.  I.   Be. 

POMIS,  DE  (D'nisnn  p) :  An  old  Italian  Jew- 
ish family  which  claimed  descent  from  King  David. 
According  to  a  legend,  reproduced  by  De  Pomis  in 
the  introduction  to  his  lexicon  "Zemah  Dawid,"  the 
Pomeria  family  was  one  of  the  four  families  brought 
from  Jerusalem  to  Rome  by  Titus.  The  family  is  a' 
most  important  one,  being  related  to  that  of  Anaw. 
Members  of  the  family  are  said  to  have  lived  in  Rome 
until  about  1100,  when  they  emigrated,  scattering 
through  Italy.  Most  of  them  settled  at  Spoleto  in 
Umbria,  where,  according  to  the  account  of  David 
de  Pomis,  they  and  their  descendants  remained  for 
420  years;  but  when  Central  Italy  was  sacked  by 
the  army  of  Charles  V.  of  Spain  in  1527,  the  family 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy  and  lost  its  entire 
property.      In   the  introduction   to  his   dictionary 

David  de  Pomis  incorporates  his  autobiography,  and 
traces  his  genealogy  back  to  the  martyr  Elijah  de 
Pomis,  as  follows:  David  (b.  1525),  Isaac,  Eleazar, 
Isaac,  Abraham,  Menahem,  Isaac,  Obadiah,  Isaac, 
and  Elijah.  This  would  set  the  date  of  Elijah  at 
approximately  1270,  which  is  historically  correct. 
As  the  last-named  lived  at  Rome,  however,  the 
statement  that  the  family  left  that  city  about  1100 
can  not  be  correct.  Moreover,  members  of  the 
family  did  not  live  420  years,  but  only  220  years, 
at  Spoleto. 

Bibliography:  David  de  Pomis, ?<'mo?iDawid,Introductlon; 
Nepi-(ihirondi,  Toledot  Gedole  I'isrocf,  p.  84;  Vogelstein 
and  Rieger,  Gesch.  dcr  Juden  in  Rom,  i.  257. 

G.  I.  E. 

David  ben  Isaac  de  Pomis  :  Italian  physician 
and  philosopher;  born  at  Spoleto,  Umbria,  in  1525; 
died  after  1593.  When  David  was  born  his  father 
was  rich ;  but  soon  after,  he  lost  his  fortune  in  the 
following  manner:  When  the  Imperialists  plundered 
Rome,  Isaac,  fearing  that  they  would  attack  Spo- 
leto, sent  all  his  possessions  to  Camerino  and  Civita. 
The  troops  of  Colonna  surprised  the  convoy  on  its 
way,  and  confiscated  all  of  Isaac's  goods.  He  then 
settled  at  Bevegna,  where  David  received  his  early 
education.  In  1532  Isaac  de  Pomis  settled  at  Todi 
and  confided  the  instruction  of  his  son  to  his  uncles 
Jehiel  Alatino  and  Moses  Alatino,  who  taught 
the  boy  the  rudiments  of  medicine  and  philos- 

David  was  graduated,  Nov.  27,  1551,  as  "  Artium 
et  Medicinaj  Doctor  "  at  the  University  of  Perugia. 
Later  he  settled  at  Magliano,  where  he  practised 
medicine,  holding  at  the  same  time  the  position  of 
rabbi.  The  anti-Jewish  laws  enacted  by  Paul  IV. 
deprived  David  of  his  possessions  and  likewise  of 
his  rabbinate;  and  he  entered  the  service  of  Count 
Nicolo  Orsini,  and  five  years  later  that  of  the  Sforza 

The  condition  of  the  Jews  of  the  Pontifical  States 
having  improved  on  the  accession  of  Pius  IV.,  David 
went  to  Rome,  and,  as  the  result  of  a  Latin  dis- 
course delivered  before  the  pope  and  cardinals,  ob- 
tained permission  to  settle  at  Chiusi  and  to  practise 
his  profession  among  Christians.  Unfortunately, 
Pius  IV.  died  seven  days  later,  and  the  permission 
was  annulled  by  Pius  V.  David  then  went  to 
Venice,  where  a  new  permission  was  granted  to  him 
by  Pope  Sixtus  V. 

De  Pomis  was  the  author  of  the  following  works: 
(1)  "Zemah  Dawid,"  a  Hebrew  and  Aramaic  dic- 
tionary dedicated  to  Pope  Sixtus  V.,  the  words 
being  explained  in  Latin  and  Italian.  Venice,  1587. 
This  dictionary,  variously  estimated  by  the  lexicolo- 
gists (comp.  Richard  Simon  in  the  appendix  to 
"  De  Ceremoniis  Judteorum  "  ;  David  de  Lara  in  the 
introduction  to  "  'Ir  Dawid "),  was  modeled  after 
Jehiel's  lexicographical  work,  '"Aruk."  (2)  "Ko- 
helet,"  the  Book  of  Ecclesiastes  translated  into  Ital- 
ian, with  explanatory  notes,  ib.  1571,  dedicated  to 
Cardinal  Griinani.  (3)  •'Discorsolntornoall' Umana 
]\Iisena,  c  Sopra  il  Modo  di  Fuggirla,"  published  as 
an  appendix  to  "Kohelet,"  ib.  1572,  and  dedicated 
to  Duchess  Margarete  of  Savoy  (David  also  trans- 
lated the  books  of  Job  and  Daniel ;  but  these  were 
never  published).     (4)  "Brevi  Discorsi  et  Eficacis- 



Polyglot  Bible 

simi  liicordi  per  Liberaie  O^^ui  Citti  Oppressa  dal 
Mai  Contagioso,"  ib.  1577.  (5)  "Euarratio  Brevis  de 
Senum  Allectibus  Pra*caveudis  Atque  Curaudis" 
dedicated  to  tlie  doge  aud  senate  of  Venice,  ib.  1588. 
(6)  A  work  on  the  divine  character  of  the  Venetian 
republic,  which  he  cites  in  Ins  "Enarratio  Brevis," 
but  which  has  not  been  preserved.  (7)  "  De  Medico 
Hebra;o  Enarratio  Apoiogica,"  ib.  1588.  Thisapolo- 
getical  work,  which  defends  not  only  phy- 
sicians, but  Jews  in  general  (see  some  extracts  trans- 
lated in  Winter  and  Wiinsche,  "Die  Jiidische 
Litteratur,"  iii.  698  et  seq.),  earned  much  praise  from 
Roman  patricians,  such  as  Aldus  Manutius  the 
Younger,  whose  letter  of  commendation  is  prefixed 
to  the  book. 

BiBLiocJRAPHY  :  Wolf,  Bihl.  Hehr.  1.  311-313;  Jost,  Annalen, 
1839.  p.  ~£i ;  Griitz.  Gescli.ix.  504  ;  II  ViasilU)  Israeliticii,  1875, 
p.  175;  1876,  p.  319;  Berliner's  Magazin,  187.5,  p.  48;  Steln- 
schnelder,  Jeivish  Literature,  p.  335;  idem,  in  Monats- 
schrift,  xllli.  32;  Dukes,  in  R.E.J.  I.  14.5-152;  Vo(?elstein 
and  Hieger,  Gesch.  der  Juden  in  Rom,  11.259-260;  Carmoly, 
Histoire  des  Medecins  Juifs,  1.  150-153. 
Q.  I.  Br. 

Elijah  de  Pomis  :  Rabbi  and  director  of  the 
community  of  Rome;  died  as  a  martyr  Tammuz  20, 
5058  (=  July  1,  1398).  When  the  Roman  commu- 
nity was  assailed  under  Boniface  VIII.,  Elijah  was 
the  first  to  be  seized.  To  save  his  coreligionists  he 
pleaded  guilty  to  all  the  charges  brought  against 
him,  and  was  sentenced  to  trial  by  fire  and  water, 
perishing  in  the  former,  whereupon  the  confiscation 
of  his  property,  the  principal  object  of  the  trial,  was 
carried  out.  Two  anon^'mous  elegies  were  com- 
posed on  his  death. 

BiBLiORRAPHY :  Kobe^  'al  Yad,  iv.  30  et  seq.;  Berliner,  Qesch. 
der  Juden  in  Rom,  11.  57 ;  Vogelsteln  and  Rieger,  Gesch. 
der  Juden  in  Rom,  i.  257. 

Moses  de   Porais  and  Vitale  de  Pomis  were 

known  under  the  name  Alatino. 

G.  I.  E. 

POMPEY  THE  GREAT  (Latin,  Cneius 
Pompeius  Magnus)  :  Roman  general  who  sub- 
jected Judea  to  Rome.  In  the  year  65  B.C.,  diiring 
his  victorious  campaign  through  Asia  Minor,  he  sent 
to  Syria  his  legate  Scaurus,  who  was  soon  obliged 
to  interfere  in  the  quarrels  of  the  two  brothers 
Aristobulus  II.  and  Hyrcanus  II.  When  Pompey 
himself  came  to  Syria,  two  years  later,  the  rivals, 
knowing  that  the  Romans  were  as  rapacious  as  they 
were  brave,  hastened  to  send  presents.  Pompey 
gradually  approached  Judea,  however;  and  in  the 
spring  of  63,  at  the  Lebanon,  he  subdued  the  petty 
rulers,  including  the  Jew  Silas  (Josephus,  "Ant.'' 
xiv.  3,  ^  2)  and  a  certain  Bacchius  Judaeus,  whose 
subjugation  is  represented  on  a  coin  (Reinach,  "Les 
Monnaies  Juives,"  p.  28).  Pompey  then  came  to 
Damascus,  where  the  claims  of  the  three  parties  to 
the  strife  were  presented  for  his  consideration — those 
of  Hyrcanus  and  Aristobulus  in  person,  since  the 
haughty  Roman  thus  exacted  homage  from  the  Ju- 
dean  princes,  while  a  third  claimant  represented  the 
people,  who  desired  not  a  ruler  but  a  theocratic  re- 
public (Josephus,  §  2;  Diodorus,  xl.  2).  Pompey, 
however,  deferred  his  decision  until  he  should  have 
subdued  the  Nabataeans. 

The  warlike  Aristobulus,  who  suspected  the  de- 
signs of  the  Romans,  retired  to  the  fortress  of  Alex- 
ANDRiuM  and  resolved  to  offer  armed  resistance;  but 

at  the  demand  of  Pompey  he  surrendered  the  for- 
tress and  went  to  JerusaltMn.  intending  to  continue 
his  opposition  there  (Josepims,  "Ant."  xiv.  3,  ^4; 
idem,  " B.  J."  i.  0,  $§  4.  5).  Pompey  followed  him 
by  way  of  Jericho,  and  as  Aristobulus  ajjuin  deemed 
it  advisable  to  surrender  to  the  Romans.  Pompey 
sent  his  legate  Gabinius  to  take  posHc-ssiou  of  the 
city  of  Jerusalem. 

This  lieutenant  found,  however,  lliut  there  were 
other  defenders  there  besides  Aristobulus.  where- 
upon Pompey  declared  Ari-stobulus  a  prisoner  aud 
began  to  besiege  the  city.  Although  the  parly 
of  Hyrcanus  opened  the  gates  to  tlie  Romans,  tlie 
Temple  mount,  which  was  garrisoned  by  the  peo- 
ple's party,  liad  to  be  taken  i)y  means  of  rams 
brought  from  Tyre;  and  it  was  stormed  only  after  a 
siege  of  three  months,  anil  then  on  a  Sabbutli,  .vhen 
the  Jews  were  not  defending  the  walls.  Josephus 
calls  the  day  of  the  fall  of  Jerusalem  "the  day  of 
the  fast"  {vriareiw:  ij/tifja-  "Ant."  xiv.  4,  ^  8);  but  in 
this  he  merely  followed  the  phraseology  of  his  Gen- 
tile sources,  which  regarded  the  Sabbath  as  u  fast- 
day,  according  to  the  current  Grero-Roman  view. 
Dio  Cassius  says(xxxvii.  16)  correctly  that  it  was 
on  a  "Cronos  day,"  this  term  denoting  the 

The  capture  of  the  Temple  mount  was  accom- 
panied by  great  slaughter.  The  priests  wlio  were 
officiating  despite  the  battle  were  massacred  by  the 
Roman  soldiers,  and  many  committed  suicide;  while 
12,000  people  besides  were  killed.  Pompey  himself 
entered  the  Temple,  but  he  was  so  awed  by  its  sanc- 
tity that  he  left  the  treasure  and  the  costly  vessels 
untouched  ("Ant."  xiv.  4,  ^4;  "B.  J."  i.  7.  §  6; 
Cicero,  "  Pro  Flacco, "  §  67).  The  leaders  of  the  war 
party  were  executed,  and  the  city  and  country  were 
laid  under  tribute.  A  deadly  blow  was  struck  at 
the  Jews  when  Pompey  separated  from  Judea  the 
coast  cities  from  Rapiiia  to  Dora,  as  well  as  all  the 
Hellenic  cities  in  the  east-Jordan  country,  and  the 
so-called  Decapolis,  besides  Scythopolis  and  Sa- 
maria, all  of  which  were  incorporated  in  the  new 
province  of  Syria.  These  cities,  without  exception, 
became  autonomous,  and  dated  their  coins  from  the 
era  of  their  "liberation  "  by  Pompey.  The  small 
territory  of  Judea  he  assigned  to  Hyrcanus,  with 
the  title  of  "ethnarch"  ("Ant."  i.e.;  "B.  J."/.«.: 
comp.  "Ant."  xx.  10.  §4).  Aristobulus.  together 
with  his  two  sons  Alexander  and  Autigonus.  and 
his  two  daughters,  was  carried  captive  to  Rome  to 
march  in  Pompey 's  triumph,  while  many  other  Jew- 
ish prisoners  were  taken  to  the  same  city,  this  cir- 
cumstance probably  having  much  to  do  with  the 
subsequent  prosperity  of  the  Roman  community. 
Pompey's  conquest  of  Jerusalem  is  generally  be- 
lieved to  form  the  historical  background  of  the 
Psalms  of  Solomon. 

BiBLiooRAPHv:  Moranisen.  R/imiKChe  Gefehirhf>:  Mh  r^..  UL 
113-154:  Griitz.  Gesrh.  4tli  ed..  111.  157.  17:.'  ■■■«. 

3d  ed..  1.  294-;»l;  Berliner.  G>'<-h.  rUr  J\.  a, 

Frankfort-on-the-Main.  I"  ' 
niunlty  of  Rome  was  f- 

fnll  of  Jerusalem  merely  nn  i-ii.-M  ii~  mi...'-  .- .  ■    ....     •__-   • 
stein  and  Rieger,  Gc«ch.  der  Juden  in  Rom,  1.  a.  Benin, 
1896).  „     „„ 

S.  Kn. 



in  thegoverumculuf  Kuvn.'   lvi.--i:i.     In 





Nikolai  Tyszkiewicz  by  cuttiug  down  a  forest  tliat 
lay  between  New  and  Old  Poniewicz  helped  mate- 
rially in  enlarging  the  city  to  its  present  size  and 
in  founding  the  suburb  Xikolayev.  Poniewicz  came 
under  Russian  dominion  after  the  last  partition  of 
Poland,  and  it  became  a  part  of  the  government  of 
Kovno  in  1842.  More  than  half  the  population  of 
the  city  consists  of  Jews,  and  there  is  also  a  small  Ka- 
raite community.  In  1865  the  number  of  inhabit- 
ants was  8,071,  of  whom  3,648  were  Jews  including 
70  Karaites.  By  1884  the  population  had  increased 
to  15.030,  including  7,899  Jews,  but  in  1897  the  total 
population  is  given  as  13,044.  Poniewicz  has  one 
synagogue  built  of  brick  and  seven  built  of  wood. 
The  Karaite  community  also  maintains  a  synagogue. 
Of  other  institutions  in  the  city  there  are  a  govern- 
ment school  for  Jewish  boys,  one  for  girls,  a  hospi- 
tal (opened  1886),  and  a  Talmud  Torah.  There  are 
in  addition  numerous  other  communal  institutions 
and  societies. 

R.  Isaac  b.  Joseph  (d.  before  1841),  whose  name 
is  signed  to  an  approbation  in  the  "  'Ateret  Rosh  " 
(Wilna,  1841),  is  one  of  the  earliest  known  rabbis  of 

Poniewicz.    R.  Moses  Isaac,  of  Libau, 

B-abbis  and  Plungian,  and   Taurogen,  was  prob- 

Scholars.     ably  his  successor,  and   was  himself 

succeeded  by  R.  Hillel  Mileikovski  or 
Salanter.  R.  Elijah  David  Rabinovich-Te'omim 
succeeded  R.  Hillel.  He  was  born  in  Pikeln,  gov- 
ernment of  Kovno,  June  11,  1845,  and  now  (1904)  is 
rabbi  at  Jerusalem.  Rabinovich  occupied  the  posi- 
tion of  rabbi  of  Poniewicz  from  1873  to  1893,  when 
he  went  to  Mir  as  the  successor  of  R.  Yom-Tob  Lip- 
man  B0SL.\XSKI. 

The  poet  Leon  Gordon  commenced  his  career  as 
a  teacher  in  the  government  school  of  Poniewicz, 
where  he  remained  until  1860  and  married  the  grand- 
daughter of  one  of  its  former  prominent  citizens, 
Tanhum  Ahronstam  (died  Nov.  10,  1858;  see  "Ha- 
Maggid,"  ii.,  No.  50,  and  Gordon's  letters,  Nos.  1-36). 
Isaac  Lipkin,  son  of  R.  Israel  Lipkin  (Salanter),  was 
also  a  resident  in  the  city  until  his  death.  The  ear- 
liest known  "  maggid "  or  preacher  of  Poniewicz 
■was  Menahem  Mendel,  author  of  "  Tamim  Yahdaw  " 
(Wilna,  1808). 

The  district  of  Poniewicz,  which  contains  twenty- 
three  small  towns  and  villages,  liad  in  1865  7,410 
Jews  (including  351  Karaites),  of  whom  59  were  agri- 
culturists. In  1884  it  had  34,066  Jews  in  a  total 
population  of  200,687,  and  in  1897  43,600  Jews  in  a 
total  population  of  210,458. 

Bibliography:  AlenUzln.  StatMtiche^ki  Vremennik,  etc., 
series  UK,  No.  2,  St.  Petersburg,  1884  ;  Brockhaus-Efron.  Ent- 
ziklniiedicha<ki  Slovar,  s.v.;  JUdisches  Volkuhkitt,  St.  Te- 
ter.sburg,  1886,  No.  33;  Semenov,  Russian  Geographical  Dic- 
tinnaru.  s.v.;  Elsenstadt,  Dor  Rabbanaw  we-Soferaiv,  11. 
29,  43,  52  ;  iv.  21,  34. 
It.  K.  P.    Wl. 


CONEGLIANO):  lUiliau-Aincrican  man  of  letters, 
composer,  and  teacher;  born  at  Ceneda,  Italy,  1749; 
died  1837.  He  belonged  to  a  well-known  Jewish 
family,  which  had  produced  the  distinguished  Ital- 
ian-Turkish diplomatist  Dr.  Israel  Conegliako. 
With  his  parents  and  brothers.  Da  Ponte,  for  ma- 
terial reasons,  was  baptized  in  his  fourteenth  year, 
and  the  new  name  which  he  was  destined  to  make 

Lorenzo  da  Ponte. 

famous  was  adopted  in  honor  of  a  Catholic  bishop 
who  was  his  protector. 

At  an  early  age  he  became  professor  of  belles- 
lettres  at  Treviso,  later  at  Venice,  and  published  va- 
rious poems,  including  a  political  satire,  which  led  to 
his  exile.  Da  Ponte  went  to  Austria,  where  he  soon 
won  the  favor  of  the  emperor  Joseph  II.,  was  ap- 
pointed "poet"  to  the  imperial  theaters  in  Vienna, 
and  in  that  capacity  met  Mozart.  He  composed  for 
the  great  musician  the 
libretti  to  his  famous 
operas  "  Mariage  de 
Figaro"  and  "Don 
Juan,"  and  became  an 
important  figure  in 
court,  literarj',  and  mu- 
sical circles.  On  the 
death  of  Joseph  II.  he 
lost  favor,  and  after 
various  vicissitudes,  in- 
cluding several  years 
of  service  as  dramatist 
and  secretary  to  the 
Italian  Opera  Company 
in  London,  he  emi- 
grated to  America 
early  in  the  nineteenth 
century.  Again  un- 
fortunate, he  was  compelled  to  earn  a  subsistence 
by  teaching  Italian.  He  wrote  various  plays,  son- 
nets, and  critical  essays,  made  a  translation  of  the 
Psalms,  and  managed  Italian  operatic  performances. 
From  1826  until  his  death  he  was  professor  of  the  Ital- 
ian language  and  literature  at  Columbia  College.  He 
encouraged  the  study  and  developed  the  apprecia- 
tion of  Dante  in  America,  and  won  consideiable 
influence  over  many  pupils.  He  became  involved  in 
a  controversy  with  Prescott,  the  historian,  concern- 
ing Italian  literature,  Prescott's  rejoinder  to  him 
being  preserved  in  the  historian's  "Miscellaneous 
and  Critical  Essaj's." 

Da  Ponte  was  instrumental  in  bringing  the  Garcia 
Opera  Company  to  the  United  States,  the  first  to 
play  there.  He  himself  became  manager  of  a  simi- 
lar company  in  New  York  in  1833,  by  which  an 
opera  composed  by  him  at  the  age  of  eighty  was 
presented,  his  niece  being  introduced  in  it  as  the 
prima  donna.  His  best-known  work  is  his  ex- 
tremely interesting  "Memoirs,"  which  Tuckerman 
has  compared  to  Franklin's  autobiography,  and 
which  appeared  in  various  Italian  editions,  in  a 
French  translation  (1860),  with  an  introduction  by 
Lamartine,  and  also  in  German  form.  A  notice- 
able revival  of  interest  in  Da  Route's  career,  which 
had  been  well-nigh  forgotten,  was  called  forth  re- 
cently by  the  publication  in  Italy,  in  1900,  of  his 
works,  together  with  his  biography,  in  an  elaborate 
edition  of  500  pages,  and  of  various  popular  essays 
dealing  with  his  career.  His  Jewish  antecedents 
were  commented  upon  in  various  biographies,  and 
were  emphasized  by  contemporaries  for  the  purpose 
of  injuring  his  position.  His  "Memoirs"  indicate 
that  even  in  his  youth  he  was  proficient  in  Hebrew, 
and  the  impress  of  his  ancestry  and  of  his  early 
Jewish  studies  has  been  discerned  by  critics  of  his 
works  and  views. 




Bibliooraphy:  Marchesan,  Delia  Vita  e  dclle  Opera  di  Lo- 
renzo da  Polite,  Trevlso,  1900;  H.  E.  Krehblel,  Music  and 
Manners:  Henry  Tiickerinan,  in  I'utuam'x  ManazirteA^^i, 
xll.  527  (reprinted  In  Dublin  UtiivcrKitji  Maoazinc,  Ixxx. 
215);  JewiKh  Comment,  Aug.  9,  1900;  see  also  Krehblel's  re- 
view of  Prof.  Marcliesan's  work  In  the  THbune,  New  York, 
Sept.  9, 1900. 
A.  M.  J.  K. 

PONTOISE  :  French  town ;  capital  of  an  arron- 
dissenicnt  in  the  department  of  Seine-et-Oise.  It 
contained  a  Jewish  community  as  early  as  the  elev- 
enth century.  In  1179  (according  to  some  authori- 
ties, in  1166  or  1171)  the  Jews  of  Pontoise  were  ac- 
cused of  the  murder  of  a  Christian  chiUl  named 
Richard,  whose  body  was  taken  to  the  Church  of  the 
Holy  Innocents  at  Paris  and  tliere  venerated  as  that 
of  a  martyr.  A  document  of  1294  relates  that  the 
abbe  of  Saint  Denis  bought  a  house  at  Pontoise  be- 
longing to  a  Clirislian  heavily  indebted  to  the  Jews 
there,  who  were  paid  the  purchase-money  through 
the  provost  Robert  de  Buan.  The  Jewish  names 
which  appear  in  this  document  are  those  of  Magis- 
ter  Sanson,  Meuns  de  Sezana,  and  Abraliam  de  Novo 
Castello.  In  1296  Philip  the  Fair  made  a  gift  to  his 
brother  Charles,  Count  of  Valois,  of  Joce  or  Joucet, 
a  Jew  of  Pontoise,  and  his  children,  David,  Aroin, 
Haginot,  Beleuce,  Hanee,  and  Sarin.  In  the  same 
year  Joucet  of  Pontoise  was  appointed  financial 
agent  between  the  crown  and  his  coreligionists  of 
Amiens,  Senlis,  and  Champagne,  and  in  1297  Philip 
the  Fair  made  him  arbiter  in  a  litigation  which  had 
arisen  between  himself  and  his  brother  Charles  re- 
garding forty-three  Jews  whom  the  latter  claimed  as 
natives  either  of  his  county  of  Alen^on  or  of  his 
lands  in  Bonmoulinsand  Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais. 

The  principal  Jewish  scholars  of  Pontoise  were: 
Jacob  de  Pontoise  {"Minhat  Yehudah,"  pp.  4b, 
24b),  Moses  ben  Abraham  (Tosef.,  Pes.  67b;  Hag. 
19b;  Yoma  6b,  64a;  Yeb.  61a),  and  Abraham  de 
Pontoise  ("Kol  Bo."  No.  103). 

Bibliography:  Depping,  LesJuifsdans  le  Jfoj/en^ae,  pp. 
93,  146  ;  Dom  Bouquet,  Histnriens  de  France,  xxv.  768;  Du- 
bois, Histnria  Kcclesice  Par^isiensi,<!,ii.  142;  MoT^ri,  Dictinn- 
naii-e  Historique,  s.v.  Richard ;  R.  E.  J.  li.  34,  ix.  63,  xv. 
234,  250 ;  Gross,  Gallia  Judaica,  pp.  443-445. 
G.  S.  K. 

PONTREMOLI,  BENJAMIN  :  Turkish  rab- 
binical writer;  lived  at  Smyrna  at  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  He  was  tlie  author  of  a  work 
entitled  "Shebet  Binyamin "  (Salonica,  1824),  on 
drawing  up  commercial  papers.  He  had  two  sons, 
Hayyim  Isaiah  and  Hiyya. 

Bibliography:  Kazan,  Ha-Ma'alot  li-Shelomoh,  pp.  31,  9.5; 
Franco,  Histoire  des  Israelites  de  VEmpire  Ottoman,  p.  266. 
8.  M.  Fr. 

PONTREMOLI,  ESDR.A  :  Italian  rabbi,  poet, 
and  educationist;  born  at  Ivrea  1818;  died  in  1888; 
son  of  Eliseo  Pontremoli,  rabbi  of  Nizza,  where 
a  street  was  named  after  him.  In  1844  Esdra  Pon- 
tremoli became  professor  of  Hebrew  in  the  Coilegio 
Foa  at  Vercelli.  He  was  for  fifteen  years  associate 
editor  of  "Educatoie  Israelita."  He  translated  Luz- 
zatto's  "  Derek  Erez  "  into  verse  under  tlie  title  "  II 
Falso  Progresso  "  (Padua,  1879). 

Bibliography  :  II  Vessillo  Israditico,  1888. 


PONTREMOLI,  HIYYA  :  Turkish  rabbinical 

author ;  died  at  Smyrna  in  1832 ;  son  of  Benjamin 

Pontremoli.  Hiyya  Pontremoli  wrote,  among  other 
works,  the  "Zappihil  bi-Debash,"  a  collccliou  of 
responsa  on  Orah  Huy yim. 

Bibliography:  Hazan,  Ha-Ma'alot  U-ShtUmoh.nn.  31  M- 
Franco.  IHMoire  de*  larailiUg  de   I'KmiHre   (Mtumati,    p. 

^■'  M.  Fn. 

POOR,  RELIEF  OF.     See  Ciiauitv. 
POOR  LAWS.    See  Charity. 

POPES,  THE:  The  Roman  Church  docs  not 
claim  any  jurisdiction  over  persons  who  have  not 
been  baptized ;  llioreforc  tiie  relations  of  tlie  pope*, 
as  the  heads  of  the  Churcli.  to  the  Jews  have  been 
limited  to  rules  regarding  the  political,  commercial, 
and  social  conditions  under  which  Jews  mij,'ht  rcKide 
in  Christian  states.  As  sovereigns  of  the  Pajml  States 
the  popes  further  had  the  right  to  legislate  on  the 
status  of  their  Jewish  subjects.  Finally,  voluntary 
action  was  occasionally  taken  by  the  popes  on  be- 
half of  the  Jews  who  invoked  their  aid  in  times  of 
persecution,  seeking  their  mediation  as  the  ]iiirii«-8t 
ecclesiastical  authorities.  Tlie  general  principles 
governing  the  popes  in  their  treatment 

General  of  the  Jews  arc  practically  identical 
Principles,  with  those  laid  down  in  the  Justinian 
Code :  (1 )  to  separate  them  from  social 
intercourse  with  Christians  as  far  as  possible;  (2)  to 
prevent  them  from  exercising  any  authority  over 
Christians,  either  in  a  public  (as  officials)  or  a  pri- 
vate capacity  (as  masters  or  employers);  (3)  to  ar- 
range that  the  exercise  of  the  Jewish  religion  should 
not  assume  the  character  of  a  public  function.  On 
the  other  hand,  however,  the  popes  have  always 
condemned,  theoretically  at  least,  (1)  acts  of  violence 
against  the  Jews,  and  (2)  forcible  baptism. 

The  history  of  the  relations  between  the  popes 
and  the  Jews  begins  with  Gregory  I.  (590-604),  who 
may  be  called  the  first  pope,  inasmuch  as  his  author- 
ity was  recognized  by  the  whole  Western  Church. 
The  fact  that  from  the  invasion  of  the  Lombards 
(568)  and  the  withdrawal  of  the  Byzantine  troops 
the  Roman  population  was  without  a  visible  hea<l  of 
government  made  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  the  highest 
ecclesiastical  dignitary  who  happened  to  be  at  the 
same  time  a  Roman  noble,  the  natural  protector  of 
the  Roman  population,  to  which  the  Jews  also  be- 
longed. Still,  even  before  this  time.  Pope  Gelasiua 
is  mentioned  as  having  recommended  a  Jew,  Tele- 
sinus,  to  one  of  his  relatives  as  a  very  reliable  man, 
and  as  having  given  a  decision  in  the  case  of  a 
Jew  against  a  slave  who  claimed  to  have  been  a 
Christian  and  to  have  been  circumcised  by  his  mas- 
ter against  his  will  (Mansi,  "Concilia,"  viii.  131; 
Migne,  "Patrologia  Gra'co  Latina,"  lix.  146;  Vogel- 
stein  and  Rieger,  "Gesch.  dcr  Juden  in  Rom,"  I. 
127-128).  In  the  former  instance  the  pope  acted 
merely  as  a  private  citizen:  in  the  latter  he  was 
most  likely  called  upon  as  an  ecclesiastiad  expert  to 
give  a  decision  in  a  local  affair.  The  legend  may 
also  be  quoted  which  makes  of  the  apostle  Peter 
an  enthusiastic  Jew  who  merely  pretendetl  zeal 
for  Christianitv  in  order  to  assist  his  persecuted 
coreligionists  (JelHnek,  "  B.  II."  v.  60-62,  vi.  9-10; 
Vogelstein  and  Rieger,  I.e.  i.  165-168;  "Allg.  Zeit. 
des  Jud."  1903). 




Nevertheless,  the  liistory  proper  of  the  popes  in 

their  relation  to  the  Jews  begins,  as  stiid  above,  with 

Gresrorv  I.     He  often   protected  the  Jews  against 

violence  and  unjust  treatment  on  the 

Gregory  part  of  officials,  and  condemned  forced 
the  Great,  baptism,  but  he  advised  at  the  same 
time  the  winning  of  the  Jews  over  to 
Christianity  by  offering  material  advantages.  Very 
often  he  condemned  the  holding  of  Christian  slaves 
by  Jews(Gratz,  "Gesch."  v.  43;  Vogelsteiu  and  Ric- 
ger,  I.e.  i.  132-135).  A  very  obscure  order  is  contained 
in  a  letter  of  Pope  Nicholas  I.  to  Bishop  Arsenius  of 
Orta,  to  whom  he  prohibits  the  use  of  Jewish  gar- 
ments. Leo  VII.  answered  the  Archbishop  of  Ma- 
yence,  who  asked  whether  it  was  right  to  force  the 
Jews  to  accept  baptism,  that  he  might  give  them 
the  alternative  of  accepting  Christianity  or  of  emi- 
grating (Aronius,  "Regesten";  comp.  Vogelsteiu 
and  Rieger,  I.e.  i.  139).  An.\cletus  II.  (antipope), 
whose  claim  to  the  papal  throne  was  always  con- 
tested, was  of  Jewish  descent,  and  this  fact  was  used 
by  liis  opponents  in  their  attacks  upon  him.  Bene- 
dict VIll.  had  a  number  of  Jews  put  to  death  on 
the  ground  of  an  alleged  blasphemy  against  Jesus 
which  was  supposed  to  have  been  the  cause  of  a  de- 
structive cyclone  and  earthquake  (c.  1020;  Vogel- 
steiu and  Rieger,  I.e.  i.  213). 

In  the  bitter  tight  between  Gregory  VII.  and  the 
German  emperor  Henry  lY.  the  pope  charged  the 
emperor  with  favoritism  to  the  Jews,  and  at  a  synod 
held  at  Rome  in  1078  he  renewed  the  canonical  laws 
Avhich  prohibited  giving  Jews  power  over  Chris- 
tians; tins  necessarily  meant  that  Jews  might  not  be 
employed  as  ta.x-farmers  or  mint-masters.  Calixtus 
II.  (1119-24)  issued  a  bull  in  which  he  strongly  con- 
demned forced  baptism,  acts  of  violence  against  the 
lives  and  the  property  of  the  Jews,  and  the  desecra- 
tion of  their  sj^nagogues  and  cemeteries  {c.  1120). 
In  spite  of  the  strict  canonical  prohibition  against 
the  employment  of  Jews  in  public  capacities,  some 
popes  engaged  their  services  as  financiers  and  phy- 
sicians. Thus  Pope  Alexander  III.  employed  Jehiel, 
a  descendant  of  Nathan  ben  Jehiel,  as  his  secretary 
of  treasury  (Vogelstein  and  Rieger,  I.e.  i.  225). 

The  extreme  in  the  hostile  enactments  of  the 
popes  against  the  Jews  was  reached  under  Inno- 
cent III.  (1198-1216),  w'ho  was  the  most  powerful 
of  the  medieval  popes,  and  who  convened  the 
Fourth  Lateran   Council  (1215);    this 

Innocent  council  renewed  the  old  canonical  pro- 
Ill,  hibitions  against  trusting  the  Jews 
with  public  offices  and  introduced  the 
law  demanding  that  Jews  should  wear  a  distinctive 
sign  on  their  garments  (see  Badge).  The  theolog- 
ical principle  of  the  pope  was  that  the  Jews  should,  as 
though  so  many  Cains,  be  held  up  as  warning  exam- 
ples to  Christians.  Nevertheless  he  protected  them 
against  the  fury  of  the  French  Crusaders  (Gratz, 
I.e.  vii.  5;  Vogelstein  and  Rieger,  I.e.  i.  228-230). 
Gregory  IX.,  who  in  various  official  documents  in- 
sisted on  the  strict  execution  of  the  canonical  laws 
against  the  .lews,  was  humane  enougii  to  issue  the 
bull  "Etsi  Juda^orum"  (1233;  repeated  in  1235),  in 
which  he  demanded  that  the  Jews  in  Christian  coun- 
tries should  be  treated  with  the  same  humanity  as  that 
with  which  Christians  desire  to  be  treated  in  heathen 

lands.  His  successor.  Innocent  IV. ,  ordered  the  burn- 
ing of  the  Talmud  in  Paris  (1244);  but  Jewish  his- 
tory preserves  a  grateful  memory  of  him  on  account 
of  his  bull  declaring  the  Jews  innocent  of  the  charge 
of  using  Christian  blood  for  ritual  purposes  (see 
Blood  Accus.vtion).  This  bull  was  evidently  the 
result  of  the  affair  of  Fulda  (1238),  concerning  which 
Emperor  Frederick  II.  also  issued  a  warning.  The 
defense  of  the  Jews  against  the  same  charge  was 
undertaken  by  Gregory  X.,  in  his  bull  "Sicut  Ju- 
d!ieis"  (Oct.  7,"l272;  Stern,  "Urkundliche  Beitrftge," 

The  relations  of  the  popes  to  the  Jews  in  the  sub- 
sequent two  centuries  present  a  rather  monotonous 
aspect.  They  issued  occasional  warnings  against  vio- 
lence, threatened  the  princes  who  allowed  the  Jews 
to  disregard  the  canonical  laws  concerning  badges  or 
concerning  the  employment  of  Christian  servants, 
but  conferred  minor  favors  on  certain  Jews.  As  a 
typical  instance,  it  may  be  noted  that  Boniface  VIII., 
when  the  Jews  did  him  homage,  insulted  them  by 
returning  behind  his  back  the  copy  of  the  Torah 
presented  to  him,  after  making  tiie  oft-repeated 
remark  about  reverence  for  the  Law  but  condemna- 
tion of  its  misrepresentation. 

The  excitement  of  the  Church  during  the  Hussite 
movement  rendered  the  Jews  apprehensive,  and 
through  Emperor  Sigismund,  who  was  heavily  in- 
debted to  them,  thej'  obtained  from  Pope  Martin  V. 
(1417-31 ;  elected  by  the  Council  of  Constance  after 
the  Great  Schism)  various  bulls  (1418  and  1422)  in 
which  their  former  privileges  were  contirmed  and  in 
which  he  exhorted  the  friars  to  use  moderate  lan- 
guage. In  the  last  years  of  his  pon- 
Martin  V.  tificate,  however,  he  repealed  several 
of  his  ordinances,  charging  that  they 
had  been  obtained  under  false  pretenses  (Stern,  I.e. 
i.  21-43).  Eugene  IV.  and  Nicholas  V.  returned  to 
the  policy  of  moderation,  especially  in  advising  the 
friars  against  inciting  mobs  to  acts  of  violence. 
Sixtus  IV.,  while  sanctioning  the  Spanish  Inquisi- 
tion, repeatedly  endeavored  (1482  and  1483)  to  check 
its  fanatic  zeal  and  prohibited  the  worship  of  the 
child  Simon  of  Trent,  whom  the  Jew's  of  Trent  were 
falsely  accused  of  having  murdered  (1474).  He  also 
employed  several  Jews  as  his  physicians. 

Alexander  VI.  (Borgia),  known  in  history  as  the 
most  profligate  of  all  the  popes,  was  rather  favor- 
ably inclined  toward  the  Jews.  It  is  especially  note- 
worthy that  he  allowed  the  exiles  from  Spain  to  set- 
tle in  his  states,  and  that  he  fined  the  Jewish  com- 
munity of  Rome  for  its  objection  to  the  settlement  in 
its  midst  of  these  unfortunates.  Occasionally,  how- 
ever, he  ordered  the  imprisonment  of  Maranos;  and 
on  the  whole  it  seems  that  the  pope's  leniency  was 
prompted  by  his  greed.  Leo  X.  also,  the  humanist 
on  the  throne  of  St.  Peter,  was  in  general  favorably 
inclined  toward  the  Jews,  whom  he  employed  not 
only  as  physicians,  but  also  as  artists  and  in  other 
positions  at  his  court.  The  beginning  of  the  Ref- 
ormation influenced  his  action  in  the  controversy 
between  Reuchlin  and  Pfefferkorn,  which  he 
settled  in  such  a  way  as  not  to  give  any  encourage- 
ment to  those  who  demanded  reforms  in  the  Church. 

Clement  VII.  (1523-34)  is  known  in  Jewish  history 
for  the  interest  which  he  took  in  the  case  of  the  Mes- 




sianic  pretender  David  Keubeni,  and  for  the  protec- 
tion which  he  granted  to  Solomon  Molko,  who,  as 
an  apostate,  had  forfeited  his  life  to  the  Inquisi- 
tion. He  also  issued  an  order  to  protect  the  Maranos 
in  Portugal  against  the  Inquisition  (1533  and  1534). 

Tlie  Reformation  and  the  consequent  strictness  in 
enforcing  the  censorship  of  books  reacted  on  tiie 
condition  of  the  Jews  in  so  far  as  con- 
The  Ref-  verts  from  Judaism  eagerly  displayed 
ormation.  their  zeal  for  tlieir  new  faith  by  de- 
nouncing rabbinical  literature,  and  es- 
pecially the  Talmud,  as  hostile  to  Christianity.  Con- 
sequently Pope  Julius  III.  issued  an  edict  which 
demanded  the  burning  of  the  Talmud  (1553)  and 
prohibited  the  printing  of  it  by  Christians.  In 
Kome  a  great  many  copies  were  publicly  burned 
(Sept.  9,  1553).  The  worst  was  yet  to  come.  Paul 
IV.  (1555-59),  in  his  bull  "Cum  nimis  absurdum  " 
(July  12,  1555),  not  only  renewed  all  canonical  re- 
strictions against  the  Jews— as  those  prohibiting 
their  practising  medicine  among  Christians,  em- 
ploying Christian  servants,  and  the  like — but  he 
also  restricted  them  in  their  commercial  activity, 
forbade  them  to  have  more  than  one  synagogue  in 
any  city,  enforced  the  wearing  of  the  yellow  hat, 
refused  to  permit  a  Jew  to  be  addressed  as  "signor," 
and  finally  decreed  that  they  should  live  in  a  ghetto. 
The  last  measure  was  carried  out  in  Rome  witli  un- 
relenting cruelty. 

After  a  short  period  of  respite  under  Paul  IV. 's 
successor,  Pius  IV.  (1559-66),  who  introduced  some 
alleviations  in  his  predecessor's  legal  enactments, 
Pius  V.  (1566-72)  repealed  all  the  concessions  of  his 
predecessor,  and  not  only  renewed  the  laws  of  Paul 
IV.,  but  added  some  new  restrictions,  as  the  pro- 
hibition to  serve  Jews  by  kindling  their  fires  on  the 
Sabbath;    he  excluded  them  from  a 

Pius  V.  great  number  of  commercial  pursuits, 
and  went  so  far  in  his  display  of 
hatred  that  he  would  not  permit  them  to  do  homage, 
although  that  ceremony  was  rather  a  humiliation 
than  a  distinction  (1566).  Three  years  later  (Feb. 
26, 1569)  the  pope  decreed  the  expulsion  of  the  Jews 
from  his  territory  within  three  months  from  the  date 
of  the  promulgation  of  the  edict,  and  while  the 
Jews  of  Rome  and  Ancona  were  permitted  to  re- 
main, those  of  the  other  cities  wpre  expelled.  They 
were  permitted  to  return  by  the  next  pope,  Gregory 
XIII.  (1572-85),  who,  while  he  showed  an  occasional 
leniency,  introduced  a  large  number  of  severe  re- 
strictions. Thus,  the  Jews  were  prohibited  from 
driving  through  the  streets  of  the  city,  and  they 
were  obliged  to  send  every  week  at  least  150  of  their 
number  to  listen  to  the  sermons  of  a  conversion- 
ist  preacher  (1584).  The  terrible  custom  of  keep- 
ing Jews  in  prison  for  a  certain  time  each  year,  and 
of  fattening  them  and  forcing  them,  for  the  amuse- 
ment of  the  mob,  to  race  during  the  carnival,  when 
mud  was  thrown  at  them,  is  mentioned  (1574)  as 
"an  old  custom  "  for  the  first  time  during  Gregory's 

Sixtus  V.  (1585-90),  again,  was  more  favorable  to 
the  Jews.  Aside  from  some  measures  of  relief  in 
individual  instances,  he  allowed  the  printing  of  the 
Talmud  after  it  had  been  subjected  to  censorship 
(1586).     The  policy  of  succeeding  popes  continued 

to  vary.  Clement  Vlll.  (15*.ni-l604)  again  issued  an 
edict  of  expul.sion  (1593),  whicJi  was  subsequently 
repealed,  and  in  the  same  year  prohiljiicd  tlie  print- 
ing of  the  Talmud.  Under  Clement  X.  (1670-76) 
a  papal  order  suspended  the  Inquisition  in  Portu- 
gal (1674);  but  an  attempt  to  interest  the  pope  in 
the  lot  of  the  Jews  of  Vienna,  who  were  expelled 
in  1670,  failed.  The  worst  feature  of  llie  numer- 
ous disabilities  of  the  Jews  under  pupal  domin- 
ion was  the  closing  of  the  gates  of  the  Roman 
ghetto  during  the  night.  Severe  penalties  awaited 
a  Jew  leaving  the  ghetto  after  dark,  or  a  Christian 
entering  it. 

Pius  VI.  (1775-1800)  issued  an  edict  which  re- 
newed all  the  restrictions  enacted  from  the  thirteenth 
century.    The  ci'nsorshipof  b<>. 
Pius  VI.      strictly  enforced  ;   Jews  were  i       , 

uiitted  any  tombstones  in  their  grave- 
yards; they  were  forbidden  to  remodel  or  eidarge 
their  synagogues;  Jews  might  not  have  any  inter- 
course with  converts  to  Christianity ;  they  were  re- 
quired to  wear  the  yellow  badge  on  their  liat.s  both 
within  and  without  the  ghetto;  they  were  not  per- 
mitted to  have  shops  outside  the  ghetto,  or  engage 
Christian  nurses  for  their  infants;  thej'  might  not 
drive  through  the  city  of  Rome;  and  their  attend- 
ance at  conversionist  sermons  was  enforced.  When 
under  Pius  VI. 's  successors  the  pressure  of  other 
matters  caused  the  authorities  to  become  negligent 
in  the  fulfilment  of  their  duties,  these  rules  were 
often  reenforced  with  extreme  rigor;  such  was  the 
case  under  Leo  XII.  (1826). 

Pius  IX.  (1846-78),  during  the  first  two  years  of 
his  pontificate,  was  evidently  inclined  to  adopt  a 
liberal  attitude,  but  after  his  return  from  exile  he 
adopted  with  regard  to  the  Jews  the  same  policy 
as  he  pursued  in  general.  *  He  condemned  as  abom- 
inable laws  all  measures  which  gave  political  free- 
dom to  them,  and  in  the  case  of  the  abduction  of 
the  child  Moutara  (1858),  whom  a  servant-girl 
pretended  to  have  baptized,  as  well  as  in  the  sim- 
ilar case  of  the  boy  Fortunato  Col>n  (1864).  showed 
his  approval  of  the  medieval  laws  as  enacted  by 
Innocent  III.  He  maintained  the  ghetto  in  Rome 
until  it  was  abolished  by  the  Italian  occupation  of 
Rome  (1870). 

His  successor,  Leo  XIII.  (1878-1908).  was  the  first 
pope  who  exercised  no  territorial  jurisdiction  over 
the  Jews.  His  influence,  ueverthele.<;s,  was  preju- 
dicial to  them.  He  encouraged  anti-Semitism  by 
bestowing  distinctions  on  leading  anti-Semitic  poli- 
ticians and  autliors,  as  Lueger  and  Drumont;  lie  re- 
fused to  interfere  in  behalf  of  Captain  Drkyfcs  or 
to  issue  a  statement  against  the  blood  accusation. 
In  an  official  document  he  denoiiuccd  Jews,  free- 
masons, and  anarchists  as  the  enemies  of  the  Church. 

Pius  X.  (elected  1908)  is  not  sufficiently  known  to 
permit  a  judgment  in  regard  to  his  attitude  toward 
the  Jews.  He  received  Hkuzl  and  some  other  Jews 
in  audience,  but  in  his  diocese  of  Mantua,  before  he 
became  pope,  he  had  prohibited  the  celebration  of  a 
solemn  mass  on  the  king's  birthday  because  • 
council  which  asked  for  it  had  attended  n 
tion  in  the  synagogue. 

BiBLiOGRAPnY:  Berliner,  Gcsch.  dcr  Jtideu  in  Rom.  Frank- 
forUm-the-Maln.  1893;  Vogelstein  and  n r    .u^h.  dcr 




Judcn  in  Rom,  Berlin,  1895:  Stern.  Urkundliche  Beitriliie 
ilber  die  Stelhing  tier  Pii^)ft(^  zu  dtn  Juden.  Kiel,  1893-95  ; 
Pastor,  Ocsch.derPdpste ;  Mansl,  Concilia,  Bidlarium  Mag- 

The  following  is  a  partial  account  of  the  more  im- 
portant bulls  issued  by  popes  with  reference  to  the 
Jews  up  to  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century : 

1120.  Calixtus  II.  Issues  bull  beginning  "Slcut  Judaels  non  "  and 
enumerating  privileges  of  the  Jews  (Vogelsteln  and 
Rieger,  "Gesch.  der  Judea  in  Rom,"  1.219  [hereafter 
cited  as  V.  R.]). 

1145.  Eugenius  III.,  ordering  Jews  to  remit  Interest  on  debts  of 
Crusaders  while  absent  (Baronius,  "  Annates  "). 

1191.  Clement  III.  conllrms  the  bull  "Sicut  Judaeis  non  "  (Rlos, 
"  Hist."  ii.  469  [hereafter  cited  as  Rios]). 

1199  (Sept.  15).  Innocent  III.  confirms  "Sicut  Judaeis  non." 

1207  (Jan.).  Innocent  III.,  ordering  Jews  of  Spain  to  pay  tithes 
on  possessions  obtained  from  Christians  (Rios,  i.  36C). 

1216  (Nov.  6).  Honorius  III.  in  favor  of  German  Jews,  conflrm- 
ing  the  "Sicut  Judaeis  non"  of  Clement  111.  (V.  R. 

1219.  Honorius  III.,  permitting  the  King  of  Castile  to  suspend 
the  wearing  of  the  badge  (Aronlus,  "Regesten,"  i.362). 

1228  (Oct.  21).  Gregory  IX.,  remitting  interest  on  Crusaders' 
debts  to  Jews  and  granting  a  "  moratorium  "  for  repay- 
ment (V.  R.  i.  233). 

1233  (April  6).  Gregory  IX.  issues  the  bull  "  Etsl  Judaeorum," 

demanding  same  treatment  for  Jews  in  Christian  lands 
as  Christians  receive  in  heathen  lands  (V.  U.  i.  234). 
1333.  Gregory  IX.,  in  bull  "  Sufflcere  debuerat,"  forbids  Chris- 
tians to  dispute  on  matters  of  faith  with  Jews  ("  Bulla- 
rium  Romanum,"  iii.  479). 

1234  (June  5).    Gregory  IX.  to  Thibaut  of  Navarre,  enforcing 

the  badge  (Jacobs.  "Sources,"  Nos.  1227, 1388). 
1235.  Gregory  IX.  conflrms  "  Sicut  Judaeis  non." 
1239  (June  20).  Gregory  IX.,  confiscating  all  copies  of  Talmud 

(V.  R.  1.237). 
1240.  Gregory  IX.,  ordering  all  Jewish  books  in  Castile  to  be 

seized  on  first  Saturday  in  Lent  while  Jews  were   in 

synagogue  (Rios,  i.  363). 
1244  (Man-h  9).  Bull  "  Impia  pens"  of  Innocent  IV.,  ordering 

Talmud  to  be  burned  (Zunz,  "  S.  P."  p.  30). 

1246  (Oct.  21).    Innocent  IV.  confirms  "Sicut  Judaeis  non." 

1247  (May  28).    Innocent  IV.  issues  the  "  Divina  justitia  nequa- 

quam,"  against  blood  accusation. 

1247  (July  5).  Innocent  IV.  issues  the  "  Lacrymabilem  Judaeo- 
rum  Alemania;."  against  blood  accusation  (Baronius, 
"Annates,"  1247,  No.  84 ;  Stobbe,  "Die  Juden  in 
Deutschland,"  p.  185;  Aronius,  "  Regesten,"  No.  243). 

1250  (April  15).  Innocent  IV.,  refusing  permission  to  Jews  of 
Cordova  to  build  a  new  synagogue  (Aronius,  "Regesten," 
p.  369) . 

1253  (July  23) .  Innocent  IV.,  expelling  Jews  from  Vlenne  (Ray- 
naldus,  "Annales";  V.  R.  i.  239). 

1253  (Sept.  25).    Innocent  IV.  conflrms  "  Sicut  Judaeis  non." 

1267  (July  28) .  Clement  IV.  issues  the  "  Turbato  corde  "  calling 
upon  Inquisition  to  deal  not  only  with  renegades,  but 
also  with  the  Jews  who  seduce  them  from  the  faith 
("Bullarium  Romanum,"  Iii.  786;  V.  R.  i.  243;. 

1272.  Gregory  X.  conflrms  the  "  Sicut  Judaeis  nou  "  (V.  R.  1.  24.5, 
with  edition  of  a  denial  of  blood  accusation;  Stem, 
"  Urkundliche  Beitrage  Qber  die  Stellung  der  Papste  zu 
den  Juden,"  p.  5). 

1272  (July  7).  Gregory  X.,  against  blood  accusation  (Scherer, 
"  Rechtsverhaitnisse  der  Juden."  p.  431). 

1274.  Gregory  X.  conflrms  "Sicut  Judaeis  non." 

1278  (Aug.  4).  Nicholas  III.  issues  the  "  Vlneam  .sorce,"  order- 
ing conversion  sermons  to  Jews  ("Bullarium  Roma- 
num," Iv.  45). 

1386  (Nov.  30).  Bull  of  Honorius  IV.  to  Archbishop  of  York 
and  of  Canterbury,  against  Talmud  (Raynaldus,  "An- 
nales"; Scherer,  "  Rechtaverhaitnlsse,"  p.  48). 

1291  (Jan.  30).  Nicholas  IV.  Lssues  the  "Drat  mater  ecclesla" 
to  protect  the  IU>man  Jews  from  oppression  (Theiner, 
"  Codex  Dlplomaticus,"  1.  315;  V.  R.  i.  252). 

1299  (June  13).  Boniface  VIII.  issues  bull  "Exhlblta  nobis," 
declaring  Jews  to  be  Included  among  powerful  persons 
who  might  be  denounced  to  the  Inquisition  without  the 
name  of  the  accuser  being  revealed  (V.  II.  I.  251). 

1317.  John  XXII.  orders  Jews  to  wear  badge  on  breast,  and  issues 
bull  against  ex-Jews  (Zunz,  "S.  P."  p.  37). 

1330  (June  28).  John  XXII.,  ordering  that  converts  shall  retain 
their  property  ("Bullarium  Romanum,"  III.,  ii.  181; 
Ersch  and  Gruber,  "  Encyc."  section  ii.,  part  27,  p.  149; 
V.  R.  1.305). 

1320  (Sept.  4).  JohnXXII.  Issues  to  French  bishops  bull  against 

1337  (Aug.  29).  Benedict  XII.  issues  the  bull  "  E.x  zelo  fldel." 
promising  inquiry  into  hosi-tragedy  of  Pulka  (Raynal- 
dus, "Annales"  ;  Scherer,  "Rechtsverh!iltni.sse,"p. 368). 

1345  (July  5).    Clement  VI.,  against  forcible  baptism. 

1348  (July  4).    Clement  VI.  confirms  "Sicut  Juda'is  non." 

1348  (Sept.  26).  Clement  VI.,  ordering  that  Jews  be  not  forced 
into  baptism;  that  their  Sabbaths,  festivals,  synagogues, 
and  cemeteries  be  respected ;  that  no  new  exactions  be  Im- 
posed (Aronius,  "Regesten,"  ii.200;  V.  R.  i.313;  Raynal- 
dus, "  Annales,"  1348.  No.  ^3 ;  Gratz,  "  Gesch."  viii.  351). 

1365  (July  7).    Urban  V.  conflrms  "Sicut  Juda;is  non." 

1*<9  (July  2).    Boniface  IX.  confirms  "Sicut  Judteis  non." 

1390  (July  17).  John  of  Portugal  orders  bull  of  Boniface  IX.  of 
July  2,  l']S9,  to  be  published  in  all  Portuguese  towns 
(Kayserling,  "  Gesch.  der  Juden  in  Portugal,"  p.  39). 

1397  (April  6).  Boniface  IX.  confirms  by  bull  grant  of  Roman 
citizenship  to  the  Jewish  physician  Manuele  and  his  son 
Angelo  (V.  R.  i.  317). 

1402  (April  15).  Boniface  IX.,  granting  special  privileges  to 
Roman  Jews— reducing  their  taxes,  ordering  their 
Sabbath  to  be  protected,  placing  them  under  the  juris- 
diction of  the  Curia,  protecting  them  from  oppression 
by  olllcials  ;  all  Jews  and  Jewesses  dwelling  in  the  city 
to  be  regarded  and  treated  as  Roman  citizens  (V.  R.  1. 

1415  (May  11).  Benedict  XIII.,  "Etsi  doctoribus  gentium," 
against  Talmud  or  any  other  Jewish  book  attacking 
Christianity  (Rios,  11.626-653;  see  years  1434  and  1442, 

1417.  Bull  against  Talmud  (Jost.  "Gesch.  der  Israeliten,"vii.  60). 

1418  (Jan.  3i).  Martin  V.,  forbidding  the  forcible  baptism  of 
Jews  or  the  disturbance  of  their  synagogues  (Ray- 
naldus, "  Annales"  ;  V.  R.  i.  4). 

1420  (Nov.  25).  Martin  V.  issues  to  German  Jews  bull  "Con- 
cessum  Judaeis,"  confirming  their  privileges  (V.  R.  i.  5). 
No  .lew  under  twelve  to  be  baptized  without  his  own  and 
his  parents'  consent  (Scherer,  "  Rechtsverhaitnisse,"  p. 

1420  (Dec.  23).    Martin  V.  issues  "Licet  Judaeorum  omnium," 

in  favor  of  Austrian  Jews. 

1421  (Feb.  23).    Martin  V.,  in  favor  of  Jews  and  against  anti- 

Jewish  sermons ;  permits  Jewish  physicians  to  practise 
(V.  R.  1.  5). 

1422  (Feb.  20),    Martin  V.  conflrms  "Sicut  Judaeis  non." 

1423  (June  3).    Martin  V.  issues  bull   "Sedes  apostolica,"  re- 

newing the  law  regarding  badge  (V.  R.  i.  8). 

1426  (Feb.  14).  Martin  V.  issues  bull  against  Jews  (Zunz,  "S. 
P."  p.  48). 

1429  (Feb.  15).  Martin  V.  issues  the"  QuamquamJudael,"  which 
places  Roman  Jews  under  the  general  civic  law,  protects 
them  from  forcible  baptism,  and  permits  them  to  teach 
in  the  school  (Rodocachl,  "  II  Ghetto  Romano,"  p. 
147;  V.  R.  1.8). 

1432  (Feb.  8).  Eugenius  IV.  Issues  a  bull  of  protection  for  Jews, 
renewing  ordinances  against  forcible  baptism  and  dis- 
turbance of  synagogues  and  graveyards  (V.  R.  i.  10). 

1434  (Feb.  20).  Eugenius  IV.,  prohibiting  anti-Jewish  sermons 
(V.  R.  i.  11). 

1442.  Bull  of  Benedict  XIII.  published  at  Toledo  (Rlos,  ill.  44). 

1442  (Aug.  8).  Eugenius  IV.  issues  a  bull  against  Talmud  (shortly 
after  withdrawn;  Zunz,  "S.  P."  p.  49).  The  Jews 
were  ordered  to  confine  their  reading  of  Scripture  to  the 
Pentateuch ;  handwork  was  forbidden  to  them ;  no 
Jews  were  permitted  to  be  judges  (Rieger,  11). 

1447  (Nov.  2).    Nicholas  V.  confirms  "Sicut  Judajis  non." 

1451  (Feb.  25).  Bull  of  Nicholas  V.  prohibiting  social  inter- 
course with  Jews  and  Saracens  ("  Vita  Nlcolai,"  v.  91 ; 
V.  R.  i.  496). 

1451  (May  28).  Bull  of  Nicholas  V.,  similar  to  that  of  Aug.  8, 
1442,  to  extend  to  Spain  and  Italy ;  the  proceeds  to  be 
devoted  to  the  Turkish  war  (V.  R.  i.  16). 

14.51  (Sept.  ai).  Nichola,s  V.  issues  the  "Romanus  pontifex,"  re- 
lieving the  dukes  of  Austria  from  ecclesiastical  censure 
for  permitting  Jews  to  dwell  there  (Scherer,  "  Rechts- 
verhaitnisse," pp.  423-425). 

1472  (Feb.  21).  SIxtus  IV.,  ordering  taxation  of  Roman  Jews  at 
a  tithe  during  the  Turkish  war,  a  twentieth  otherwise 
(compounded  for  1,000  gulden  in  1488) ,  and  a  carnival 
tax  of  1,100  gulden  (V.  R.  1. 126), 




1481  (April  3).    Slxtua  IV.,  ordering  all  Christian    princes  to 

restore  all  fuRltlves  to  Inquisition  of  Spain  (Rlos,  111. 

379;  V.  R.  1.21). 
1481  (Oct.  17).    Bull  of  Slxtus  IV.  appointing  Tomasde  Torque- 

mada  Inquisitor -general  of  Avignon,   Valencia,  and 

Catalonia  (Rlos,  ill.  256). 
15{X)  (June  1).    Alexander  VI.,  demanding  for  three  years  for 

the  Turkish  war  one-twentieth  (see  1472)  of  Jewish 

property  throughout  the  world  (V.  R.  1.  28,  126). 
1524  (April  7).    Clement  VII.  Issues  bull  in  favor  of  Maranos 

(V.  R.  1.59). 
IJVJl  (Dec.  17).    Bull  Introducing  Inquisition  Into  Portugal  at 

Evora,  Coimbra,  and  Lisbon  (Gratz,  "Gesch."  11.  366). 
1540.  Paul  III.,  granting  Neo-Christlans  family  property  except 

that  gained  by  usury,  also  municipal  rights,  but  must 

not  marry  among  themselves  or  be  buried  among  Jews 

(V.R.I.  63). 
1540  (May  12).    Paul  III.  Issues  "Licet  Judaei,"  against  blood 


1554  (Aug.  31).    Julius  III.,  In  bull  " Pastoris  aeternl  vices," 

Imposes  tax  of  ten  gold  ducats  on  two  out  of  the  115 
synagogues  In  the  Papal  States  (Rodocachi,  "  II  Ghetto 
Romano,"  p.  228 ;  V.  R.  i.  145). 

1555  (March  23).    Paul  IV.,  claiming  ten  ducats  for  each  syna- 

gogue destroyed  under  bull  of  July  12,  1555  (V.  R.  1. 155). 

1555  (July  12).  Paul  IV.  Issues  the  "  Cum  nlmts  absurdum  "  for 
Jews  of  Rome,  which  renews  most  of  the  Church  laws, 
Including  the  order  to  wear  the  yellow  hat  and  veil,  not 
to  hold  any  real  property  (to  be  sold  within  six  months), 
not  to  trade  except  in  second-hand  clothing,  not  to  count 
fragment*  of  month  in  reckoning  interest;  to  sell 
pledges  only  eighteen  months  after  loan  and  to  repay 
surplus,  to  keep  business  books  in  Italian  in  Latin  script, 
to  live  only  in  specified  quarters  with  only  two  gates, 
not  to  be  called  "  Signer,"  to  maintain  only  one  syna- 
gogue (V.R.I.  152^-153). 

1555  (Aug.  8) .  Bull  of  Paul  IV.:  Jews  may  dispense  with  yellow 
hat  on  journeys;  dwell  outside  ghettos  when  the  latter 
are  crowded ;  acquire  property  outside  ghettos  to  extent 
of  1,500  gold  ducats ;  Jews  of  Rome  are  released  from 
unpaid  taxes  on  payment  of  1,500  scuti;  Jews  may  have 
shops  outside  ghetto ;  rents  in  ghettos  may  not  be  raised 
(V.R.i.  161-162). 

1567  (Jan.  19).  Bull  of  PlusV..  "Cum  nos  nuper,"  orders  Jews 
to  sell  all  property  in  Papal  States  (V.  R.  1. 164). 

1569  (Feb.  26).  Bull  of  Pius  V.,  " Hebraornm  gens,"  expels 
Jews  from  the  Papal  States,  except  Rome  and  Ancona,  In 
punishment  for  their  crimes  and  "magic"  vV.  R.  i.  168). 

1581  (March  30).  Bull  "  Multos  adhuc  ex  Christianis  "  renews 
Church  law  against  Jewish  physicians  (V.  R.  i.  174). 

1581  (Junel).  Gregory  XIII.  issues  the  "Antiqua  Judseorum 
improbitas,"  giving  jurisdiction  over  Jews  of  Rome  to 
Inquisition  in  cases  of  blasphemy,  protection  of  heretics, 
possession  of  forbidden  works,  employment  of  Christian 
servants  (V.  R.  1. 1T4). 

1584  (Sept.  1).  Bull  "Sancta  mater  ecclesia"  orders  150  Jews 
(100  Jews,  50  Jewesses)  to  attend  weekly  eonversionist 
sermons  (Zunz,  "S.  P."  p.  339;  Jost,  "Gesch.  der  Is- 
raeliten,"  iii.  210;  V.  R.  1. 173). 

1586  (Oct.  22).    Bull  of  Slxtus  V.,  favorable  to  Jews  (Gratz, 

"Gesch."  Ix.  482). 

1587  (June  4).    Slxtus  V.,  granting  Maglno  di  Gabriel  of  Venice 

the  monopoly  of  silk-manufacture  in  Papal  States  for 
sixty  years,  and  ordering  Ave  mulberry-trees  to  be 
planted  in^very  rubbio  of  land  (V.  R.  i.  181). 

1.592  (Feb.  28).  Bull  of  Clement  VIII.,  "Cum  saepe  accldere." 
forbidding  Jews  to  deal  In  new  commodities  (V.  R.  i. 

1593  (March  8).  Bull  of  Clement  VIII.,  in  favor  of  Turkish 
Jews  (Gratz,  "Gesch."  ix.  486). 

1004  (Aug.  23).  Bull  of  Clement  VIII.,  in  favor  of  Portuguese 
Maranos  (Gratz,  "Gesch."  ix.  .500). 

IfllO  (Aug.  7).  Paul  v.,  "  Exponi  nobis  nuper  fecistis,"  regu- 
lates dowries  of  Roman  Jews  {V.  R.  i.  196). 

1658  (Nov. 15).  Alexander  Vll.,  in  bull  "Ad  ea  per  quae,"  orders 
Roman  Jews  to  pay  rent  even  for  unoccupied  houses 
in  ghetto,  because  Jews  would  not  hire  houses  from 
which  Jews  had  been  evicted  (V.  R.  i.  21.5). 

1674  (Oct.  3) .  Clement  X.,  suspending  operations  of  Portuguese 
Inquisition  against  Maranos  (Gratz,  "Gesch."  x.  276; 
V.  R.  1.  223). 

1679  (May  27).    Innocent  XI.  suspends  grand  inquisitor  of  Por- 
tugal on  account  of  his  treatment  of  Maranos  (Gratz. 
"Gesch."  X.  279). 
X.— 9 


(Feb.  28).  Bull  "  Postremo  mense  superlorte  anni  "  of 
Benedict  XIV.  confirms  decision  of  Roman  Curia  of  Oct. 
22, 1.597,  that  a  Jewish  child,  once  baptized,  even  against 
canonical  law,  must  be  brought  up  under  Christian  In- 
fluences (V.  R.  1.  242-245;  Jost,  "Gesch."  xl.  2.56  n.). 


POPPiEA  SABINA:  ^yiistress  and,  after  62 
C.E.,8econd  wife  of  the  emperor  Nero;  died  65.  She 
had  a  certain  predilection  for  Judaism,  and  is  diar- 
acterized  by  Jo.sephiis  ("  Ant."  xx.  8,  §  11;  "Vila," 
§  3)  &s  6eoae0^i  ("religious").  Some  Jews,  such  as 
tiie  actor  Amtvros,  were  well  received  at  court, 
and  Poppfea  was  always  ready  to  second  Jewish  pe- 
titions before  the  emperor.  In  64  Josephus  went  to 
Rome  to  obtain  the  liberation  of  some  priests  related 
to  him  who  liad  been  taken  captive  to  that  city  for 
some  minor  offense.  With  the  help  of  Alityros,  Jo- 
sephus succeeded  in  gaining  the  intercession  of  the 
empress,  and  returned  home  with  his  friends,  Ijcar- 
ing  rich  gifts  with  him. 

When  King  Agrippa  added  a  tower  to  the  ancient 
palace  of  the  Ilasmoneans,  at  Jerusalem,  that  he 
might  overlook  the  city  and  the  Temple  and  watch 
the  ceremonial  in  the  sanctuary,  the  priests  cut  nfT 
his  view  by  a  high  wall.  He  then  appealed  to  the 
procurator  Festus,  but  a  Jewish  delegation  sent  to 
Rome  succeeded  through  Poppsea's  intercession  in 
having  the  c